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一.名词 I. 名词的种类: 专有名词 国名地名人名,团体 机构名称 可数名词 个体名词 集体名词 普通名词 不可数名词 抽象名词 物质名词

II. 名词的数: 1. 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es。现将构成方法 与读音规则列表如下: 规则 1 2 一般情况

在词尾加-s 以 s, x, ch, sh 结尾的名词后加-es 以-f 或 变-f 和-fe 为 v 再加-es -fe 结尾 的词 加-s 例词 map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs


4 5

以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词, 变 y 为 party-parties, family-families, story-stories, city-cities i 加-es 以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词, 或专有 toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays, Henry-Henrys 名词以 y 结尾的,加-s 以辅音 字母加 -o 结尾 的名词 一般加-es 不少外来词加-s 两者皆可 Negro-Negroes, hero-heroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths,


7 8

以元音字母加-o 结尾的名词加-s 以-th 结尾的名词加-s

2. 不规则名词复数:英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下: 规则 1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 例词 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice


2 单复数相同 3 只有复数形式 4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 5

sheep, deer, means, works, fish, yuan, jin, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, people, police

部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体) Family,government, class,, crowd, couple, group, population, team, public, party 也可以作复数(成员) customs(海关), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜) Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants

6 复数形式表示特别含义

加-s 表示 7 “某国 单复数同形 人” 以-man 或-woman 结尾的改 为-men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 8 合成名 无主体名词时将最后一部分 词 变为复数 将两部分变为复数

III. 名词的所有格: 名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种:一是名词词尾加’s 构成,二是由介词 of 加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。 1. ’s 所有格的构成: 单数名词在末尾加’s 复数名词 一般在末尾加’ 不规则复数名词后加’s the boy’s father, Jack’s book, her son-in-law’s photo, the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother, the children’s toys, women’s rights, Dickens’ novels, Charles’s job, the Smiths’ house

以 s 结尾的人名所有格加’s 或者’

表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末尾 Japan’s and America’s problems, Jane’s and Mary’s bikes 均须加’s 表示共有的所有关系时在最后一词 Japan and America’s problems, Jane and Mary’s father 末加’s 表示"某人家""店铺",所有格 the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’s 后名词省略 2. ’s 所有格的用法: 1 2 3 表示时间 表示自然现象 today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches

表示国家城市等地方的 the country’s plan, the world’s population, China’s industry

名词 4 5 6 7 表示工作群体 表示度量衡及价值 the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory a mile’s journey, five dollars’ worth of apples

与人类活动有特殊关系 the life’s time, the play’s plot 的名词 某些固定词组 a bird’s eye view, a stone’s throw, at one’s wit’s end(不知所 措)

3. of 所有格的用法: 用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book 用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students 用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed 二.冠词 冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 表示“每一”相当于 every,one 表示“相同”相当于 the same A plane is a machine that can fly. A boy is waiting for you. We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age.

用于人名前, 表示不认识此人或与 A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you were out That boy is rather a Lei Feng. 某名人有类似性质的人或事 用于固定词组中 A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time

用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, This room is rather a big one. such 之后 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.

II. 定冠词的用法: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 表示某一类人或物 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过 的人或事 用于乐器前面 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高 级前 The horse is a useful animal. the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean Would you mind opening the door? play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded the Greens, the Wangs He is the taller of the two children.


8 9 10

用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群 the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French 岛的名词前 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 The compass was invented in China.

在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个 in the 1990’s 年代 I hired the car by the hour.

11 用于表示单位的名词前 12

用于方位名词,身体部位名词,及表示 He patted me on the shoulder. 时间的词组前

III. 零冠词的用法: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air 地名等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this? every 等限制 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐 March, Sunday, National Day, spring 前 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 学科,语言,球类,棋类名词前 与 by 连用表示交通工具的名词前 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 表示泛指的复数名词前 Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. by train, by air, by land husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night Horses are useful animals.

三.代词: I. 代词可以分为以下七大类: 1 人称 代词 物主 代词 主格 宾格 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them


形容词性 my, your, his, her, its, our, their 名词性 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little, other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either

3 反身代词 4 指示代词 5 疑问代词 6 关系代词

7 不定代词

II. 不定代词用法注意点:

1. one, some 与 any: 1) one 可以泛指任何人,也可特指,复数为 ones。some 多用于肯定句,any 多用于疑问句和 否定句。 One should learn to think of others. Have you any bookmarks? No, I don’t have any bookmarks. I have some questions to ask. 2) some 可用于疑问句中,表示盼望得到肯定的答复,或者表示建议,请求等。 Would you like some bananas? Could you give me some money? 3) some 和 any 修饰可数名词单数时,some 表示某个,any 表示任何一个。 I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. 4) some 和数词连用表示“大约”,any 可与比较级连用表示程度。 There are some 3,000 students in this school. Do you feel any better today? 2. each 和 every: each 强调个别,代表的数可以是两个或两个以上,而 every 强调整体,所指的数必须是三个 或三个以上。 Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each have a dictionary. Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. 3. none 和 no: no 等于 not any,作定语。none 作主语或宾语,代替不可数名词,谓语用单数,代替可数名 词,谓语单复数皆可以。 There is no water in the bottle. How much water is there in the bottle? None. None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties. 4. other 和 another: 1) other 泛指“另外的, 别的”常与其他词连用, 如: the other day, every other week, some other reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的另外一个,复数为 the others。如: He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other. Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam. 2) another 指“又一个,另一个”无所指,复数形式是 others,泛指“别的人或事”如: I don’t like this shirt, please show me another (one). The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. Some like football, while others like basketball. 5. all 和 both, neither 和 either all 表示不可数名词时,其谓语动词用单数。both 和 all 加否定词表示部分否定,全部否定用 neither 和 none.


All of the books are not written in English. / Not all of the books are written in English. Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a teacher.


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