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Water Surface Profile Modeling BOSS INTERNATIONAL, INC ? Copyright 2002 ? All Rights Reserved Water Surface Profile Modeling using HEC-RAS使用港口进入管制-随机

存取存储器模拟水面轮廓 Chris Maeder, M.S. BOSS International History of BOSS International 老板国际公司的历史 ? ?Started in 1986 -始于1986年 ? ?University of Wisconsin, Madison spin-off company –威斯康星州,麦迪逊的副产品公司的培养基地 ? ?Develop computer applications for the hydraulics, hydrology, groundwater, and environmental engineering areas 研发了用于水力学,水文学,地下水和环境工程学区域的电脑软件 1 Technical Support技术支持 ? ?WWW site www.bossintl.com ? ?On-line forums 网上论坛 ? ?E-mailing lists 邮件 ? ?Email support@bossintl.com ? ?Telephone608-258-9910 电话608-258-9910 ? ?Fax 608-258-9943 传真608-258-9943 On-Line Forums 网上论坛 2 E-Mail Support Mailing List 电邮支持的邮件名单 Additional Technical Documents 附加的技术文件 3 What Should You Know? 你需要知道什么? ? ?Basic understanding of river hydraulics 基本了解河流水利学 ? ?The more modeling you have done the better, but not considered a prerequisite 建模做的越多越好,但是要有先决条件 ? ?Basic computer operations 基本的电脑操作 ? ?Microsoft Windows 微软视窗操作 ? ?Course will focus on HEC-RAS as a tool for hydraulic modeling 课程着重于港口进入管制-随机存取存储器作为一种水力建模的工具 Summary of Course 课程摘要 ? ?Understand water surface profile modeling with HEC-RAS 理解拥有港口进入管制-随机存取存储器的水面轮廓建模 ? ?Develop confidence in application of HEC-RAS to a variety of modeling

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problems 树立港口进入管制-随机存取存储器可以应用在各种建模问题的信心 ? ?Learn how to troubleshoot models 学会充当故障检修员 ? ?Learn how to review analysis results 学会回顾分析结果 ? ?Learn advanced modeling techniques 学会先进的建模技术 ? ?Learn to recognize potential problems in a modeling situation 学会认知建模情况下的潜在问题。 4 Demonstration 示范 _ Lectures will be mixed with live demonstrations of HEC-RAS 课程将与港口进入管制-随机存取存储器的现场示范相结合 _ Lab periods will reinforce lectures 实验阶段将补充讲座 _ Don’t be afraid to get off the beaten path 不要担心不符合惯例 _ Basic tutorial sessions (HEC-RAS tutorials) 基础指南部分(港口进入管制-随机存取存储器指南) _ Advanced tutorial sessions 先进的指南部分 _ ASK QUESTIONS PLEASE! 请提问 HEC-RAS Modeling Capabilities 港口进入管制-随机存取存储器建模容量 _ Computes water surface profiles for steady and unsteady flow conditions 估算稳定和不稳定流动情况下的水面轮廓 _ Models complex bridges and culverts (including multiple openings) 模拟复杂的桥桥梁与管道(包括多重通道) _ Computes subcritical, supercritical, and mixed flows 估算近乎紧急的,临界的和混合水流 _ Computes floodplain encroachments 估算漫滩侵蚀 _ Models channel modifications 模拟河渠修复 _ Models bridge scour 模拟桥梁冲刷 _ Models flood control structures (ie. Dams) with inline weirs and gated spillways 模拟带有内河堰和泄洪口的洪水控制建筑物 _ Models levees and overtopping levees 模拟防洪堤和高防洪堤 _ Models storage areas (ponds) 模拟储存地区(池塘) _ Models multiple river networks and looped networks 模拟多样的河流连接系统和循环连接系统 5 Main Window 主要窗口 _ Menu Bar 菜单栏 _ 4 Files used in defining a model 用于定义模型的4个文件 _ Project - Main file 程序-主要文件 _ Plan - Geometric ―plan‖ layout 计划-几何的计划布局 _ Geometry - Cross-section geometry data 几何学-横截面的几何数据

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_ Flow - Discharge boundary conditions 流动-流出变界条件 Starting a New Project 开始一项新的计划 Select ―New Project‖ from the File Menu 从文件菜单中选择―New Project‖(新程序) 6 Entering Geometric Data 进入几何数据 Draw the river as a schematic 画出示意性的河道 Specify the cross section geometry 详细规定横截面几何 Cross Sectional Geometry截面几何 Reach Lengths 流程的长度 Manning Roughness Values 配备粗糙值 Left/Right Bank Stations 左、右岸的位置 Expansion/ContractionCoefficient Values 扩充/收缩系数值 Cross Section Geometry 横截面几何 7 Flow Data 流程数据 Perform the Analysis 执行分析 8 Output Results 输出结果 _ Cross Section Graphical Plots 横截面图解 _ Profile Graphical Plots 剖面图解 _ 3D Perspective Graphical Plot 3维远观图解 _ Rating Curve Graphical Plot 水位流量关系曲线图解 _ Cross Section Output Tables 横截面输出表 _ Profile Output Tables 剖面输出表 _ Report Generator 报告程序编制器 Cross Section Graphical Plot 横截图 9 Profile Graphical Plot 侧面图 3D Perspective Graphical Plot 3维远观图 10 Rating Curve Graphical Plot水位流量关系曲线图 Cross Section Output Tables横截面输出表 11 Profile Output Tables侧面输出表 Report Generator报告程序编制器

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12 On-Line Help 在线帮助 13 14 HEC-RAS Methodology 港口进入管制-随机存取存储器的方法论 HEC-2 & HEC-RAS 港口进入管制-2和随机存取存储器 Program Development History 程序发展历史 _ HEC-2 港口进入管制-2 _ HEC-2 program developed in 1962 by Bill S. Eichert at Tulsa District of the USACE 1962年,由美国原子能委员会的Bill S. Eichert在塔尔萨地区发展了港口进入管制-2 程序。 _ First public release in 1968 于1968年第一次正式发布 _ PC version first released in 1984 于1984年第一次发布在网络上 _ Last version 4.6.2 released in 1991 于1991年发布了最后的版本4.6.2 _ HEC ―Next Generation‖ Software Development 港口进入管制‖下一代‖软件开发 _ Development begins 1990 on RAS, HMS, and other models 于1990年开始对随机存取存储器,英国政府公务和其他模式进行研发 _ HEC-RAS Development History 港口进入管制-随机存取存储器发展历史 _ First release in August of 1995 于1995年8月第一次发布 _ Version 2.0 released in July of 1997 于1997年7月发布2.0版本 _ Version 2.2 released in July of 1999 于1999年7月发布2.2版本 _ Version 3.0 released in January of 2001 于2001年1月发布3.0版本 _ Version 3.1 released in January of 2003 于2003年1月发布3.1版本 15 HEC-RAS—The Future and Other Considerations 港口进入管制-随机存取存储器—有关远景和其他方面的考虑 _ Importance of HEC-RAS 港口进入管制-随机存取存储器的重要性 _ Foundation for future hydraulic software 未来水力软件的创立 ?UNET Unsteady Flow Modeling UNET不稳定流量建模 ?Sediment Transport Modeling (HEC-6) 沉淀物运输建模 ?More… 更多? _ Replacement of HEC-2 港口进入管制-2的取代 _ Caution—However! 但是-需谨慎 _ HEC-RAS v3.0 computed WSELs are sometimes significantly higher than HEC-RAS v2.2 at bridges and culverts 港口进入管制-随机存取存储器v3.0在桥梁和管道方面有时比港口进入管制-随机 存取存储器v2.2估算WSELs的值更为准确 _ You may want to reconsider which HEC-RAS version you want to use for your model results submittal 你可能需要根据模型提供的结果重新考虑使用哪个HEC-RAS版本 Frequently Asked Questions about HEC-RAS 常见被提及到的HEC-RAS问题

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_ Will HEC-RAS really replace HEC-2? HEC-RAS真的能取代HEC-2吗? _ Yes, it really will. In fact it already has started to significantly replace HEC-2 for many applications. 是的,它会取代的。实际上它已经开始在很多应用方面取代了HEC-2 _ HEC-RAS’ Microsoft Windows interface allows someone without any prior hydraulic engineering experience to now ―submit an engineering study.‖ HEC-RAS微软Windows界面允许一些没有水力工程经验的人开始学习工程。 _ HEC-2’s card file interface seemed to keep unexperienced modelers out of this modeling arena. HEC-2的卡片目录似乎让那些没有应用过的模型脱离这个建模世界。 16 Frequently Asked Questions about HEC-RAS (more) 常见被提及到的HEC-RAS问题(更多) _ When will HEC-RAS replace HEC-2? HEC-RAS什么时候取代HEC-2 _ Gradually, very few new studies will be started using HEC-2, although HEC-2 will continue to be used for years for some studies involving existing data sets. 逐步的取代,虽然HEC-2将长年被用于包括现已存在的资料设置的一些研究,但 是少数研究将会使用HEC-2。 _ It perhaps makes economic sense to keep an existing model in HEC-2 rather than port it to HEC-RAS, since the results between the two models can be significantly different. 也许保持HEC-2现有的模式会获得一些经济效益而不是转向HEC-RAS,因为两种 模式可能会有很大的区别。 _ Perhaps run the model in both HEC-RAS and HEC-2, and submit the model results that are best for your client. 或许同时使用HEC-RAS 和 HEC-2并提交模式结果会让客户满意。 Frequently Asked Questions about HEC-RAS (more) 常见被提及到的HEC-RAS问题(更多) _ Does FEMA accept HEC-RAS for Flood Insurance Studies? FEMA能接受HEC-RAS应用在水灾保险研究中吗? _ Yes, HEC-RAS is accepted by FEMA for flood insurance studies. 是的,HEC-RAS被FEMA接受应用在水灾保险研究中。 _ Some submittal agencies prefer to see models submitted using HEC-2. 一些供销商倾向使用HEC-2的模式 _ HEC-2 models tend to be easier to review since the input files use a ―card file‖ format, and those experienced enough to read these input files can see the modeler’s intent when they built the model. HEC-2模式往往更易检查从使用‖卡片目录‖输入的资料,并且通过充分阅读这些 输入资料看出当初建此模式的意图 17 Frequently Asked Questions about HEC-RAS (more)

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常见被提及到的HEC-RAS问题(更多) _ Which model (ie., HEC-RAS or HEC-2) should you use? 应该使用哪种模式(如HEC-RAS 或是HEC-2)? _ The more tools (ie., engineering models) you have in your ―toolbox‖, the more adept you will be at modeling different situations. “工具箱”里的工具越多(如工程模式),越能熟练的画出不同情况下的模式 _ HEC-2 is still a very accepted and well regarded model. HEC-2仍然被广泛接受和认同 _ What is the purpose of your model? 模式的目的是什么? ? If floodplain modeling, then consider both HEC-2 and HEC-RAS and choose the lower WSEL rise, since this best benefits your client. 如果是漫滩模式,考虑HEC-2和HEC-RAS两种,并选择低点的WSEL高地,因为 这是顾客最好的选择。 ? If bridge or culvert modeling, then the improved modeling capabilities of HEC-RAS makes more sense. 如果是桥梁或是管道形式,改进的HEC-RAS形式的性能更为有意义。 ? Be aware that there are differences in WSELs between different versions of HEC-RAS. 注意在不同的HEC-RAS 的不同版本中WSELs的区别。 HEC-RAS Methodology HEC-RAS方法论 _ One-dimensional analysis 一维空间的分析 _ Standard-step method (steady flow analysis) 标准步骤的方法(稳定流量分析) _ Friction losses computed by Manning Formula 配置公式计算的摩擦力的损耗 _ Expansion and contraction losses computed using changes in velocity head 用速位差的变化估算膨胀与收缩损耗 18 HEC-RAS Limitations HEC-RAS的局限 _ Deals with a single cross section at a time _ 每次处理一个横断面 _ Leaves many decisions to the user _ 决定权留给使用者 _ Open-channel conditions _ 明渠条件 _ Steady or gradually varied flow _ 稳定或逐渐变化的流动 _ Rigid boundary conditions _ 泾渭分明的界限现状 _ One-dimensional flow _ 一维空间的流量 _ Does not consider lateral flow or vertical flow_ 不考虑横向流程或垂直的流动 _ Does not explicitly account for bend losses _ 不明确地说明弯曲损失 Steady Flow Water Surface Profiles 定态流程水表面侧面图 _ One Dimensional Energy Equation _ 一维空间的能源方程式 _ Friction losses computed using Manning’s equation,contraction/expansion losses computed by velocity head coefficient 使用配置平衡估算摩擦损失,用速位差系数估算膨胀/收缩损失 _ Momentum Equation 动力方程式

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_ Mixed flow regime calculations (hydraulic jumps) 混合的流程计算(水压的上涨) 19 Flow Types 流程类型 _ Pressure Flow 回流 _ Closed conduits 暗道 _ Cross-section stays constant as flow rate changes 随着流率改变,横截面保持不变 _ Open Channel Flow 明渠流 _ Free to the air surface _ Cross-section changes with flow rate 随流率变化,横截面变化 _ Flow Regimes 流域 _ Subcritical 缓急的(近乎危急的) _ Supercritical 急流(超临界的) _ Mixed flow regimes 混合的流动方式 Channel Geometry 河道概况图 _ Channel System Geometry 河道系统几何图 _ Single river reach 单一河流流程 _ Multiple river reaches 多重河流流程 _ Prismatic Channel 棱镜河道 _ Constant cross section shape 不变的横截面形状 _ Straight alignment 平直的一系列河道 _ Constant bed slope 不变的河底斜坡 _ Natural Channel 自然的渠道 _ Changing cross sectional shape 变化的横截面形状 _ Meandering alignment 蜿蜒的一系列河道 _ Changing bed slope 变化的河底斜坡 20 Flow Classifications 流程类型 _ Classification By Time 依时间来分 _ Steady Flow - Constant flow rate 稳定的流量-不变的流率 _ Unsteady Flow - Changing flow rate 不稳定的流量-变化的流率 _ Classification by Distance 依距离来分 _ Uniform Flow - Normal depth 均衡流量-普通深度 _ Non-Uniform - Gradually varied depth 不均衡流量-逐步变化的深度 _ HEC-RAS SNET (Steady Network) HEC-RAS SNET(固定的系统) _ Steady, Non-Uniform Flow 固定,不均衡流量 _ HEC-RAS UNET (Unsteady Network) HEC-RAS SNET(不固定的系统) _ Unsteady, Non-Uniform Flow 不固定,均衡流量 Flow Dimensions (Directions) 流动尺寸(方向)

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_ Longitudinal (downstream) direction considered in 1-D models 一维模式中考虑纵向的(下游)流程方向 _ Lateral Flow Direction: Considered in 2-D models 在二维模式中考虑横向流程方向 _ RMA2 _ FESWMS _ Vertical Flow Direction: Considered in 3-D models 在三维模式中考虑垂直流程方向 _ RMA10 _ HEC-RAS _ One-Dimensional Model 一维空间模式 _ Lateral Flow considered using Expansion and Contraction Coefficients 用膨胀和收缩系数考虑横向流动 21 22 HEC-RAS Data Requirements 资料要求 What is the one thing HEC-RAS computes?

HEC-RAS计算出了什么?

23 HEC-RAS Required Input Data HEC-RAS所需的输入资料 _ Flow Regime: Subcritical, supercritical, or mixed flow 流动方式:近乎危急的,超临界的或是混合的流动 _ Flow Rates: Discharge values 流率:流出值 _ Starting Conditions: Water surface elevation or other method 起始条件:水面高度或是其他方法 _ Cross Section Data: Geometry and reach lengths 横截面数据:地形和河岸长度 _ Loss Coefficients: Manning roughness expansion and contraction loss coefficients 损失系数:人员,膨胀和收缩损失系数 Starting Water Surface Conditions 起始水面的条件 _ Boundary Condition Specification (choose one) 边界规定(选其一) _ Known water surface elevation 已知水面高度 _ Compute critical depth 计算临界的深度 _ Compute normal depth given EGL slope 在EGL斜坡基础上计算正常的深度 _ Interpolate WSEL from provided rating curve 在水位流量关系曲线上插入WSEL _ Flow Regime (choose one) 水域(选其一) _ Subcritical 近乎危急的 ?Requires downstream boundary conditions 需要下游的边界条件 _ Supercritical 超临界的 ?Requires upstream boundary conditions 需要上游的边界条件

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_ Mixed flow regime (subcritical & supercritical) 混合的流动方式(近乎危急&超临界的) ?Requires both downstream and upstream boundary conditions 需要上游和下游的界限状况 24 Known Water Surface Elevation 已知水位 _ USGS stream gage station USGS溪流估算位置 _ Flow versus elevation 流动与海拔的比值 _ Not available most of the time 大多数时间不确定 Getting an Accurate Starting Water Surface Elevation 得到精确的起始水位 Move downstream of the area of interest and try several different starting WSELs. As the model (ie., HEC-RAS, HEC-2) backwaters upstream, the water surface profile will trend towards normal depth. By comparing different trial WSELs, a good assumption can be made for the starting conditions WSEL.迁移下游有重要影响力的地区并尝试一些不同的起始WSEL。如模式(HEC -RAS,HEC-2)在上游不起作用,水面剖面将倾向普通深度。通过对比不同的 WSEL,可以推断出一个很好的假设。 Normal Depth 普通深度 Critical Depth 临界深度 Actual Depth 实际深度 Channel Bottom 河渠底部 1234 Initial 初始的 Downstream 下游的 Cross-Section 横截面 Further 深层 Downstream 下游的 Cross-Section 横截面 Trial Depth 试验深度 25 Multiple Profiles Can Be Defined 可以界定多层侧面 _ Computes up to 2000 profiles in single run 一个单程最多估算2000个侧面 _ Flow rates and some other data may change 流动速度和一些其他可能变化的数据 Expansion and Contraction Loss Coefficients 膨胀和收缩损失系数 Contraction Loss Coefficients 收缩损失系数 No Transition Loss Computed 0.0 无转换损失计为0.0 Gradual Transition 0.1 逐步转换 0.1

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Bridges (or Culverts with Wing walls) 0.3 Abrupt Transitions (and most Culverts) 0.6

桥梁(或隧道)0.3 陡然转换(大多数排水渠)0.6

Expansion Loss Coefficients 膨胀损失系数 No Transition Loss Computed 0.0 无转换损失0.0 Gradual Transition 0.3 逐步转换0.3 Bridges (or Culverts with Wingwalls) 0.5 桥梁(或隧道)0.5 Abrupt Transitions (and most Culverts) 0.8 陡然转换(大多数管道)0.8 Required at starting cross section and at following flow change locations 在起始横截面和下列流动变化位置被需要 26 Manning Roughness Coefficient Options 配置粗糙系数选项 _ Three Roughness Subareas (commonly used) 三个粗糙分区 (普遍使用) _ Called NC Records in HEC-2 terminology 在HEC-2术语中被称为NC记录 _ Define left overbank, right overbank, and channel roughness values 定义左边的河滩 ,右边的河滩和河道粗糙价值 _ Multiple Roughness Subareas (sometimes used) 多重的粗糙分区 ( 有时使用) _ Called NH Records in HEC-2 terminology 在HEC-2术语中被称为NH记录 _ Horizontal roughness values vary by cross section horizontal stationing 根据水平横截面,水平粗糙值不断变化 _ Allows more detailed roughness areas to be defined 允许定义更为详细的粗糙区域 _ Up to 20 roughness subareas 最多达到 20个粗糙分区 _ Vertical Roughness (rarely used) 垂直的粗糙 ( 很少使用) _ Called NV Records in HEC-2 terminology 在HEC-2术语中被称为NV记录 _ Vary by WSEL elevation or flowrate 根据 WSEL 海拔或流量而改变 _ Up to 20 entries can be defined 可以定义20个条目 _ Similar to HEC-2 NV records 类似 HEC-2 NV 记录

Three Roughness Sub-Areas Station 位置 Left Overbank 左边的河滩 Roughness 粗糙 Elevation 海拔 Right Overbank 右边的河滩 Roughness 粗糙 Channel 河道 Roughness 粗糙

三个粗糙分区

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27 Multiple Roughness Sub-Areas Station位置 n4 n5 n6 n7 n3 n2 n1 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 Elevation 高度 Multiple Roughness Sub-Areas

多重的粗糙分区

多重的粗糙分区

28 Vertical Roughness 垂直 _ Roughness changes with elevation or discharge

粗糙程度随高度或流出量改变

Defining Cross Sections 定义横截面 _ Orientation 方位 _ Left to right, looking downstream 从左到右,俯瞰下游 _ Increasing in river station (cross section ID) as you move upstream 当移向上游时,增加河流位置(横截面ID) _ Spacing 间隔 _ Depends upon characteristics of stream and purpose of study 取决于河流特征和研究目的 _ Location 位置 _ To define reaches of similar characteristics 定义相似特征的流程 _ Number of cross sections 横截面数量 _ Up to 400 cross sections allowed per river reach 每个河流流程最多允许400个横截面 29 A Little Bit of History 历史小述 _ John Wesley Powell, a former army major who lost his right arm during the civil war at the Battle of Shiloh. John Wesley Powell, John Wesley Powell,前陆军将军,在内战夏伊洛战役中失去了他的右臂。 _ In 1869, Powell and nine adventure-seeking companions completed the first exploration

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of the dangerous and almost uncharted canyons of the Green and Colorado rivers 在1869年, Powell和9位喜欢冒险的同事完成了第一次危险的探索并且包括一些未 被标明的绿色通道和科罗拉多州河流 A Little Bit of History (more) 历史小述(更多) _ Of three boats, Major Powell rode in the lead, perched in a chair lashed amidships where he commanded an unrestricted view of the way ahead and could signal to the other boats. 三只船只中,Powell的船走在前面,在船仓中的椅子上栖息,他自由在前面指挥, 给其他船只发出信号 _ http://www.desertusa.com/magnov97/nov_pap/du_jwpowell.html 30 Cross Section Layout 横截面布局 _ Cut cross sections perpendicular to flow 垂直于水位截取横截面 _ Don’t allow cross sections to overlap each other when cutting 截取时横截面不能互相重叠在一起 Cross Section Data 横截面数据 _ Section ID Number 横截面的ID数字 _ HEC-RAS refers to it as River Station, HEC-2 called it cross section number HEC-RAS把它看作河流位置,HEC-2称其为横截面数字 _ Arbitrary: Usually represents stream stationing 随意性:通常表现出河流的位置 _ Must increase as you move upstream 当移向上游时必须增加 31 Cross Section Data (more) 横截面数据(更多) _ Channel Bank Stations 河岸位置 _ Usually denoted with mud line 通常用泥浆线表示 _ Designates when flow is in channel or out of bank 在河道或出河道流时进行指明 Cross Section Data (more) 横截面数据(更多) _ Reach Lengths (Flow Length) 流程长度(流动长度) _ Measured from the current cross section to the next downstream cross section 从现存的横截面测量,直至下一个下游的横截面 ? Left overbank 左河滩 ?Channel 河道 ?Right overbank 右河滩 _ Represents the distance (or chainage) that the flow travels from the current cross section to the next downstream cross section 描绘距离(或测得的距离)即水流从当前的横截面到下一个下游横截面流淌的距 离 _ Place in the centroid of the flow area 放置在流域的重心

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_ Reach length may change with different flow values 流程长度可能随不同的水量值改变 32 Cross Section Data 横截面数据 _ Measure flow length relative to the centroid of the flow area 测量与流域的重心有关的流动长度 Cross Section 横截面 _ Elevation Values 海拔 _ Can be negative 可能不符 _ Station Values 位置值 _ Cannot be negative for HEC-2 符合HEC-2 的程序 _ HEC-RAS supports negative stationing HEC- RAS 支持崎岖位置 _ Must increase in value 必须在数值上有所增加 _ Up to 500 cross section coordinates per cross section 每一横截面有多达500个横截面坐标 _ HEC-2 only supports 100 cross section coordinates HEC-2 仅支持 100 个横截面坐标 _ Called GR Records in HEC-2 Terminology 在HEC-2 术语中被称为GR 为记录 33 Ineffective Flow Areas 无效的流域 Two Methods of Defining ―Dead Storage‖ Areas 两种定义 "备用库存" 区域的方法 _ Define ―Normal‖ (HEC-2 style) ineffective flow areas 定义“常规”(HEC-2模式)无效的流域 _ Define (up to 10) ―Multiple Blocks‖ ineffective flow areas 定义(多达10个)“多重阻碍”无效的流域 _ Once WSEL overtops, then area becomes effective again (considers this flow area) 一旦WSEL重叠,地区开始再次变得有效(考虑这类流域) ?Otherwise, mark as ―Permanent‖ and ineffective area is never considered available for flow 否则,被认为是“永久”和无效的区域不再适合水流动 Ineffective Area Options 无效区域的选择 _ Given stations with test elevations 通过试验海拔确定位置 _ Sediment deposition (elevation, HEC-2 only) 沉淀物沉积(海拔,仅仅是HEC-2) _ Commonly used at bridges to define ineffective flow areas 通常用于桥梁,定义无效流域 Ineffective Flow Area 无效流域 Right Ineffective Flow 右无效流动

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Elevation 高度 Right Ineffective Flow 右无效流动 Station 位置 Left Ineffective Flow 左无效流动 Elevation 高度 Left Ineffective Flow 左无效流动 Station 位置 34 Run Options: 运行选择 Friction Slope Method 摩擦斜坡方法 _ Average conveyance (default method) 一般运输(默认方法) _ Average friction slope 一般摩擦斜坡 _ Geometric mean friction slope 几何方法摩擦斜坡 _ Harmonic mean friction slope 和谐方法摩擦斜坡 _ Program determines best method 项目决定了最佳的方法 Run Options: 运行选择 Iterations & Tolerance Criteria 反复&公差标准 _ Water surface tolerance 水面公差 _ Default: 0.01 ft. or 0.003 m. 默认:0.01 英尺或0.003 米 _ Critical depth tolerance 临界深度公差 _ Default: 0.01 ft. or 0.003 m. 默认:0.01 英尺或0.003 米 _ Maximum number of iterations 反复的最大值 _ Default: 20 默认值:20 _ Maximum difference tolerance 公差的最大差别 _ Default: 0.30 ft. or 0.10 m. 默认:0.30 英尺或 0.10 米 _ Reverts to critical depth 回复到临界的深度 _ Flow tolerance factor 流量公差因素 _ Default: 0.001 cfs or 0.001 cms 默认:0.001 立方英尺/秒 或 0.001 立方米/秒 35 36 SNETLESSON1 SNET 第一课 Modeling a Basic River 模拟一个基本河流 Badger Mill Creek is a tributary to the Sugar River near Verona, Wisconsin. The headland of the stream begins in a wetland north of the area of study, at Goose Pond located between Madison and Verona, as shown in the below figure. The creek's drainage area includes much of the southwest side of Madison as well as most of Verona. Badger Mill小溪附属于威斯康星州的维罗纳附近的Sugar 河。河流的陆地开始于研 究区域北部的沼泽,如下所示,位于麦迪逊和维罗纳间的Goose池。小溪的排水区域

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包括麦迪逊西南部大部分地区和维罗纳的大部分地区。 Figure 1.1 Badger Mill Creek and surrounding area 图1.1 Badger Mill小溪和周围区域 This lesson will be using Badger Mill Creek to demonstrate how to setup a basic HEC-RAS river model and perform a backwater analysis on a single river reach. 本课用Badger Mill小溪来证明怎么样建立一个基本的HEC-RAS河流模式,并在单河 道上进行研究分析。 1.1 Model Data 模拟数据 In order to create a HEC-RASmodel, we will need some data to create the model from. Typically, the chosen site will be surveyed and data will be collected from the actual site. 为了建立HEC-RAS模式,我们需要一些数据来建立模式的形式。特别注意的是,选 择的位置要进行测量,要通过对实际的位置的考察得出数据。 37 1-2 HEC-RAS For this lesson we provide you with the data on the HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM. By default, the lessons are installed to ―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖ subdirectory. You can find the required files to complete this lesson in the subdirectory, "SNET\Lesson 1\initial." In this subdirectory you will find the following files: 本课中,我们在HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM上提供了一些HEC-RAS程序训练中只 读存储器的数据。默认情况下,本课被安装在―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖子目录上。你 可以在这里找到需要的文件来完成本课。"SNET\Lesson1\initial."。在这个子目录中 你可以找到下列文件: ? CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS - Excel spreadsheet that holds the cross section data. 横截面数据-电子表格保存了横截面的数据 ? 3090.JPG - This JPG image is an image of cross section 3090 that will be added to the river model. 此JPG图是即将增设在河道模型上的横截面3090的图。 ? SNET01.PRJ - HEC-RAS project file for this lesson. 本课中的HEC-RAS工程文件。 ? VERONA.TFW - World coordinate file that holds coordinate system information for VERONA.TIF. This file is not required. 全球统一的程序保存了统一系统中有关维罗纳的信息的文件。 此文件不是必需文件。 ? VERONA.TIF - This TIFF image will be used to help us create the river reach in this lesson. This file is not required. 在这一课中,此TIFF图将被用来帮助我们新建河段。这个文件不是必需的 VERONA.TIF is a digital orthophoto quadrangle file (DOQ) which can be used as a background image to your model. A background image is not required to create a model, but by using a background image, you can trace the actual shape of the river to more accurately represent your model. VERONA.TIF是数码正色摄影四边形文件(DOQ)。可以用做模式的背景。背景图 象不需要创建一个模式,但是使用背景图象,可以更精确的描述河道实际图形,在

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模型中表示出来。 We found this DOQ image from the USGS Earth Explorer web site: 在USGS Earth Explorer网站我们发现了DOQ图 http://edc.usgs.gov/Webglis/glisbin/finder_main.pl?dataset_name=NAPP You can find many other sources of DOQ images by searching for "DOQ" on any of the major internet search engines. 通过在任何一个主要的网络搜索引擎中搜索“DOQ”,都能找到许多其他DOQ的资 料。 1.2 Setting Up the Project 建立方案 After starting up HEC-RAS, select File | Open Project. HEC-RAS will then display the Open dialog box. 在启动HEC-RAS后,选择File | Open Project(文件/开始文件)。HEC-RAS将会显 示出对话框。 Select the project labeled "Lesson 1: Badger Mill Creek" from the "HEC-RAS Training\SNET\Lesson 1\initial" subdirectory. This will open the project for this lesson. 在"HEC-RAS Training\SNET\Lesson 1\initial"子目录中选择标明"Lesson 1:Badger Mill Creek "的方案。将打开本课的方案。 1.2.1 Defining River Geometry 定义河流的几何图形 From the main program window, select Edit | Geometric Data, or click on the third button from the left (Edit/Enter geometric data button) as shown in Figure 1.2.1.1. This will bring up the Geometric Data editor as shown in Figure 1.2.1.2. 在主程序窗口中选择Edit | Geometric Data(编辑/几何数据),或是如图1.2.1.1按左 边第三个按纽(Edit/Enter geometric data按纽)。这将得出如图1.2.1.2.所示的几何 数据编辑器。 38 Modeling a Basic River 1-3 模拟一个基本河流1-3 Figure 1.2.1.1 Geometric Data Editor Icon on Main HEC-RAS Window 图1.2.1.1 在HEC-RAS主窗口中的几何数据编辑器的图标 Figure 1.2.1.2 Geometric Data Editor 图1.2.1.2 几何数据编辑器 1.2.2 Importing Georeferenced Background Image 输入以土地为参考的背景图象 To import a background image, click the Add/Edit background pictures for the schematic button from the Geometric Data editor as shown in Figure 1.2.2.1. 点击Geometric Data编辑中Add/Edit background pictures for the schematic按纽, 如 图1.2.2.1所示。

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. 39 1-4 HEC-RAS Figure 1.2.2.1 Add/Edit background picture for the schematic button 图1.2.2.1 增加/编辑示意背景图片按纽 HEC-RAS will then display the Background Pictures on Schematic dialog as shown in Figure 1.2.2.2. Next click the button labeled Add, and select the VERONA.TIF image in the "Lesson 1\initial" subdirectory and click Open. After you open the image, HEC-RAS will prompt you to find out if you want to extend the schematic extents to match the extents of the image. Click Yes to the message. HEC-RAS 显示如图1.2.2.2中的Background Pictures on Schematic对话框, 然后点击 Add按纽,并在"Lesson 1\initial"子目录中选择VERONA.TIF,点击Open。在打开图 象后,HEC-RAS将提醒你找出是否想要延伸示意图来与图像的长度相匹配。在这个 信息上点击Yes Figure 1.2.2.2 Background Pictures on Schematic dialog 图1.2.2.2 示意图背景图片对话框 Click Close on the Background Pictures on Schematic dialog and go back to the Geometric Data Editor. The image is now imported as the background, but you can’t see anything because it is zoomed in too close to the image. From the Geometric Data Editor, select View | Full Plot. Now you can see the complete background image in the Geometric Data Editor as shown in Figure 1.2.2.3. 在示意对话框的背景图片中点击Close,退回到几何数据编辑器。此图片是被当作背 景输入其中的,但是什么也看不见,因为图象电子放大,离图象太近了。从几何数 据编辑器中选择View | Full Plot(视图/全屏显示)。可以看见如图1.2.2.3所示的全 部的背景图象。 40 Modeling a Basic River 1-5 模拟一个基本的河流1-5 Figure 1.2.2.3 Geometric Data Editor with full plot view of the background image 图1.2.2.3 全屏显示背景图象的几何数据编辑器 In the Geometric Data Editor, zoom into the area where you see the red and green dots on the map in the lower left corner, as shown in Figure 1.2.2.4. You can either right click and select Zoom In from the pop-up menu, or select View | Zoom In. Using the magnifying glass cursor, draw a window around the area of study. This is the area that we will be modeling in this lesson. 在几何数据编辑器中,图象电子放大的地方,在图上的左下方可以看见红色和绿色 点,如图1.2.2.4所示。你可以右击并在弹出的菜单中选择Zoom In(放大),或是选 择View | Zoom In(视图/放大)。使用放大镜指针,画出需要研究的区域。我们会 在本课上模拟这个区域。 41

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1-6 HEC-RAS Figure 1.2.2.4 Geometric Data Editor zoomed into the area that will be modeled in this lesson 图1.2.2.4 几何数据编辑器放大到这课要模拟的区域 Once you have zoomed into the area of study, select View | Set Schematic Plot Extents. HEC-RAS will then display the Geometry Extents dialog box as shown in Figure 1.2.2.5. Select Set to Current View. This will inform HEC-RAS to set the display limits to the area that you have zoomed into. This information will be saved, so that the next time you open this model in HEC-RAS, it will show the current display extents. 一旦已经放大到了研究区域,选择 View | Set Schematic Plot Extents 。HEC-RAS 显示出如图1.2.2.5所示的几何延伸对话框。选择Set to Current View。这提醒 HEC-RAS显示已经放大的区域局限。此信息将被保留,所以下次你在HEC-RAS中 打开此模式时,将会显示普通视图。 Figure 1.2.2.5 Geometry Extents dialog box allows you to set the limits that HEC-RAS will display 图1.2.2.5 几何区域对话框允许设置HEC-RAS将要显示的局限区域。 In the georeferenced image that we imported, we had previously shifted the reference coordinates so that the lower left reference point was at 0,0. However, when importing other georeferenced images, such as orthophotos that use state plane coordinates or UTM coordinates, the lower left coordinate will be in the millions for X,Y. HEC-RAS will not realize that the image coordinates start at such a high value. Therefore, you will have to manually set the lower left coordinates using the View | Set Schematic Plot Extents command as we just previously did. 在我们输入的以地理意义上的图象中,我们先前跳过参考物,因此左边的参考点是 0,0。但是,输入其他的以地理意义上的图象比如使用国家平面坐标系统;或是UTM 坐标,左下方坐标将有百万个X,Y,HEC-RAS不会意识到图象坐标从高值开始。因 此,你必须人为地使用View | Set Schematic Plot Extents命令设置左边坐标,就如我 们先前所做的那样。 1.2.3 Creating the River Reach 创建河流流程 Next we will create a river reach in the Geometric Data editor. To create a river reach, click the River Reach button and connect the dots on the background image. The red dots will become cross sections and the green dots are guides to help you draw the river schematic. Remember to draw the river reach in a downstream direction. In this example the river flows from north to south. Therefore, you need to start drawing the river reach from the red dot in the upper right hand corner. 接下来我们在几何数据编辑器上创建一个河流流程。 点击River Reach按纽并且连接 背景图象的斑点。红色斑点开始变为横截面,绿色斑点指引我们画出河流概况。记 得在下游方向画出河流流程。此例中河流从北流向南,因此必须在右上角红色斑点 处开始画出河流流程。

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Note: There are two things that you should be aware of when creating a river reach. First, to undo the last point you created, right click the mouse. Secondly, to finalize the river reach, double-click the last point of the river reach. 注释:在创建一个河流流程的时候有两点值得注意。首先,取消你所选择的最终点, 单击右键。其次,最终确定河流流程,需要双击河流流程的最终点。 After you choose the last point for the river reach, HEC-RAS will prompt you to name the River and the Reach. Enter "Badger Mill Cr." for River, and "Lower Reach" for Reach as shown in Figure 1.2.3.1. 在你选择了河流流程的最终点之后,HEC-RAS将会提醒你为河流和流程命名。选择 River键入“Badger Mill Cr.‖,Reach键入“Lower Reach‖, 如图1.2.3.1 Note 42 Modeling a Basic River 1-7建摸一个基本河流1-7 Figure 1.2.3.1 Enter name for the River and Reach 图1.2.3.1 键入河流和流程的名称 1.2.4 Defining Cross Section Data 定义横截面的数据 Once the river reach has been created, we need to define the cross sections for this river reach. Select the Cross Section button to display the Cross Section Data editor as shown in Figure 1.2.4.1. To create a new cross section, choose Options | Add a new Cross Section. HEC-RAS will prompt you to enter in a new cross section in the selected Reach. Enter "1000" for the river station and click OK. Next, manually enter in the data shown in Table 1.2.4.1 for cross section 1000. 一旦河流流程被确定,我们需要定义这条河流流程的横截面。选择“Cross Section‖ 按键来展示Cross Section Data编辑器,如图1.2.4.1所示。要创造一个新的横截面, 可选择Options|Add a new Cross Section. HEC-RAS将提醒你在已经选择的Reach中 进入一个新的横截面。河流位置进入“1000”并且点击“OK”。下一步,为横截 面1000逐一键入表1.2.4.1中所示数据。 Figure 1.2.4.1 Cross Section Data Editor 图1.2.4.1 横截面数据编辑器 43 1-8 HEC-RAS Table 1.2.4.1 Enter geometric data values for cross section 1000 on Lower Reach 表格1.2.4.1 为Lower流程上的横截面1000键入几何数据值 Once all of the data is entered in the Cross Section Data Editor, click Apply Data to store this data. 一旦所有的数据被键入横截面数据编辑器,点击“Apply Data‖来储存这个数据。 Note: Clicking on Apply Data does not save your work, it simply stores it in memory for the current model.

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注意:点击“Apply Date‖并没有保存你的工作,它只是为当前的模式简单地将数据 保存在存储器中。 From the Cross Section Data Editor, select Plot | Plot Cross Section. HEC-RAS will then display the Cross Section in a separate window. Note that you can click on the ground points in the displayed cross section plot and HEC-RAS will display the station and elevation values for the selected point as shown in Figure 1.2.4.2. This is useful for identifying where to place the channel banks. 从横截面数据编辑器中,选择 ―Plot|Plot Cross Section‖. HEC-RAS将在一个单独的 窗口中显示横截面。值得注意的是,你可以在所显示的横截面图上点击地面点, HEC-RAS将显示其位置和所选点的高度值,如图1.2.4.2所示。这对于确定河渠两岸 的位置是有助的。 Station 位置 Elevation 海拔 Downstream Reach Lengths 下游流程长度 1000 943 LOB Channel ROB 1075.71 942 0 0 0 1181.44 941 1330.28 940 Manning’s N Values 1427.19 939 LOB Channel ROB 1494.7 938 0.045 0.032 0.045 1535.58 937 1549.27 936 Main Channel Bank Stations 1561.21 935 Left Bank Right Bank 1573.5 934 1549.27 1615.66 1585.8 933.72 1600.86 934 Cont\Exp Coefficients 1608.25 935 Contraction Expansion 1615.66 936 0.1 0.3 1624.06 937 1648.37 937 1725.66 936 1777.83 936 1845.05 937 1874.71 938 1969.16 939 2294.86 940 2394.6 941 2412.67 941 2420.67 940 2429.46 939 44 Modeling a Basic River 1-9 建摸一个基本河流1-9 Figure 1.2.4.2 Cross Section View with Left and Right Banks Entered 图1.2.4.2 键入左右河岸后横截面的外观

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Next we need to add the other additional cross sections to the river reach. They are at river stations 1747, 2354, and 3090. Repeat the instructions above to create the other three cross sections. The data for each cross section can be found in the Excel spreadsheet CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS. 现在我们需要在河流流程上加上其他额外的横截面。重复上述说明来创造另外三个 横截面。每个横截面的数据可以在Excel电子表格CROSS-SECTION-DATA.XLS 中找到。 Note: The data for River Station 1747 is on the sheet named 1747. To get to the sheet select the tab labeled 1747 at the bottom of the Excel spreadsheet, as shown in Figure 1.2.4.3. Each cross section will have its own individual sheet and the data can be copied from the Excel spreadsheet directly into HEC-RAS. Remember, when you copy and paste from a spreadsheet into HEC-RAS you need to select all of the cells in HEC-RAS that will be getting data before pasting. Otherwise HEC-RAS will only paste the data into the selected cell(s). In Figure 1.2.4.3, there is data available for 26 ground points. In order for you to copy all 26 ground points from the Excel spreadsheet to HEC-RAS, you need to select and copy all 26 ground points in the Excel spreadsheet. Then you need to select 26 (or more) ground points in HEC-RAS as shown in Figure 1.2.4.4. Finally the data can be pasted into the cells by selecting Edit | Paste, or pressing Ctrl V at the keyboard. 注意:河流1747的位置可在被命名为1747的表上找到,要想找到这张表需选择Excel 电子表格底部的标签为1747的制表,如图1.2.4.3所示。每个横截面将有它自己独立 的表格并且这些数据可以直接从Excel电子表格中复制到HEC-RAS中。记住,从电 子表格上复制并粘贴到HEC-RAS中时, 你需要在粘贴前选择所有的将得到数据的单 元。否则,HEC-RAS将只把数据粘贴到选中的单元。在图1.2.4.3中可获得26个地面 点的数据。为了能从电子表格中复制下来所有这26个数据,你需要在电子表格中选 择并复制这26个地面点。然后你需要在HEC-RAS中选择26个(或更多)个地面点, 如图1.2.4.4所示。 最后通过选择Edit|Paste来使数据粘贴到单元中, 或在键盘上按Ctrl V键 45 1-10 HEC-RAS Figure 1.2.4.3 Excel spreadsheet containing cross section data for this lesson 图1.2.4.3 本课中包含横截面数据的电子表格 Figure 1.2.4.4 Cross Section Data Editor 图1.2.4.4 横截面数据编辑器 After you finish entering the data for each cross section, do not forget to click Apply Data. Otherwise you might need to re-enter the data. 在你为每个横截键入数据后,不要忘记单击Apply Date键,否则,你可能需要重新 键入数据。

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46 Modeling a Basic River 1-11 模拟一个基本河流1-11 After you create the cross sections, you can plot the cross sections by selecting Plot | Plot Cross Section. You can also click the Expand XS Editor to include a XS plot button as shown in Figure 1.2.4.5 to expand the Cross Section Data Editor to include the cross section plot on the same window as the Cross Section Data Editor. This is extremely useful in reviewing the data as you enter it. 在你创建了横截面之后,你就可以选择“Plot|Plot Cross Section‖.也可以点击 “Expand XS Editor to include a XS plot‖按键(如图1.2.4.5所示)来扩大横截面数 据编辑器使其能包含横截面的图示。 Figure 1.2.4.5 Cross Section Data Editor with expanded Cross Section Plot 图1.2.4.5 带有扩大的横截面图示的横截面数据编辑器 For all of the cross sections, we used the mud line as the bank line. The bank line is normally chosen from the most obvious stations (i.e., where the change in elevation changes dramatically). In Figure 1.2.4.6, points 1 and 2 are the most obvious points to use as the left and right bank stations, but we don’t use these points because we want to use the mud line as the left and right bank stations. The mud line is indicated with points 3 and 4, so we use points 3 and 4 as the left and right bank stations. 对于所有的横截面,我们用泥浆线作为河岸线。正常情况下,河岸线来源于最明显 的位置(也就是在扩张变化中最显著的地方)。在图1.2.4.6中,点1和点2是用来作 左右岸位置的最明显点,但我们不想用这些点因为我们想要把泥浆线作为左右岸的 位置。泥浆线在点3和点4中被显示出来,因此我们把点3和4作为左右岸的位置。 47 1-12 HEC-RAS Figure 1.2.4.6 Diagram showing mud line 图1.2.4.6 显示泥浆线的图表 Figure 1.2.4.7 Image of mud line 图1.2.4.7 泥浆线的形状 1.2.5 Insert Picture 插入图片 You may also insert pictures into your model, so that it is easier to visualize your model. For this lesson, you will insert a picture of cross section 3090 into your model. From the Cross Section Data editor, select the Associate a picture with this river station button to display the Picture Viewer dialog as shown in Figure 1.2.5.2. In the Picture Viewer dialog, add the picture, 3090.jpg, to cross section 3090. Select the X button in the upper right corner of the dialog to close the Picture Viewer dialog. 你可能也会为你的模型插入图片,以便更方便的显现你的模型。这一课中,你将在 你的模型中插入横截面3039的图片。从Cross Section Data编辑器中,选择Associate a picture with this river station按钮来显示如图1.2.5.2所示的Picture Viewer键来展 对话框,在此对话框中添加3090jpg图片到横截面3090中。选择右上角的[X]按钮来

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关闭Picture Viewer对话框。 48 Modeling a Basic River 1-13 模拟一个基本河流1-13 Figure 1.2.5.1 Select the Associate a picture with this river station button 图1.2.5.1 选择[为河流的位置联结图片]按键 Figure 1.2.5.2 Picture Viewer dialog 图片1.2.5.2 图片浏览对话框 1.2.6 Flow Length Chainage 河流长度贯通里程 HEC-RAS can measure the flow lenght chainage between cross sections. To do this, hold down the Ctrl key on your keyboard and draw a line by selecting the points that you want to measure. When you are done creating the line that you want to measure, let go of the Ctrl key and a message will display with length of the line you created. Select OK to close the message. .HEC-RAS能测量出横截面间的河流长度贯通里程。操作方法:按下键盘上的Ctrl 键,并且通过选择你想测量的点来划出一条线。完成画线后松开Ctrl键,屏幕上将 显示你所画线长度的信息。通过点击OK来关闭信息。 49 1-14 HEC-RAS Figure 1.2.6.1 Chainage 图1.2.6.1 贯通里程 1.2.7 Save Geometry Data 保存几何数据 After you have finished entering this data, select File | Save Geometry from the Geometric Data Editor. Enter ―Base Geometry‖ for the title and click OK. Note that if you had edited an existing file, modified it, and wanted to save it under a different name, you would have selected File | Save Geometry Data As instead. In the Geometry Data editor, the display of the cross section locations and river stations can be toggled on and off by selecting View and choosing the options you want to display. 在你完成进入这个数据后,从几何数据编辑其中选择File | Save Geometry(文件/ 保存几何数据),为它命名要键入―Base Geometry‖作为题目,然后点击OK。 注意:如果你已经编辑了一个已有文件,修改它,并想要以另外一个名字来保存它, 你需要选择File | Save Geometry Data As来代替。在几何数据编辑器中,显示的横 截面位置和河流位置可以通过选择View来打开或关闭,并选择你想要显示的选项。 1.3 Defining Discharge Data 定义流出数据 Next we will define flow conditions for the river, utilizing the data in Table 1.3.1: Since this river is flowing under subcritical flow conditions, the flow boundary conditions are defined for the downstream end of the river model. We will bemodeling the river for the 10-year, 50-year, 100-year, and 500-year flood discharges.

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下一步我们将为河流定义流动条件,利用表1.3.1中的数据。因为这条河流是在近乎 危急的流动条件下流动的,流动边界的条件是为模拟河流下游的端点定义的。我们 将模拟出10年,50年,100年和500年的洪水流出量河流。 50 Modeling a Basic River 1-15

模拟一个基本河流1-15

Table 1.3.1 Flow Conditions for Existing Conditions 表1.3.1 现存条件下的流动条件 Close all of the displayed windows until you get back to the main HEC-RAS menu. Select Edit | Steady Flow Data (or click on the fourth icon from the left) to display the Steady Flow Data Editor as shown in Figure 1.3.1. 关闭所有展示的窗口直到回到和HEC-RAS得主菜单。选择Edit | Steady Flow Data (或单击左边第四个图标)来显示平稳流动数据编辑器,如图1.3.1所示。 Figure 1.3.1 Steady Flow Data Editor 图1.3.1 平稳流动数据编辑器 Enter ―4‖ in the Enter/Edit Number of Profiles (2000 max) field. Select Options | Edit Profile Names and HEC-RAS will prompt you for new profile names. For profile numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4, enter "10 year," "50 year," "100 year," and "500 year" respectively. Then select OK to close the prompt. 在Enter/Edit Number of Profiles(2000max)区域键入 “4” 选择Options| Edit Profile , Names,此时HEC-RAS将提醒你渐入新的文件名,对于编号为1,2,3,4的四个剖面 图分别键入“10年”,“50年”,“100年‖, 和 ―500年‖.然后点击OK来关闭提示对 话框. Enter the four discharges for the four profiles detailed in Table 1.3.1. 为表格1.3.1中列出的四个剖面图分别键入流出量 Click the Reach Boundary Conditions button to display the Steady Flow Boundary Conditions dialog as shown in Figure 1.3.2. In the Steady Flow Boundary Conditions dialog, choose the radio button labeled "Set boundary for all profiles" and click the empty field under the heading, "Downstream." Next, click the Normal Depth button. Enter the normal depth energy slope from the previous table. 点击Reach Boundary Conditions按钮来展示Steady Flow Boundary Conditions对话 框,如图1.3.2所示.在此对话框中选择标有"Set boundary for all profiles" (“为所有剖 面设定边界”)字样的按钮并且在标题下的空白处单击,键入"Downstream."。下一 步,点击 ―Normal Depth‖按钮。从先前的表格中键入正常深度的能量斜坡。 Profile Flow Event, yr Flow (cfs) Energy Slope 1 10 year 1400 0.001177 2 50 year 2010 0.001177

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3 100 year 2280 0.001177 4 500 year 2870 0.001177 51 1-16 HEC-RAS Figure 1.3.2 Steady Flow Boundary Conditions dialog 图1.3.2 平稳流动边界条件对话框 The reason why we used the Normal Depth option instead of the KnownWater Surface Elevation option in defining the downstream flow boundary conditions is that we do not know what the starting water surface elevation is at the downstream end of the river for each profile. However, using the Normal Depth option causes HEC-RAS to compute what normal depth elevation is for the defined discharge. This option can be used when the downstream boundary conditions are such that they are not in an area of backwater nor in rapidly varied flow conditions. However, for HEC-RAS to compute the starting water surface elevation using the Normal Depth option, we need to provide HEC-RAS with the slope of the Energy Grade Line. We can estimate the slope of the Energy Grade Line by assuming that it is parallel to the river channel bottom bed slope (valid for mild gradually varied flow). To calculate slope of the river bottom, we need to know the distance between the two downstream-most cross sections, and the change in invert elevations between these two cross sections. In this lesson we will use cross sections 1000 and 1747. The distance between the two cross sections is 746.52 ft. The invert elevation for cross section 1000 is 933.72 ft., and the invert for cross section 1747 is 934.60 ft. To get the change in invert elevations we subtract 933.72 from 934.60,which gives 0.88 ft. The slope of the channel is calculated by taking the change in elevation and dividing it by the flow distance which gives 0.001177. 在定义下游的流动边界条件时我们选择“正常深度”而不选择“已知水平面海拔” 选项,其原因是我们不知道河流下游端点的每个剖面的起始水平面海拔是多少。然 而,使用“正常深度”选项可促使HEC-RAS系统为已限定的流量计算出正常深度的 海拔是多少。这个选择可被采用基于下列情况:河流下游的边界条件既不是死水, 也不是快速变化的流动条件。然而对于HEC-RAS来说,要用正常深度选项来计算起 始水平面海拔,我们需要为HEC-RAS提供能量等级曲线的斜坡。我们可以通过假设 斜坡与水渠底部河床的斜坡平行(对于逐渐改变的流动有效)来估计出能量等级曲 线的斜坡。为了计算河流底部的斜坡,我们需要知道最下游的两个横截面间的距离 和这两个横截面之间转化的海拔的变化。这一课中我们将使用横截面1000和1747。 他们的间距为746.2英尺。横截面1000的转化海拔为933.72英尺,横截面1747的转化 海拔为934.60英尺。为了得出变化值,我们用934.60减去933.72,得到0.88英尺。这 个河渠的斜坡就被计算出来,通过采用海拔变化值,并把它除以流动间距,得到 0.001177。 Figure 1.3.3 Channel Bottom Slope 图1.3.3 河渠底部斜坡

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1.3.1 Saving Flow Data

保存流动数据

When finished, click OK. Click OK again in the Steady Flow Boundary Conditions dialog. Then in the Steady Flow Data editor, choose File | Save Flow Data. Enter "10 yr, 50 yr, 100 yr, 500 yr" for the Title and click OK. 结束后点击OK。在Steady Flow Boundary Conditions对话框中再次点击OK。然后, 在Steady Flow Data编辑其中,选择File | Save Flow Data。分别在Title(题目)中 键入10年,50年,100年,500年,再点击OK. 52 Modeling a Basic River 1-17 模拟一个基本河流1-17 1.4 Running the Analysis 进行分析 Exit the Steady Flow Data screen to return to the HEC-RAS main menu. To run the HEC-RAS analysis, select Run | Steady Flow Analysis (or the sixth icon from the left, the running stick man). This will open the Steady Flow Analysis dialog as shown in Figure 1.4.1. 退出平稳流动数据屏幕,返回到HEC-RAS的主菜单。为了进行HEC-RAS分析,选 择Run | Steady Flow Analysis(或左边第六个图标,运行粘贴)。此操作将打开平 稳流动分析对话框,如图1.4.1所示。 Figure 1.4.1 Steady Flow Analysis Dialog 图1.4.1 平稳流动分析对话框 From the Steady Flow Analysis dialog, select File | New Plan. For the title, enter ―Plan 1:10, 50, 100, and 500 year‖ and then click OK. For ―Short ID,‖ enter ―Plan1.‖ 从[平稳流动分析]对话框中,选择File | New Plan。题目键入“计划1:10,50,100, 500年”,然后点击OK。“Short ID‖键入―Plan1.‖。 For the flow regime, choose Subcritical. Note the Geometric and Steady Flow Files are used for Plan 1. Click Options to see the available items in the Options menu. What is the default method for friction slope? 流动模式,选择Subcritical。注意:几何学的和平稳流动文件被应用于[计划1].点击 Options来看Options菜单中可得到的项目.对于磨擦斜坡,什么是默认的方法? 1.4.1 Executing and Viewing of the Output 输出量的执行和浏览 Click on the Compute button at the bottom of the Steady Flow Analysis dialog. The HEC-RAS Hydraulic Computations dialog will display to show you the status of the HEC-RAS computations. When HEC-RAS finishes the calculations, click Close at the bottom of the dialog. Close out of the Steady Flow Analysis dialog by clicking on File | Exit. 在[平稳流动分析]的窗口底部点击Compute按键。[HEC-RAS液压计算]窗口将显示 出来并提供给你HEC-RAS计算的数字。当HEC-RAS完成计算时,点击窗口底部的 Close。在[平稳流动分析]窗口外关闭点击File | Exit。

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Examine the graphic and tabular output by clicking View at the top of the HEC-RAS main screen. If you want to go straight to the cross section, profile, rating curve, or perspective plots, click the appropriate icon at the top of the main menu. 在HEC-RAS的屏幕上方点击View来检查输出量的图解和表格。 如果你想要直接进入 横截面,剖面,流量特性曲线或者各自的图解,点击主菜单上方适当的图标。 1.5 Defining Levees to Contain River Flow 定义防洪堤来容纳河流流动 In reviewing the cross section graphical output, as shown in Figure 1.5.1 you see at river station cross section 1747 an area to the left of the river containing flow for the 500-year flood. However, in reviewing the plan view, you can see that this area is a localized depression and not part of the river channel. But, as the model is presently defined, HEC-RAS is considering this area part of the conveyance area. Therefore, we need to block out flow from being considered in the local depression. There are couple of ways of doing this. In this lesson we will use a levee to block this area, but defining this area as an ineffective flow area would also work. 在浏览横截面输出量的图解时(如图1.5.1所示),你看到在横截面1747的河流位置, 河流左侧的一个区域容纳500年洪水的流动。然而,在查看计划见解时,你可以看到 这个区域是居域性的凹陷, 并不是河流渠道的一部分。 但由于模型目前已经被定义, HEC-RAS会认为这个区域是流通区域的一部分。因此,我们需要封闭流动使其在局 域凹陷处不被考虑。有两种方法可以做到。在这一课中我们将用一个防洪坝来封闭 这个区域,但把这个区域作为无效流动区域也同样会起作用。 53 1-18 HEC-RAS Figure 1.5.1 Overbank flow area outside of the main channel at river station cross section 1747 图1.5.1 在主渠道外,横截面1747的河流位置使流动区域大坡度转弯 From the Cross Section Data editor, select river station 1747. Next, select Options | Levees to display the XS Levee Data dialog. From the XS Levee Data dialog, define a station and elevation value that will block flow from entering the left depression area as shown in Figure 1.5.2. 从Cross Section Data编辑其中,选择河流位置1747。下一步,选择Options | Levees 来展示XS Levee Data对话框。从此对话框中,定义一个位置和海拔值,使其将阻止 流动进入左边的凹陷区,如图1.5.2所示。 Figure 1.5.2 Define left levee station and elevation 图1.5.2 定义左防洪堤和海拔 1.5.1 Save Geometry Data 保存几何数据

After you have finished entering the levee data, select File | Save Geometry Data As from the Geometric Data Editor. Enter ―Levee Geometry‖ for the Title and click OK. Select File | Exit Geometry Data Editor to close the Geometric Data editor.
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完成进入防洪堤数据后,从[几何数据编辑器]中选择File | Save Geometry Data As。 Title输入“Levee Geometry‖,然后点击OK.选择File | Exit Geometry Data Editor来关 闭Geometric Data编辑器。 1.5.2 Levee Analysis 防洪堤分析 From the main HEC-RAS window, select Run | Steady Flow Analysis to open the Steady Flow Analysis dialog. In the Steady Flow Analysis dialog, select File | Save Plan to save the new plan. Enter "Plan 2: Levee" for the Title and select OK. 从HEC-RAS的主窗口, 选择Run /Steady Flow Analysis 来打开Steady Flow Analysis 对话框。在此对话框中,选择File /Save Plan 来保存新的计划。Title键入“Plan 2:Levee‖,然后选择OK。 Run the steady flow analysis on the levee by selecting the Compute button. Check the results at river station 1747. Now the 500-year flood is contained within the channel banks, as shown in Figure 1.5.2.1. 通过选择Compute按钮来进行防洪堤上平稳流动的分析。检查1747处河流位置的结 果。现在500年的洪水被容纳在河渠的两岸内,如图1.5.2.1所示。 54 Modeling a Basic River 1-19 模拟一个基本河流1-19 Figure 1.5.2.1 Flow is now contained within the river banks 图1.5.2.1 流动包含在河流两岸内 You can switch between plans in the Steady Flow Analysis dialog by selecting File | Open Plan. This will display the Open Plan File dialog as shown in Figure 1.5.2.2. In the Open Plan File dialog, you can select the plan you want to analyze. 你可以在Steady Flow Analysis 对话框中通过选择File/Open Plan 来在各种计划间 切换。这个操作将把Open Plan File窗口展现出来,如图1.5.2.2所示。 Figure 1.5.2.2 Open Plan File dialog 图1.5.2.2 打开计划文件对话框 1.6 Interpolating Additional Cross Sections 插入另外的横截面 In reviewing the cross section output from HEC-RAS, you will observe the following warning messages at some of the cross sections. 从HEC-RAS中浏览横截面流量时,在一些横截面中,你会发现下列警告信息: ? The velocity head has changed by more than 0.5 ft (0.15m). This may indicate the need for additional cross sections. 速位差的变化大于0.5英尺(0.15米),这将预示着需要额外的横截面。 ? The energy loss was greater than 1.0 ft (0.3m) between the current cross section and the previous cross section. This may indicate the need for additional cross sections. 目前的横截面和先前的横截面间的能量损失大于1.0英尺(0.3米),这将预示着需要 额外的横截面 ? The conveyance ratio (upstream conveyance divided by downstream conveyance) is

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less than 0.7 or greater than 1.4. This may indicate the need for additional cross sections. 流通比例(上游的流通除以下游的流通)小于0.7或大于1.4,这将预示着需要额外的 横截面。 Note 55 1-20 HEC-RAS Therefore, to improve the output results, additional cross sections need to be added to the river model. HEC-RAS can automatically interpolate cross sections between the defined cross sections. However, interpolated cross section data should not be used when additional cross section data is available. 因此,为了改善流出量的结果,额外的横截面需要被加在河流的模型上。HEC-RAS 将自动地在已经定义的横截面之间插入新的横截面。 当额外的横截面数据可获得时, 插入的横截面的数据不应该被使用。 As shown in Figure 1.6.1, a 3D plot of the river reach is shown for the currently defined cross sections. This 3D plot can be displayed by selecting View | X-Y-Z Perspective Plots. 如图1.6.1所示, 一个河流流程的3维图解显示了当前定义的横截面。 这个图解可以通 过选择View /X-Y-Z Perspective Plots来显示出来。 Figure 1.6.1 X-Y-Z Perspective Plot for the currently defined cross sections 图1.6.1 当前定义的横截面的X-Y-Z的各自图解 To interpolate additional cross sections, from the Geometric Data editor select Tools | XS Interpolation |Within a Reach to display the XS Interpolation by Reach dialog, as shown in Figure 1.6.2. Enter "200" for Maximum Distance Between XS’s and then select the Interpolate XS’s button. 要想插入额外的横截面,从Geometric Date 编辑器上选择Tools /XS Interpolation /Within a Reach 来显示XS Interpolation by Reach 窗口, 如图1.6.2所示。 Maximun Distance Between XS’s键入“200”,然后选择Interpolate XS’s 按钮。 Figure 1.6.2 XS Interpolation by Reach dialog box 图1.6.2 通过流程对话框来插入XS Redisplaying the X-Y-Z Perspective Plot as shown in Figure 1.6.3, we see additional cross sections inserted between the user-defined cross sections. 在图1.6.3中重新展示了X-Y-Z各自图解,我们看到额外的横截面被插入到使用者定 义的横截面中间。 56 Modeling a Basic River 1-21 Figure 1.6.3 Interpolated cross sections inserted between user-defined cross sections. 图1.6.3 后插入的横截面被插入到使用者定义的面之间。 In reviewing the output, we can see that most of the previous warning messages are gone
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在浏览流通量时,我们可以看见先前大部分的警告信息已经消失了。 57 58 Defining Cross Section Input Data 定义一个横截面的输入数据 Entering Geometric Data 键入几何数据 Draw the river as a schematic 画一条河流作为图解 Specify the cross section geometry 说明横截面的几何图形 59 Geometric Editor 几何编辑器 Left-mouse click pops up a menu 单击鼠标左键弹出一个菜单 Geometric Editor 几何编辑器 Ctrl Right Click allows you to measure a line [ Ctrl] 加单击右键允许你测量线的长度 60 Cross Section Data Dialog 横截面对话框 _ Can be used to directly add, delete, and edit ground geometry data points 可用来直接添加,删除,和编辑地面上的几何数据点 _ Duplicate a previous cross section 复制一个先前的横截面 _ Adjust the ground geometry up and down 向上或向下调整地面几何点 _ Also, define: 同样也可定义: _ Horizontal Roughness 水平的粗糙程度 _ Reach Lengths 流程长度 _ Left & Right Bank Stations 左右河岸的位置 _ Contraction & Expansion Coefficients 收缩和扩张的系数 _ Etc. 等等 Cross Section Data Dialog 横截面数据对话框 Reach Lengths 流程长度 Manning Roughness Values 配置粗糙值 Left/Right Bank Stations 左右岸的位置 Expansion/Contraction Coefficient Values 扩张和收缩系数值 Cross Section Geometry 横截面几何图形 61 Cross Section Data Dialog 横截面数据对话框 Horizontal Roughness Subareas 水平粗糙分区 Other Cross Section Related Data 其他横截面相关数据 Cross Section Geometry Adjustment 调整横截面几何数据 _ Add or subtract a constant to the stations or elevations

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给位置或海拔加上或减去一个常量 _ Scale up or down the left overbank, channel, and right overbank stationing 逐步增加或降低左侧河滩,河渠,和右侧河滩配置 62 Other Cross Section Data 其他的横截面数据 _ Flow Length and Overbank Stations 流动长度和河滩位置 _ Ineffective Flow Area 无效的流动区域 _ Levee (not in HEC-2) 防洪堤(不在HEC-2中) _ Obstructions (not in HEC-2) 阻碍物(不在HEC-2中) _ Profile Adjustment 剖面调整 Defining Flow Lengths 定义流动长度 _ Channel Flow Length 河渠流动长度 _ Left and Right Overbank Flow Lengths 作用河滩流动长度 _ May change with increased flooding 可能随着增加的洪水改变 63 Defining Flow Lengths (Low Flow) 定义流动长度(低的流动) Defining Flow Lengths (High Flow) 定义流动长度(高的流动) 64 Multiple Horizontal Roughness 多重的水平崎岖 Sub-Sections 下列部分 Station n4 n5 n6 n7 n3 n2 n1 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 Elevation Vertical Roughness 海拔 垂直崎岖 65 Ineffective Flow Area (HEC-2 style) 无效流动区域(HEC-2样式) _ Define a left and right ineffective flow (encroachment) station

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定义一个左右无效流动(侵蚀)位置 _ Does not change wetted perimeter--uses ground geometry for wetted perimeter 不要改变侵润周边—利用地面几何学 _ Once WSEL overtops, then area becomes effective again (considers this flow area) 一旦WSEL高出,这个区域就恢复有效(考虑这个流动区域) _ Otherwise, mark as ―Permanent‖ and ineffective area is never considered available for flow 否则标明“永久”,无效区域从不会被看成可得到流动 Ineffective Flow Area (HEC-2 style) 无效流动区域(HEC-2样式) Ineffective Flow Area 无效流动区域 Right Ineffective Flow 右无效流动 Elevation 海拔 Right Ineffective Flow 右无效流动 Station 位置 Left Ineffective Flow 左无效流动 Elevation 海拔 Left Ineffective Flow 左无效流动 Station 位置 66 Ineffective Flow Area (HEC-RAS style) 无效流动区域(HEC-RAS样式) _ Up to 20 multiple areas can be defined at a cross section 在一个横截面有近20个重区域可以被定义 _ Does not change wetted perimeter--uses ground geometry for wetted perimeter 不要改变侵润周边—利用地面几何学 _ Once WSEL overtops, then area becomes effective again (considers this flow area) 一旦WSEL高出,这个区域就恢复有效(考虑这个流动区域) _ Otherwise, mark as ―Permanent‖ and ineffective area is never considered available for flow 否则标明“永久”,无效区域从不会被看成可得到流动 Ineffective Flow Area(HEC-RAS style) Elevation 海拔 Station 位置 1805 1800 1795 1790 1785 1780 0 500 1000 1500 Ineffective Flow Areas 无效的流动区域 无效流动区域(HEC-RAS样式)

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67 Ineffective Flow Area 无效的流动区域 _ Removes flow area from cross section until test elevation is exceeded 从横截面移走流动区域直到测试的海拔被提高 _ Once WSEL overtops, then area becomes effective again (considers this flow area) 一旦WSEL高出,这个区域就恢复有效(考虑这个流动区域) _ Otherwise, can mark as ―Permanent‖ and ineffective area is never considered available for flow 否则标明“永久”,无效区域从不会被看成可得到流动 _ Decreases cross sectional area 减少横截面的区域 _ Does not decrease storage volume 不减少存储量 _ Does not add wetted perimeter 不增加侵润周边 Conveyance Obstructions 流通障碍物 _ Normal (HEC-2 style) or Multiple Areas 正常的(HEC-2样式)或多重的区域 _ Up to 20 multiple areas can be defined at a cross section 在一个横截面处20个多重区域可以被定义 _ Similar to HEC-RAS Ineffective Flow Area dialog, however increases wetted perimeter 与HEC-RAS无效流动区域窗口相似,但增加了侵润周边 68 Conveyance Obstructions 流通障碍物 _ Permanently removed from cross section 从横截面中永久地移开 _ Decreases cross sectional area 减少横截面的区域 _ Increases wetted perimeter along sides and top of obstruction 沿着障碍物的两边或顶端增加侵润周边 _ Two types of blocked obstructions: 两种类型的阻挡障碍物: _ Normal blocked obstructions 正常的阻挡障碍物 _ Multiple blocked obstructions (up to 20 per cross section) 多重的阻挡障碍物(每个横截面20个) Conveyance Obstructions流通障碍物 69 Conveyance Obstructions流通障碍物 Elevation Station 1805 1800 1795 1790 1785 1780 0 500 1000 1500 Left obstruction Right obstruction 左障碍物 右障碍物

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Conveyance Obstructions 流通障碍物 Normal Obstructions Type (HEC-2 like)正常的障碍物类型 70 Elevation Station 1805 1800 1795 1790 1785 1780 0 500 1000 1500 Obstructions Conveyance Obstructions 流通障碍物 Multiple Obstructions Type 多重的障碍物类型 Levee Description 防洪堤描述 _ Define a left and right station 定义一个左右位置 _ Replaces the overbank elevation data entry that was available in HEC-2 (no longer available in HEC-RAS) 重新设置在HEC-2中可获得的河滩海拔数据条目(在HEC-RAS中不再获得) 71 Levee Description 防洪堤描述 Elevation 海拔 Station 位置 1755 1760 1775 1770 1765 1780 0 500 1000 1500 Left levee station and elevation 左防洪堤位置和海拔 Profile Adjustments 剖面调整 _ Specify change in energy grade line elevation 详细说明能量等级曲线的海拔变化 _ Specify change in water surface elevation 详细说明水面海拔变化 _ Insert known water surface elevation 插入已知水面海拔 _ Insert internal rating curve 插入内部的流量特性曲线 _ For a given discharge, a water surface elevation will be interpolated and used 对于一个已知的流出量,一个水面海拔将被填写进去并使用 72 Profile Adjustments 剖面调整

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Tributary Stream 分支流 Main Stream 主流 Profile Adjustments 剖面调整 73 Defining a Profile Adjustment 定义一个剖面调整 _ Select a cross section 选择一个横截面 _ Define the flow change 定义流动变化 Rating Curve 流动特性曲线 _ Defines a rating curve of stage (WSEL) versus discharge 定义一个阶段的流动特性曲线与流出相对(WSEL) _ HEC-RAS then uses this as a ―look-up‖ table HEC-RAS将把它作为“查寻”表格使用 _ HEC-RAS then interpolates the WSEL value from this curve for the discharge being analyzed HEC-RAS然后从这条曲线中为正在分析的流出量填入WESL数值 74 Adding a Lid to a Cross Section 给一个横截面加上盖子 _ Permanently removed from a cross section 永久性的从一个横截面移开 _ Decreases cross sectional area 减少横截面的区域 _ Decreases storage volume 减少横截面的存储量 _ Increases wetted perimeter along top and bottom of lid 在盖子的顶端和底部增加侵润周边 _ Defined using up to 500 points, each with station, top elevation, and bottom elevation 定义的使用点500个,每个都有位置,顶端海拔和底部海拔 _ Flexible data requirements 灵活的数据需求 Adding a Lid to a Cross Section 给一个横截面加一个盖子 75 76 HEC-RAS Data Files HEC-RAS数据文件 File Types 文件类型 _ Input Files 输入文件 _ One PROJECT file (.PRJ) 一个工程文件(PRJ) _ One file for each PLAN (.P01 to .P99) 每个计划一个文件(P01到P09) _ One file for each set of GEOMETRY data (.G01 to .G99) 每组几何数据一个文件(G01到G09) _ One file for each set of FLOW data (.F01 to .F99) 每组流动数据一个文件(F01到F09) _ Output Files 输出文件 _ One RUN file for each plan (.R01 to .R99) 每个计划一个运行文件(R01到R09)

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_ One OUTPUT file for each plan (.O01 to .O99) 每个计划一个输出文件 (O01到O09) 77 Project File 工程文件 _ File extension .PRJ 文件范围 PRJ _ Project title 工程题目 _ Units to be used (imperial, metric) 使用单位(英制的度量衡,公制的) _ Default variables to be used 将使用的默认值变量 _ Last plan file that was used 被使用的上一个计划文件 _ All prior input files that had been associated with the project in the past 所有以前与工程联系的更重要的输入文件 Plan File 计划文件 _ File extension .P01 to .P99 文件范围 P01到P09 _ Description and short identifier for the plan 计划的描述和简短的标识符 _ Names of the associated geometry and flow file 相关的几何学和流动文件的名称 78 Geometry File 几何学文件 _ File extension .G01 to .G99 文件范围 _ Associated with a particular plan file 与一个特殊的计划文件相关 _ Cross-sectional data 横截面的数据 _ Bridges and culvert structures 桥梁和排水渠的结构 _ Other data associated with the model not considered flow data 其他与模型有关的不被认为是流动数据的数据 Flow File 流动文件 _ File extension .F01 to .F99 文件范围F01到F09 _ Associated with a particular plan file 与一个特殊的计划文件相关 _ Flow data 流动数据 _ Boundary condition information for each river reach 每个流程的边界条件信息 79 Run File 运行文件 _ File extension .R01 to .R99 文件范围R01到R09 _ Associated with a particular plan file 与一个特殊的计划文件相关 _ Input data for the computational run engine SNET.EXE 为运行装置SNET.EXE输入计算的数据 _ Automatically generated when user clicks on the COMPUTE button 当使用者点击COMPUTE按钮时会自动产生结果 Output File 输出文件 _ File extension .O01 to .O99

文件范围O01到O09

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_ Associated with a particular plan file 与一个特殊的计划文件相关 _ Output data from the computational run engine SNET.EXE 来自计算的运行装置SNET.EXE的输出数据 _ Used to display the graphical results in HEC-RAS 在HEC-RAS中用来显示几何结果 80 Advantages 优点 _ Allows you to change geometry and/or flow conditions quickly for the same model 对于同样的模型允许你快速的改变几何或流动的条件 _ Allows you to compare analysis output results 允许你比较分析输出结果 Disadvantages 缺点 _ Confusing 不明确 _ Takes a while to master the management of these multiple plan, geometry, and flow files 掌握这些多样的计划,几何学,和流动文件的管理需要花费一段时间 81 Hints 提示 _ Can always stay with a single plan, geometry, and flow file to keep things simple 可以总是停留在一个计划,几何学,和流动文件上来使事情简化 _ Do not try to manage files with .x01 to .x09 file extensions 不要试着用x01到x09的文件范围来管理文件 _ Rather, manage files using the DESCRIPTION and SHORT ID fields 更合适的是,用DESCRIPTION 和SHORT ID区域来管理文件 82 Importing HEC-2 Data 输入HEC-2数据 Example HEC-2 Data File HEC-2数据文件示例 C C3 C 1000Downstream Cross Section 下游横截面 C 2050Start of Encroachment 开始侵蚀 C 11600Upstream Cross Section 上游横截面 T1 Example 9 例9 T2 Floodway encroachment modeling 分洪河道侵蚀模拟 T3 Sample Creek @ 100-yr Peak Flow J1 -10 2 0.001905 3150 238 J2 1 -1 -6 J3 110 200 NC 0.12 0.12 0.06 0.1 0.3 * Downstream Cross Section 下游横截面

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X1 1000 10 1428 1470 GR 242 450 241 1150 240 1320 234 1428 223 1447 GR 220 1450 221 1455 234 1470 240 2000 245 2680 NC 0.12 0.12 0.06 ET 8.4 10.4 12.4 * Start of Encroachment 开始侵蚀 X1 2050 10 1431 1473 1050 950 1050 GR 244 450 240 1180 235 1431 230 1438 223 1445 GR 222 1450 223 1454 235 1473 240 1760 245 2250 NH 4 0.15 1435 0.05 1472 0.15 2250 0.12 2850 ET 8.4 10.4 12.4 X1 2900 11 1435 1472 750 600 850 GR 248 950 245 1160 240 1370 236 1435 224 1450 GR 225 1455 236 1472 240 1570 245 1850 246 2250 GR 248 2850 NC 0.15 0.15 0.05 83 HEC-2 Data Not Supported(i.e., ignored) in HEC-RAS HEC-2数据没有响应也就是在HEC-RAS中忽略了 _ Split Flow 裂缝流动 _ Ice (IC) 冰 _ Levee (X3) 防洪堤 _ Vertical Roughness (NV) 垂直崎岖 _ Internal Rating Curves (RC) 内部的流量特性曲线 _ Comments (C, *) 注释 _ Summary Output (J3) 输出总结 Data Requiring Modification 需要修改的数据 _ Special Bridges (SB) 特殊的桥梁 _ Special Culverts (SC) 特殊的排水渠 _ Normal Bridges (X2, BT) 正常的桥梁 _ Encroachments & Floodway Determination (X3, ET)侵蚀和分洪河道决定 _ Ineffective Flow (X3) 无效流动 84 Cross Section ID Concerns 横截面ID涉及到 _ By river mile? 通过河流长度? _ By arbitrary numbering scheme? 通过支流给图解标号? _ Do section ID’s increase upstream? 上游横截面ID的增加? _ Duplication section ID’s? 横截面ID的复制品 HEC-2 Import Process HEC-2输入过程 _ Start a new project 开始一个新的工程 _ Select ―Import HEC-2 Data‖ from File Menu 从文件菜单中选择“输入HEC-2数据‖
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_ Select the HEC-2 data file 选择HEC-2数据文件 _ Specify the cross section order method 详细说明横截面程序方法 _ Use original HEC-2 section ID’s 利用最初的HEC-2横截面ID _ Use a sequential counter for section ID’s 为横截面ID使用一个连续的计数器 85 Start a New Project 开始一个新的工程 Select Import HEC-2 Data 选择输入HEC-2数据 86 Specify Cross Section Order 详细说明横截面程序 Handle Special Cases 处理特殊情况 _ Review the import warnings 重复察看重要的警告 _ Typically bridges and culvert data needs to be revised 特殊的桥梁和排水渠数据需要被修改 _ Other options not supported by HEC-RAS 其他的选择不被HEC-RAS所支持 _ Compare HEC-2 and HEC-RAS output results 比较HEC-2 和HEC-RAS输出结果 87 88 Planning and Organizing a HEC-RAS Study Planning and Organizing a HEC-RAS Study 计划并组织一个HEC-RAS的研讨 _ Sources of information 信息的来源 _ Planning survey operations 计划调查的操作法 _ Required survey information 所需的调查信息 _ Processing survey data 处理调查数据 89 Sources of Information 信息来源 _ Previous studies 先前的研讨 _ Topographic data 地形学上的数据 _ Aerial photography 空中摄影 _ Highway or street maps 高速路或街道地图 _ Construction drawings 建筑图纸 _ Stream gage data 河流计量数据 _ Personal observations from local residents 来自当地居民的个人观察 Previous Studies先前的研讨 _ Possible Sources 可能的来源 _ Federal Flood Insurance Studies 联合的洪水担保研讨 _ Corps of Engineers Studies 工程师研讨的成果 _ State / Local / Federal Studies 国家/地方/联合研讨

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90 Previous Studies先前的研讨 _ Possible Types of Information 可能的信息类型 _ Survey of cross section data 横截面数据的调查 _ Data on structures such as bridges 建筑物上(如桥梁)的数据 _ Survey benchmarks 调查基准 _ Flow rates 流动速度 _ Accounts of previous flooding 先前的洪水说明 _ Other pertinent information 其他相关的信息 Topographic Data 地形学数据 _ Possible Sources 可能的来源 _ USGS 7.5 or 15 minute Quadrangle Maps _ USGS Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Data Files _ Local / State / Federal Government Agencies 地方/州/联邦政府机构 _ Previous Studies 先前的研讨 91 Topographic Information 地形学的信息 _ Possible Types of Information 可能的信息类型 _ Topography 地形学 _ Survey control panels 调查控制面板 _ Ground cover 地面覆盖 _ Development features 发展特色 Aerial Photography 空中摄影 _ Possible Types of Information 可能的信息类型 _ Topography (after processing by photogrammetry) 地形学(在处理过摄影后) _ Ground cover 地面覆盖 _ Development features 发展特点 _ Possible Sources 可能的来源 _ Commercial aerial survey and mapping companies 商业性的空中调查和绘制公司 _ Local / State / Federal Government Agencies 地方/州/联邦政府机构 _ Previous studies 先前的研讨 92 Highway and Street Mapping 高速路和街道的绘制 _ Possible Types of Information 可能的信息类型 _ Topography & land features 地形学和陆地特点 _ Possible Sources 可能的来源 _ Commercial mapping companies 商业性的绘制单位

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_ Census Bureau TIGER Maps 人口普查局TIGER地图 _ Local / State / Federal Government Agencies 地方/州/ 联邦政府机构 _ Previous projects and studies 先前的工程和研讨 _ Highway construction firms 高速路建设公司 _ Highway engineering firms 高速路工程公司 Construction Drawings 建筑图纸 _ Possible Types of Information 可能的信息类型 _ Topographic data 地形学的数据 _ Survey of cross section data 横截面数据的调查 _ Data on structures such as bridges 结构(如桥梁)上的数据 _ Survey benchmarks 调查基准 _ Sources 来源 _ Local / State / Federal Government Agencies 地方/州/联邦的政府机构 _ Railroad companies 铁路公司 _ Highway construction firms 高速路建筑公司 _ Highway engineering firms 高速路工程公司 93 Stream Gage Data 河流计量数据 _ Possible Types of Information 可能的信息类型 _ Flow rates 流动速度 _ Data on previous flooding 先前洪水数据 _ Channel rating curves 河渠流量特性曲线 _ Sources 来源 _ Local / State / Federal Government Agencies 地方/州/联邦的政府机构 Personal Observations from Local Residents 来自当地居民的个人观察 _ Possible Types of Information 可能的信息类型 _ Data on previous flooding 先前洪水数据 _ Sources 来源 _ Local / State / Federal Government Agencies 地方/州/联邦的政府机构 _ Newspapers 报纸 _ Personal interviews 个人访问 _ Insurance agents 担保机构 94 Planning a Survey 计划一个调查 _ Measure channel stationing on a good map or aerial photo 在一张好的地图或空中摄影中测量河渠的位置 _ Locate structures and confluences 给结构和汇流定位 _ Prepare preliminary stream profile 准备初级的河流剖面

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_ Prepare preliminary floodplain map 准备初级的漫滩地图 _ Locate survey benchmarks 给调查基准定位 _ Channel field reconnaissance 河渠区域的勘测 _ Prepare preliminary cross section layout map 准备初级的横截面规划地图 _ Meet with survey manager or survey party chief 会见调查管理人员或小组组长 Required Survey Information 需要的调查信息 _ Control Cross Sections 控制横截面 _ Road crossings 街道的交叉口处 _ Channel structures 河渠结构 _ Confluences 汇流 _ Other special features 其他的特征 95 Required Survey Information需要的调查信息 _ Valley Cross Sections 山谷横截面 _ Changes in cross sectional area 在横截面出的改变 _ Changes in slope of stream bed 河床斜坡的改变 _ Restrictions in channel or floodplain 在河渠或漫滩处的限制 _ Changes in roughness coefficients 粗糙系数的变化 _ At maximum intervals for study (500 to 2000 feet) 研讨的最大间距(500到2000英尺) Uniform Conditions Through Entire Bridge Area 整体桥梁地区的统一条件 A B C D Bridge 桥梁 Approach 方法 Contraction Region 收缩地区 Expansion Region 扩张地区 Ineffective Flow Area 无效的流动区域 Flow 流动 312456 Repeated Cross Sections 重复的横截面 Surveyed Cross Sections 调查的横截面 96 Uniform Conditions Under Bridge 桥下的统一条件 A B C D

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Bridge 桥梁 Approach 方法 Contraction Region 收缩地区 Expansion Region 扩张地区 Ineffective Flow Area 无效的流动区域 Flow 流动 312456 Repeated Cross Sections 重复的横截面 Surveyed Cross Sections 调查的横截面 Non-Uniform Conditions Under Bridge 桥下的不统一条件 A B C D Bridge 桥梁 Approach 方法 Contraction 收缩 Region 地区 Expansion 扩张 Region 地区 Ineffective 无效的 Flow Area 流动区域 Flow 流动 312456 Surveyed Cross Sections 调查的横截面 97 Other Bridge Survey Data 其他的桥梁调查数据 _ Top of road profile 道路顶端的剖面 _ Channel station or bridge center-line 河渠的位置和桥梁的中心线 _ Bridge dimensions 桥梁的尺寸 _ Skew angle 倾斜角 _ Pier Bents: Number of bents, piers per bent,bent spacing, and orientation 桥墩的排架:排架数量,每个排架的桥墩,排架空间和方向 _ Piers: Sizes, numbers, and shapes 桥墩:尺寸,数量,和外形 Defining the Bridge Deck for Bridges with Solid Rails 为带有坚固围栏的桥梁定义覆盖物 Natural Ground Profile 自然的地面剖面 Bridge Low Chord 桥梁下弦 Actual Top of Roadway 道路实际的顶端 Ineffective Top of Roadway 道路无效的顶端 Solid Bridge Railing 坚固的桥梁围栏

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98 Defining the Bridge Deck for Bridges with Open Rails 为带有敞开围栏的桥定义桥的覆盖物 Natural Ground Profile 自然的地面剖面 Actual Top of Roadway 路面的实际顶端 Ineffective Top of Roadway 道路的无效顶端 Open Bridge Railing 敞开的桥的围栏 Top of Curb 围栏的顶端 Bridge Low Chord 桥梁下弦 Culvert Survey Data 排水渠调查数据 _ Channel stations of culvert center-line 排水渠中心线的河渠位置 _ Number of culverts 排水渠数量 _ Size and shape of culverts 排水渠的尺寸和形状 _ Culvert lengths 排水渠的长度 _ Downstream and upstream invert elevations 上下游的转化海拔 _ Types of inlets and outlets 入水口和出水口类型 _ Depth of accumulated silt 积累的淤泥的深度 99 Weirs and Drop Structures 堰坝和陡坡结构 _ Channel station of structure 结构的河渠位置 _ Elevation of weir crest 堰坝顶端海拔 _ Length of weir or weir profile for BT records 坝的长度或剖面的BT记录 _ Shape of weir 坝的形状 _ Trapezoidal 梯形的 _ Ogee S形的 _ Rectangular 矩形的 _ etc .等等 Slope Paving 铺斜坡 _ Beginning and ending channel stations 河渠的起始和结束位置 _ Type of paving (concrete, rip-rap, gabions, etc.) 铺的类型 (水泥的, ???, 格宾等) _ Vertical extent of paving 铺设的垂直延伸 _ Condition of paving 铺设的条件 100 Confluences 汇流 _ Channel Station of Stream Confluence 河流汇流的河渠位置 _ Dimensions and Condition of Tributary Channel 支流河渠的尺寸和条件 _ Major Storm Sewer Outfalls 主要的暴风雪排水沟的排水口 _ Channel station 河渠位置

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_ Dimensions of storm sewer pipe 暴风雪排水管的尺寸 _ Invert elevation of storm sewer pipe 转化的排水管的海拔 Orientation of Cross Section 横截面的方位 _ Left to right, looking downstream 左边到右边,向下游方向 _ Indicate orientation on work maps 在地图上标出方位 _ Perpendicular to flow at all locations 在所有的位置都垂直于河流 _ Ends may curve back upstream for very wide floodplains 对于非常宽的漫滩,末尾会折回到上游 _ Should represent typical channel size and shape 应该标示出典型的河渠尺寸和形状 101 Length of Cross Sections 横截面的长度 _ Long enough to reach ―high ground‖ 足够长能接触到“高地面” _ Use offset stations to avoid negative stationing 利用偏移量位置来避免不利的配置 _ Cross-sections should not intersect one another 横截面不应该彼此交叉 Channel Stationing 河渠配置 _ Control Cross Sections 控制横截面 _ Use stations from topographic maps or aerial photos 使用地形学地图或空中投影的位置 _ Valley Cross Sections 山谷横截面 _ Measure channel distances along thalweg 沿着???测量河渠的距离 _ Measure to nearest foot 测量到最近的底部 102 Number of Survey Points 调查点的数量 _ Minimum of 5 Points for Channe l 河渠的5个最大值点 _ Additional Points of Discontinuities in Channel Cross Section 河渠横截面中另外5个不连续的点 _ Overbank Points as Necessary to 需要的漫滩点 _ Define breaks in topography 来定义地形断裂 _ Provide necessary cross section length 提供必要的横截面长度 _ Avoid Surveying Points Only at Fixed Locations Along Cross Section 避免调查点只在沿着横截面的固定的位置 Processing Survey Data 进行调查数据 _ Lay out cross sections on topographic map 在地形图上展示横截面 _ Compare stream profile with topographic map 把地形图和河流剖面作比较 _ Plot cross sections 划分横截面 _ Mark roughness coefficients 标记出粗糙系数 103
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104 SNETLESSON2 SENT 第二课 Modeling a River Network 模拟一个河流网络 This lesson builds upon the previously defined Lesson 1. 这一课是建立在第一课已经定义的基础上的 Badger Mill Creek has a small tributary that feeds into it just upstream of the end of the model that was defined in Lesson 1. This lesson demonstrates how to define a stream junction and perform a flow analysis for a network of river reaches. Badger Mill Creek 有一个小的支流,其中流动的是第一课中定义的模拟河流的上游 的端点。 这一课将演示如何定义一个河流连接点和为河流流程的网络进行流动分析。 2.1 Model Data 模拟数据 For this lesson we provide you with data on the HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM. By default, the lessons are installed to ―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖ subdirectory. You can find the required files to complete this lesson in the subdirectory, "SNET\Lesson 2\initial." In this subdirectory you will find the following files: 这一课中我们为你在HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM 上提供了数据。默认情况下,这 一课已经安装了“C:\HEC-RAS Training‖子目录。你可以在子目录 SNET\Lesson2\initial 中找到需要的文件来完成本课。在子目录中,你可以找到下 列文件: ? DRY_TRIBUTARY_CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS - Excel spreadsheet that holds the cross section data for the Dry Tributary to Badger Mill Creek. ? DRY_TRIBUTARY_CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS – 为干涸的支流保留横截面 数据的电子表格 ? LOWER_CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS - Excel spreadsheet that holds the cross section data for the Lower Reach of Badger Mill Creek. ? LOWER_CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS – 为较低河流流程保留横截面数据的 电子表格。 ? UPPER_CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS - Excel spreadsheet that holds the cross section data for the Upper Reach of Badger Mill Creek. UPPER_CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS –为较高的河流流程保留横截面数据的电 子表格。 ? SNET02.PRJ - HEC-RAS project file for this lesson. ? SNET02.PRJ – 本课中 HEC-RAS 工程文件 ? SNET02.F01 - HEC-RAS initial flow data for this lesson. ? SNET02.F01 – 本课中HEC-RAS最初的流动数据

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? SNET02.G01 - HEC-RAS initial geometry data for this lesson. ? SNET02.G01 – 本课中HEC-RAS最初的几何数据 ? SNET02.P01 - HEC-RAS initial plan data for this lesson. ? SNET02.P01 – 本课中HEC-RAS最初的计划数据 ? VERONA.TFW -World coordinate file that holds coordinate system information for Verona.tif. This file is not required. ? VERONA.TFW –为Verona.tif保存坐标系统信息的大量坐标文件, 这个文件不是必 须的 ? VERONA.TIF - This TIFF image will be used to help us create the river reach in this lesson. This file is not required. ? VERONA.TIF –这个TIFF外形将用来帮助我们在本课中创造河流流程。这个文件 不是必需的 2.2 Setting Up the Project 建立方案 After starting up HEC-RAS, select File | Open Project. Select the project labeled "Lesson 2: Badger Mill Creek" from the "HEC-RAS Training\SNET\Lesson 2\initial" subdirectory. This will open the project for this lesson which will activate the following files: ? Plan: Plan 1:10, 50, 100, and 500 year ? Geometry: Base Geometry ? Flow: 10 yr, 50 yr, 100 yr, 500 yr 建立HEC-RAS后,选择File | Open Project .从“HEC-RAS Training \SNET\Lesson 2\initial‖中选择标有“Lesson 2:Badger Mill Creek‖ 的工程。这个操作将打开产生下 列文件的工程: 105 2-2 HEC-RAS 2.2.1 Defining River Geometry 定义河流几何 First, look at the existing geometry and see where the tributary junction is that we want to model. Select Edit | Geometric Data to display the Geometric Data Editor. Zoom in so you can see all of the red and green dots on the background image as shown in Figure 2.2.1.1. 首先,看已经存在的几何并发现哪里的支流连接点是我们想要模拟的。选择Edit | Geometric Date 来显示几何数据编辑器。 放大它以便能看到背景上所有的红的和绿 的点,如图2.2.1.1所示。 . Figure 2.2.1.1 Geometric Data Editor - Initial Geometry for this lesson 图2.2.1.1 几何数据编辑器-本课中最初的几何 To create a stream junction, we need to add two reaches to the existing model. We will create the stream junction at river station 3100 on Badger Mill Creek. The two reaches will be Upper Reach and Dry Tributary to Badger Mill Creek.
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为了创建一个河流连接点, 我们需要在已有的模型上增加两个流程。 我们将在Badger Mill Creek上河流位置3100处创建河流的连接点。这两个流程将成为Badger Mill Creek的较高流程和干涸支流。 Now we want to create a new River Reach called Upper Reach in the Geometric Data Editor. To create Upper Reach, click the River Reach button and connect the dots on the background image starting in the upper right end of the image. The red dots will become cross sections and the green dots are guides to help you draw the river schematic. Remember that you need to draw the river reach in a downstream direction. Upper Reach flows from from north to south, so you will start drawing the river reach from the red dot in the upper right hand corner. 现在我们想要创建一个在几何数据编辑器中被叫做较高流程的新的河流流程。为了 创建它,点击River Reach 按键并且从背景外型的右上角开始连接背景上的点。红 色的点将成为横截面,绿色的点将是帮助你画出河流示意图的指导。记住,你需要 以河流的下游方向画出河流流程。较高的河流流程自南向北流动,所以你要从右上 角的红色点开始画出河流流程。 Note: To create the junction, the last point you connect needs to be the same point as the upstream most river station for Lower Reach. And to undo the last point you created, right click the mouse. Also to finalize the river reach, double-click the last point of the river reach. 注意:为了创建这个连接点,你所连接的最后一点应该是较低流程的最上游河流位 置点。要想取消你所创建的最后一点,单击鼠标右键。同样,完成创建流程,双击 河流流程的最后一点。 After you choose the last point for the River Reach, HEC-RAS will prompt you to name the River and the Reach. Enter "Badger Mill Cr." for the River, and "Upper Reach" for the Reach as shown in Figure 2.2.1.2. 在你为河流流程选择了最终点后, HEC-RAS将提醒你分别为河流和流程命名。 River 键入 ―Badger Mill Cr.‖, Reach键入―Upper Reach‖,如图2.2.1.2 所示。 106 Modeling a River Network 2-3 模拟一个河流网络2-3 Figure 2.2.1.2 Enter name for River and Reach 图2.2.1.2 为河流和流程键入名称 Next HEC-RAS will prompt you to name the junction that connects Upper Reach to Lower Reach. Enter ―3100‖ for the junction name as shown in Figure 2.2.1.3. 下一步,HEC-RAS将提醒你为连接较高流程和较低流程的连接点命名。连接点的名 字键入“3100”,如图2.2.1.3所示。 Figure 2.2.1.3 Enter name for Junction 图2.2.1.3 为连结点命名

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Now we want to create a new River Reach called Dry Tributary in the Geometric Data Editor. To create Dry Tributary, click the River Reach button and connect the dots on the background image starting from the right hand side of the image. The red dots will become cross sections and the green dots are guides to help you draw the river schematic. Remember that you need to draw the river reach in a downstream direction. Since the Dry Tributary flows from from east to west, so you will start drawing the river reach from the red dot in the lower right hand corner to the left. 现在我们想要创建一个在几何数据编辑器中叫做干涸支流的河流流程。为了创建这 个流程,点击River Reach 按键并从右侧开始连接背景外型上的点。红色的点将成 为横截面,绿色的点将是帮助你画出河流示意图的指导。记住,你需要以河流的下 游方向画出河流流程。因为这个干涸支流自东向西流动,因此,你将从右下角的红 色点开始向左边画河流流程。 Note: To join Dry Tributary using the same junction as Upper Reach to Lower Reach, the last point you connect needs to be Junction 3100. Also to finalize the River Reach, you need to double-click the last point of the River Reach. 注意:要想使用与连接较高和较低流程相同的连接点使干涸支流加入,你所连接的 最后一点必须是连接点3100。同样,完成流程创建,你需要双击流程的最后一点。 After you choose the last point for the Dry Tributary, HEC-RAS will prompt you to name the River and the Reach. Enter "Badger Mill Cr." for the River, and "Dry Tributary" for the Reach as shown in Figure 2.2.1.4. 在你完成了为干涸支流选择最后点之后,HEC-RAS将提醒你为河流和流程命名。河 流键入 ―Badger Mill Cr.‖, 流程键入―Dry Tributary‖,如图2.2.1.4 所示。 Figure 2.2.1.4 Enter name for River and Reach 图2.2.1.4 为河流和流程键入名称 Click the Add/Edit background pictures on schematic button in theGeometricData Editor to open the Background Pictures on Schematic dialog. Uncheck the background image as shown in Figure 2.2.1.5, so you can see the river schematic more clearly. The river schematic should look similar to Figure 2.2.1.6. 单击几何数据编辑器中的Add/Edit background pictures on schematic 按钮来打开 示意图背景图片对话框。未检查如图2.2.1.5 所示的背景外型,因此你你可以更清晰 地看到河流示意图。这个示意图应该与图2.2.1.6相似。 107 2-4 HEC-RAS Figure 2.2.1.5 Background Pictures on Schematic dialog with image unchecked 图2.2.1.5 示意图上未加束缚的背景图片对话框 Figure 2.2.1.6 Geometric Data Editor with new river schematic and background image turned off 图2.2.1.6 新的河流示意图和背景外型被关闭的几何数据编辑器

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2.2.2 Defining Junction 定义连结点 To create the junction properly we need to define additional information for the junction. From the Geometric Data Editor, click the Junct. button and the Junction Data dialog will appear as shown in Figure 2.2.2.1. 3100 should appear as the junction name. For the description, enter ―Confluence of Upper Reach and Dry Tributary with Lower Reach.‖ 为了正确地创建连结点, 我们需要为连结点定义额外的信息。 从几何数据编辑器上, 点击Junct按钮,并且将显示出连结点数据对话框,如图2.2.2.1所示。3100将作为连 接点的名称而显示出来。描述的内容,键入“Confluence of Upper Reach and Dry Tributary with Lower Reach‖ 108 Modeling a River Network 2-5 模拟一个河流网络2-5 Figure 2.2.2.1 Junction Data dialog 图2.2.2.1 连接数据对话框 In HEC-RAS, a junction can be modeled by either the energy equation or the momentum equation. The energy equation does not take into account the angle of a tributary coming in or leaving, while the momentum equation does. In most cases the amount of energy loss due to the angle of the tributary flow is not significant, and using the energy equation to model the junction is more than adequate. However, there are situations where the angle of the tributary can cause significant energy losses. In these situations it would be more appropriate to use the momentum approach. When the momentum approach is selected, an additional column is added to the table next to the junction lengths. This column is used to enter an angle for any river reach that is coming into or exiting the main river. For the reaches that are considered to be the main river, the angle should be left blank or set to zero. Also, the user has the option to turn friction and weight forces on or off during the momentum calculations. The default is have the weight forced turned off. 在HEC-RAS中,一个连接点的模拟既可以通过能量平衡也可以通过动力平衡。能量 平衡不把支流流入和流出的角考虑在其中,而动力平衡则相反。在大部分情况下, 由支流流动的角所引起的能量损失的量并不显著。用能量平衡来模拟这个点是最恰 当的了。然而也有支流的角能引起明显的能量损失的这种情况,在这种情况下,用 动力平衡的方法来解决会更合适。当选择动力方法时,连接点旁边的表格需要再加 一栏,这一栏是用来键入任何河流流程进入及存在于主河流中时的角。因为流程被 看作是主河流,这个角应该是????或被设定为0。同样,在计算动力时使用者可 以选择考虑或不考虑磨擦力和重力。默认情况时不考虑重力。 In the upper right corner of the Junction Data dialog, there is an option to change the Computation Mode to either ―Energy‖ or ―Momentum.‖ We want to use the ―Momentum‖ method since Dry Tributary comes into the main stem at a significant angle (see schematic on the previous page). Select ―Momentum‖ and, for the tributary angles, enter ―0‖ for Upper Reach and ―45‖ for Dry Tributary. In the Junction Length field, enter ―20‖ ft for Upper Reach and ―100‖ ft for Dry Tributary. See Figure 2.2.2.2

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for a diagram of junction 3100. 在Junction Data对话框的右上角,有一个改变“能量”还是“动力”计算方式的选 项,我们想要使用“动力”方法因为干涸支流以一个明显的角流进主河道(见前页 的示意图)。选择“动力”,并且对于支流角度,较高流程键入“0”,干涸流程 键入“45”。在流程长度区域,较高流程键入“20”英尺,干涸支流键入“100”英 尺。见图2.2.2.2 Figure 2.2.2.2 Diagram of junction 3100 图2.2.2.2 连接点3100的图表 109 2-6 HEC-RAS Note: The options under Momentum include Add Friction and Add Weight. Add friction is the default. Leave these as they are. Click OK to exit the Junction Data dialog. 注意:Momentum下的选项包括加摩擦和加重量。加摩擦是默认的。不用改变他们。 点击OK来退出Junction Data 对话框 2.2.3 Defining Cross Section Data for Upper Reach 为较高流程定义横截面数据 Next, we need to define cross section data for Upper Reach. To save time, the cross section data just upstream of the junction is the same as the cross section geometry downstream of the junction. Therefore, we can copy the Lower Reach upstream most cross section data to the Upper Reach downstream most cross section. 下一步,我们需要为较高流程定义横截面数据。为了节约时间,连接点上游的横截 面数据与连接点下游的几何数据相同。因此,我们可以把较低流程的上游横截面数 据拷贝到较高流程下游。 The River Station 3110 for Upper Reach will be a duplicate of River Station 3090 from Lower Reach. To copy River Station 3090 from Lower Reach, we need to open the Cross Section Editor by clicking on the Cross Section button in the Geometric Data Editor. Then select River Station 3090 from Badger Mill Cr. - Lower Reach as shown in Figure 2.2.3.1. 较高流程的河流位置3110将是较低流程河流位置3090的复制品。为了从较低流程拷 贝3090位置,我们需要打开横截面编辑器,通过点击及和数据编辑器上的Cross Section 按钮。然后从Badger Mill Cr.选择3090河流位置。较低流程如图2.2.3.1所示。 Figure 2.2.3.1 River Station 3090 in Cross Section Editor 图2.2.3.1 在横截面数据中河流位置3090 In the Cross Section Editor, select Options | Copy Current Cross Section to open the Copy Cross Section Dialog. In the Copy Cross Section Dialog, choose ―Badger Mill Cr.‖ for the river, ―Upper Reach‖ for the reach, and enter ―3110‖ for the river station as shown in Figure 2.2.3.2. Click OK to close the Copy Cross Section Dialog. 在横截面编辑器中,选择Options | Copy Current Cross Section 来打开复制横截面

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对话框。在此对话框中,为river选择Badger Mill Cr.‖,为reach选择―Upper Reach‖, 河流的位置键入“3110”,如图2.2.3.2所示。点击OK来关闭次对话框 Figure 2.2.3.2 Copy Cross Section dialog 图2.2.3.2 复制横截面对话框 Note: After clicking OK, you will be returned to the Cross Section Editor with river station 3110 selected in Upper Reach. 注意:当你点击OK之后,你将回到Cross Section Editor,此时上游流程的河流位置 3110已被选择。 110 Modeling a River Network 2-7 模拟一个河流网络2-7 Change the description of River Station 3110 to be ―River Mile 3110 on Badger Mill Cr., Upper Reach.‖ Change the Downstream Reach Lengths to ―0‖ (zero) for all subsections. 改变河流位置3110的描述为“River Mile 3110 on Badger Mill Cr., Upper Reach‖.把下 游所有分段流程长度改为“0”。 Select Options | Adjust Elevations to adjust the elevations for all stations. In the prompt, enter ―0.1‖ and select OK. See for a screen shot of the prompt. All of the ground elevations for river station 3110 are now 0.1 ft higher than the ground elevations for river station 3090. 选择Options | Adjust Elevations来调整所用位置的海拔。在提示当中,键入“0.1” 并点击OK。看到一个提示的屏幕。所有河流位置3110处的地面海拔要比3090位置 高0.1英尺。 Figure 2.2.3.3 Adjust Elevations prompt 图2.2.3.3 调整海拔提示 Note: The Options menu has numerous commands that allow you to adjust all stations on a cross section at the same time. Select Options to see the commands available. Now manually enter the rest of the data for Upper Reach using the Excel spreadsheet, upper_cross_section_data.xls. Remember to change the description and click Apply Data. Use the Plot option to check the cross sections and profiles. Also remember to select all of the cells that will be getting a value before you paste anything into HEC-RAS, otherwise not all of the data will be pasted. 注意:Options菜单中有大量的命令允许你同时调整一个横截面的所有位置。选择 Options来查看可得到的命令。现在使用upper cross section data.xls电子表格逐一为 较高流程键入剩下的数据。记住,要改变描述点击Apply Data .使用Plot 选项来检 查横截面和剖面。同样记住,在你粘贴任何内容到HEC-RAS之前,要选中所有将被 粘贴数据的单元,否则,数据不能完全被粘贴。 2.2.4 Defining Cross Section Data for Dry Tributary 为干涸支流定义横截面数据 Next we need to define the cross section data for Dry Tributary. Open the Excel

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spreadsheet, dry_tributary_cross_section_data.xls. Use the cross section data from the spreadsheet to create cross sections for Dry Tributary. 下一步,我们需要为干涸支流定义横截面数据。打开dry tributary cross section data.xls电子表格,用电子表格上的横截面数据为干涸支流创建横截面。 After entering in the cross section data for Dry Tributary, close the Cross Section Editor. The Geometric Data Editor should now look like Figure 2.2.4.1. 在为干涸支流键入横截面数据后,关闭横截面编辑器,现在的几何数据编辑器如图 2.2.4.1所示。 111 2-8 HEC-RAS Figure 2.2.4.1 Geometric Data Editor with complete river schematic defined. 图2.2.4.1 完整的河流图解被定义后的几何数据编辑器 Select File | Save Geometry Data to save the geometry data. Then close the Geometric Data editor. 选择File | Save Geometry Data 来保存这个几何数据。然后关闭几何数据编辑器。 2.3 Defining Discharge Data 定义流出数据 Next we define four subcritical flow conditions utilizing the data in Table 2.3.1, Table 2.3.2, and Table 2.3.3. 下一步,利用表格2.3.1,2.3.2和2.3.3中的数据来定义四个近乎危急的流动条件。 112 Modeling a River Network 2-9 模拟一个河流网络2-9 Table 2.3.1 Flow Conditions for Existing Conditions for River Station 3090 on Lower Reach 表格2.3.1 在较低流程的河流位置3090的现有流动条件 Table 2.3.2 Flow Conditions for Existing Conditions for River Station 8414 on Upper Reach 表格2.3.2 较高流程的河流位置8414的现有流动条件 Table 2.3.3 Flow Conditions for Existing Conditions for River Station 1678 on Dry Tributary 表格2.3.3 在干涸支流上的河流位置1678的现有流动条件 Close the windows until you get to the main HEC-RAS menu. Click Edit | Steady Flow Data (or use the fourth icon from the left) to open the Steady Flow Data editor as shown in Figure 2.3.1. Enter ―4‖ in the Enter/Edit Number of Profiles (2000max) field. Enter the discharges from the tables above for each river station and each profile. 关闭窗口直到到达HEC-RAS的主菜单。点击Edit | Steady Flow Data(或者使用左边 的第四个图标)来打开Steady Flow Data 编辑器,如图2.3.1所示。在Enter/Edit Number of Profiles(2000max)区域键入“4”。为每个河流位置和每个剖面键入上面
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表格的流出量。 Figure 2.3.1 Steady Flow Data Editor 图2.3.1 平稳流动数据编辑器 Click theReach BoundaryConditions button to bring up the Steady Flow Boundary dialog as shown in Figure 2.3.2. Make sure fields match Figure 2.3.2. When finished, click OK to close the Steady Flow Boundary dialog. 点击Reach Boundary Conditions按钮来提出Steady Flow Boundary对话框,如图 2.3.2所示。确保区域与图2.3.2匹配。完成时,点击OK来关闭Steady Flow Boundary 对话框。 Profile Flow Event, yr Flow (cfs) Energy Slope 1 10 year 1400 0.001177 2 50 year 2010 0.001177 3 100 year 2280 0.001177 4 500 year 2870 0.001177 Profile Flow Event, yr Flow (cfs) 1 10 year 1190 2 50 year 1710 3 100 year 1940 4 500 year 2440 Profile Flow Event, yr Flow (cfs) 1 10 year 210 2 50 year 300 3 100 year 340 4 500 year 430 113 2-10 HEC-RAS Figure 2.3.2 Steady Flow Boundary Conditions Dialog 图2.3.2 平稳流动边界条件对话框 Then, in the Steady Flow Data editor, choose File | Save Flow Data. Select File | Exit Flow Data Editor to close the Steady Flow Data editor. 然后, 在Steady Flow Data编辑器中, 选择File | Save Flow Data. 选择File | Exit Flow Data Editor 来关闭 Steady Flow Data 编辑器。. 2.4 Running the Analysis 进行分析 On the main HEC-RAS screen click Run | Steady Flow Analysis (or the sixth icon from the left with the running stick man). This will open the Steady Flow Analysis dialog as shown in Figure 2.4.1. 在HEC-RAS主屏幕上,点击Run | Steady Flow Analysis(或左边第六个带有??? 的图标)。这个操作将打开如图2.4.1所示的平稳流动分析对话框。 Figure 2.4.1 Steady Flow Analysis Dialog

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图2.4.1 平稳流动分析对话框 The plan should already be defined, so all you need to do is run the analysis. Click Compute at the bottom of the Steady Flow Analysis Dialog to run the analysis on the river. 这个计划应该已经被定义,所以你要做的就是执行分析。点击平稳流动分析对话框 底部的Compute按钮,来进行对河流的分析。 2.4.1 Examination of Output 输出量的检查 We want to look at the profile plot of the Upper Reach and Dry Tributary on the same plot. Return to the main HEC-RAS window and select View | Water Surface Profiles. HEC-RAS will then display a profile plot of the river. 我们想要看较高流程的剖面图和相同图的干涸支流。 回到HEC-RAS的主窗口并选择 View | Water Surface Profiles. HEC-RAS将展示河流的一个剖面图。 From the displayed profile plot, choose the Reaches button. Then, turn on the Upper Reach and Dry Tributary as shown in Figure 2.4.1. 从展示的剖面图中,选择Reaches按键,然后,打开较高流程和干涸支流,如图2.4.1 所示。 114 Modeling a River Network 2-11 模拟一个河流网络2-11 Figure 2.4.1.1 Profile plot 图2.4.1.1 剖面图 Check to see if the inverts of each reach look reasonable and there are no unjustified changes. Do the same for Lower Reach and Upper Reach. 检查一下看是否每个流程的仰拱看起来合理并且没有没被验证的改变。同样为较高 和较低流程检查。 We now want to see the profile table for all the reaches. Return to the main HEC-RAS window and select View | Profile Summary Table. Note that only information from Upper Reach is shown. To add the other reaches, select Options | Reaches. Doubleclick all the available reaches and then OK. 我们现在想要看所有流程的剖面表格。 返回到HEC-RAS主窗口, 并选择View |Profile Summary Table。值得注意的是,只有较高流程的信息被显示出来。要增加其他的 流程,选择Options | Reaches.双击所有可获得的流程然后点击OK。 115 116 Bridge and Culvert Modeling 桥梁和排水渠的模拟 Bridge Modeling Observations 桥梁模拟观察 _ HEC-RAS uses the actual bridge opening HEC-RAS使用实际的桥梁通路

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_ HEC-2 used a trapezoidal approximation HEC-2使用一个梯形的近似值 _ Defines each pier separately 分别定义每个桥墩 _ HEC-2 supported only 1 pier HEC-2仅支持一个桥墩 _ Flow can either be fully submerged, or operating as like a sluice gate 水流可以是完全淹没的,或像一个水闸门一样起作用 _ HEC-2 assumed fully submerged HEC-2被认为完全淹没 _ Uses the low chord geometry information to compute the bridge opening area 使用低弦的几何信息来计算桥的通道面积 _ No need to match existing ground stations or elevations (like HEC-2 required) 不需要与目前的地面位置和海拔匹配(像HEC-2所需要的) 117 Bridge Culvert Data Dialog 桥梁排水渠数据对话框 Declare the bridge or culvert structure by defining a river station between downstream and upstream face cross-sections 通过定义上下游横截面之间的河流位置来声明桥梁和排水渠的结构 Bridge Deck / Roadway Description Dialog 桥面/路面的描述对话框 _ Bridge/culvert embankment is defined by the roadway geometry 桥和排水渠的堤坝是由路面几何来定义的 _ Bridge opening is defined by the low chord geometry 桥的通道是由低弦几何定义的 118 Weir Description Parameters 堰坝描述参量 1234 Roadway Width 路面宽 Bridge Rail to Section Distance 桥的围杆到横截面的距离 Downstream Embankment Slope 下游堤坝坡面 Upstream Embankment Slope 上游堤坝坡面 Channel Bottom 河渠底部 Bridge Deck 桥面 Flow 流动 Bridge Pier Data Editor 桥墩数据编辑器 119 Pier Coefficients 桥墩系数 _ Pier Loss Coefficient 桥墩损失系数 _ Yarnell Equation ?0.90: Semicircular Nose and Tail 半圆形的前端和尾部 ?0.95: Twin-Cylinder Piers with Connecting Diaphragm 带有相连横隔板的两个相同圆柱形桥墩

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?1.05: Twin-Cylinder Piers without Connecting Diaphragm 没有相连横隔板的两个相同圆柱形桥墩 ?1.05: 90-Degree Triangular Nose and Tail 直角三角形的前端和尾部 ?1.25: Square Nose and Tail 正方形的前端和尾部 _ Pier Drag Coefficient 桥墩的牵引系数 _ Momentum Balance Equation 动力平衡等式 ?1.33: Circular Piers 圆形桥墩 ?2.00: Square Piers 正方形桥墩 Bridge Abutment Data Editor 桥拱座数据编辑器 120 Bridge & Culvert Cross Section Locations 桥和排水渠横截面位置 Culvert 排水渠 Declared Effective Flow Area 定义有效流动区域的排水渠 Flow 流动 1234 Ineffective Flow Area 无效流动区 Exit Cross Section 出口横截面 Approach Cross Section 通道横截面 Bridge or Upstream Face Cross Section 桥梁或上游横截面 Downstream Face Cross Section 下游横截面 Here Cross Section Downstream of Bridge/Culvert 桥梁或排水渠下游的横截面 _ Cross Section 1 横截面1 _ Also referred to as the ―Exit Cross Section‖ 同样作为“出口横截面”被提及 _ Distance determined by 4:1 expansion from the downstream face cross-section 由下游横截面按照4:1扩张来决定的距离 _ Expansion and contraction coefficients remain the same as regular channel 扩张和收缩系数与正常的河渠保持一致 121 Cross Sections at Bridge/Culvert 桥梁/排水渠的横截面 _ Cross Section 2 横截面2 _ Downstream face of bridge/culvert 桥梁/排水渠的下游面 _ Includes ineffective flow area definition 包含无效流动的定义 _ Expansion and contraction coefficients increased 扩张和收缩系数的增大 _ Bridge/Culvert Declaration Cross Section 桥梁/排水渠声明横截面 _ Declare river station ID between cross sections 2 and 3 在横截面2和3之间声明河流位置ID _ Includes roadway geometry 包含路面几何 _ Includes bridge low chord geometry, pier data, abutment data
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包括桥的低弦几何,桥墩数据,拱座数据 _ Cross Section 3 横截面3 _ Upstream face of bridge/culvert 桥梁/排水渠的上游面 _ Includes ineffective flow area definition 包括无效的流动区域定义 _ Expansion and contraction coefficients remain increased 扩张和收缩系数仍然增大 Cross Section Upstream of Bridge/Culvert 桥梁/排水渠上游横截面 _ Cross Section 4 横截面4 _ Also referred to as the ―Approach Cross Section‖ 同样作为“通道横截面“被提及 _ Distance determined by 1:1 contraction from upstream face cross-section 由上游横截面按照4:1收缩来决定的距离 _ Expansion and contraction coefficients remain increased, but are restored to standard channel values at next upstream cross-section 扩张和收缩系数仍然增大,但在下一个上游横截面处恢复到标准河渠值 122 Roadway Geometry 路面几何 Defining the Bridge Deck for Bridges with Solid Rails 为有坚固的围杆的桥定义桥面 Natural Ground Profile 自然地面剖面 Bridge Low Chord 桥梁下弦 Actual Top of Roadway 路面实际顶端 Ineffective Top of Roadway 路面无效顶端 Solid Bridge Railing 坚固的桥梁围杆 123 Defining the Bridge Deck for Bridges with Open Rails 为带有开放围杆的桥定义桥面 Natural Ground Profile 自然地面剖面 Actual Top of Roadway 实际路面顶端 Ineffective Top of Roadway 路面无效顶端 Open Bridge Railing 打开的桥梁围杆 Top of Curb 路边顶端 Bridge Low Chord 桥梁下弦 Roadway vs. Ground Geometry 路面比地面几何 124 Weir Flow Computations 堰坝流动计算 _ Weir Flow Equation 堰流动平衡 _ Weir Flow Coefficient 堰流动系数 _ 2.6: Typical bridge deck 典型桥面 _ 3.0: Elevated roadway approach embankments

提高路面通道的堤坝

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_ Can be computed by weighted averages 可由称重量的平均值计算 _ Submergence Correction 淹没校正 _ Trapezoidal Spillway: FHWA Method 梯形泄洪道:FHWA方法 _ Ogee Spillway: WES Method “S”形泄洪道:WES 方法 Culvert Data Editor 排水渠数据编辑器 125 Available Culvert Shapes 可得到的排水渠形状 _ Pipe Arch 管道拱形 _ Elliptical 椭圆的 _ Low Profile Arc 低的剖面拱形 _ Arch 拱形 _ Circular 圆形 _ Box 方形 _ High Profile Arch 高的剖面拱形 _ Semi-Circle 半圆形 _ Con/Span 反面/跨度 Conspan Culvert Shape 反面/跨度排水渠形状 _ Up to 14 ft high and 42 ft wide 共计14英尺高,42英尺宽 126 Entrance Loss Coefficient 入口损失系数 Culvert Modeling Observations 排水渠模拟观察 _ HEC-RAS supports box, circular, semi-circle, arch, pipe arch, vertical ellipse, and horizontal ellipse, and many other shapes HEC-RAS支持方形,圆形,半圆形,拱形,管道拱形,垂直椭圆形,水瓶椭圆形, 和许多其它的形状 _ Can mix culvert shapes, sizes, and all other parameters for each crossing 能综合每个交叉面的排水渠形状,尺寸,和其他所有的参数 _ Culverts can be at different elevations 排水渠可以在不同的海拔 _ User defined centerline station for each culvert opening 使用者为每个排水渠通道定义中心线位置。 127 Energy Losses Due to Bridges & Culverts 由桥梁和排水渠引起的能量损失 _ Contraction losses upstream of bridge 桥的上游收缩损失 _ Structure losses through bridge 通过桥的结构损失 _ Expansion losses downstream of bridge 桥的下游扩张损失 Bridge Approach 桥梁通道 Contraction Region 收缩地区

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Expansion Region 扩张地区 Effective Flow Area 有效流动区域 Flow 流动 1234 Ineffective Flow Area 无效流动区域 Exit Cross Section 出口横截面 Approach Cross Section 通道横截面 Expansion and Contraction Loss Coefficients 扩张和收缩损失系数 Contraction Loss Coefficients 收缩损失系数 No Transition Loss Computed 0.0 无转化损失计为0.0 Gradual Transition 0.1 缓慢转化0.1 Bridges (or Culverts with Wingwalls) 0.3 桥梁(或有护墙的排水渠)0.3 Abrupt Transitions (and most Culverts) 0.6 突然转化0.6 Expansion Loss Coefficients 扩张损失系数 No Transition Loss Computed 0.0 无转化损失计为0.0 Gradual Transition 0.3 缓慢转化0.3 Bridges (or Culverts with Wingwalls) 0.5 桥梁(或有护墙的排水渠)0.5 Abrupt Transitions (and most Culverts) 0.8 突然转化(和大部分的排水渠)0.8 Need to adjust to account for additional energy losses due to contraction and expansion of flow 需要调整来考虑由于流动收缩和扩张导致的额外的能量损失 128 Ineffective Flow at Bridges & Culverts 在桥梁和排水渠的无效流动 Bridge Approach 桥梁通道 Contraction Region 收缩地区 Expansion Region 扩张地区 Effective Flow Area 有效流动区域 Flow 流动 1234 Ineffective Flow Area 无效流动区域 Exit Cross Section 出口横截面 Approach Cross Section 通道横截面 Ineffective Flow Areas 无效流动区域 Natural Ground Profile 自然的地面剖面 Top of Roadway 路面顶端 Bridge Opening 桥梁通道 129 Methods of Defining Ineffective Flow Areas 定义无效流动区域的方法

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Overlaid 覆盖 Encroachments 侵蚀 Natural Ground Profile Natural Ground Profile Revised Ground Profile 修改的地面剖面

自然的地面剖面

Defining Ineffective Flow Stations Revising Ground Geometry Preferred Method Alternate Method Ineffective Flow Area Definition 定义无效流动位置,修改地面几何,倾向的方法,预备的方法,无效流动区域定义 (short-cut) Selecting the Bounding XS buttons will take you directly to the Ineffective Flow Area dialog box for the appropriate cross section 选择Bounding XS按键将直接把你带到适当横截面的无效流动区域对话框 130 Ineffective Flow Area Definition 无效流动区域定义 Normal (HEC-2 Style) Multiple Areas 正常的(HEC-2样式) 多重的区域 Normal Ineffective Flow Areas 正常的无效流动区域 Ineffective Flow Area 无效流动区域 Right Ineffective Flow Elevation 右无效流动海拔 Right Ineffective Flow Station 右无效流动位置 Left Ineffective Flow Elevation 左无效流动海拔 Left Ineffective Flow Station 左无效流动位置 131 Multiple Ineffective Flow Areas 多重的无效流动区域 _ Up to 20 multiple ineffective flow areas can be defined at a cross section 总计20个多重的无效流动区域可以在一个横截面上定义 _ Blocked areas can overlap each other 封锁的区域可以相互重叠 _ Usually used for sloping bridge decks 通常用于坡面的桥面 Elevation Station 海拔位置 1805 1800 1795 1790 1785 1780 0 500 1000 1500 Ineffective Flow Areas 无效流动区域 Defining Elevations for Ineffective Flow Areas 为无效流动区域定义海拔 Upstream Bridge Cross Section Downstream Bridge Cross Section 上游桥的横截面 下游桥的横截面 Define Level with Top of Roadway 用路面的顶端定义水平面 Define Midway between Top of Roadway & Low Chord
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在路面顶端和低弦间定义中途 132 Further Discussion 进一步讨论 Types of Bridge Flow Considered 考虑的桥梁流动类型 _ Low Flow 低流动 _ Pressure (Orifice) Flow 压力(孔)流动 _ Weir Flow 堰流动 _ Possible Combinations 可能的结合 _ Low flow and weir flow 低流动和堰流动 _ Pressure flow and weir flow 压力流动和堰流动 133 Low Flows 低流动 Bridge Deck 桥面 Normal Depth 正常深度 Critical Depth 圆形深度 Flow 流动 Pressure Flow 压力流动 Elevation View 海拔浏览 Section View 横截面浏览 Flow 流动 Top of Road 路的顶端 Bridge Deck Bridge Low Chord 桥面 桥低弦 Bridge Deck 桥面 Bridge Opening 桥通路 Water surface contacts entire low chord of bridge 134 Weir Flow 堰坝流动 Elevation View 海拔浏览 Section View 横截面浏览 Flow 流动 Top of Road 路面顶端 Bridge Deck Bridge Low Chord 桥面 桥低弦 Bridge Deck 桥面 Bridge Opening 桥通道 Water surface over top of road 路面顶端的水平面 Flow 流动 Combination Flow 汇合流动 Low flow in bridge opening 桥通道的低流动

水面接触桥整个的低弦

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Weir flow in overbank area 漫滩地区的堰坝流动 Bridge Low Chord 桥低弦 Top of Road 路面顶端 135 Bridge Methodology Dialog 桥梁方法对话框 WSPRO Parameters Dialog WSPRO参量对话框 136 Global Bridge Parameters 综合的桥梁参量 Momentum Equation 动力平衡 Critical Depth Location 临界深度位置 Pressure Flow Criteria 压力流动标准 Advanced Culvert Data 改进的排水渠数据 _ Define roughness on upper part of culvert 定义排水渠较高部分的崎岖 _ Define roughness on lower part of culvert 定义排水渠较低部分的崎岖 _ Define depth at which upper and lower roughness applies 定义较高和较低部分的崎岖起作用处的深度 _ Define a blockage of the culvert bottom 在排水渠的底部定义一个阻塞 _ Sedimentation of culvert 排水渠的沉淀 _ Blockage of culvert entrance due to river channel 由河渠造成的排水渠入口处阻塞 137 Bridge and Culvert Output 桥和排水渠的流出量 _ Cross Section Graphical Plots 横截面处绘画的图解 _ Profile Graphical Plots 剖面绘画图解 _ 3D Graphical Plots 3维绘画图解 _ Cross Section Output Tables 横截面输出量表格 _ Profile Output Tables 剖面输出量表格 _ Report Generator 报告发生器 Cross Section Graphical Plots 横截面绘画的图解 138 Profile Graphical Plots 剖面绘画的图解 3D Graphical Plot 3维绘画的图解 139 Cross Section Output Tables 横截面输出表格 Profile Output Tables 剖面输出表格 140 Report Generator

报告生成器

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141 142 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 1. Select ―Bridge/Culvert‖ 选择一个“桥梁/排水渠” 143 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 2. Bridge Culvert Data Editor is displayed 桥梁/排水渠数据编辑器已经显示 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 3. Select ―Add a Bridge and/or Culvert‖ 选择“添加桥梁/排水渠” 144 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 4. Specify the bridge cross-section location 详细说明桥的横截面位置 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 5. HEC-RAS displays bridge cross-sections HEC-RAS显示桥的横截面 145 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 6. Select ―Deck/Roadway‖ 选择“桥面/路面” Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 7. Define roadway and low chord geometry 定义路面和低弦几何 146 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 8. Select ―Copy Up to Down‖ 选择“从上到下复制” Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 9. Define roadway to upstream section distance 定义路面到上游横截面的距离 147 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 10. Define bridge width 定义桥的宽度 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 模拟一个HEC-RAS桥梁 11. Define weir coefficient 定义堰的系数 148 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 12. Define minimum weir flow elevation (optional) 定义最大的坝的流动海拔(随意的) Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 13. Resulting bridge cross-section 产生桥的横截面

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149 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 14. Select ―Pier‖ 选择“桥墩” Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 15. Define data for 1 pier 为桥墩1定义数据 150 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 16. Select ―Copy Up to Down‖ 选择“从上到下复制” Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 17. Resulting bridge opening 产生桥通道 151 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 18. Select ―Copy‖ to define next pier 选择“复制”来定义下一个桥墩 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 19. Revise pier centerline stationing 修改桥墩中心线位置 152 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 20. Resulting bridge opening 产生桥的通道 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 21. Select ―Bridge Modeling Approach‖ 选择“定义桥的方法” 153 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 22. Define Pier Coefficients 定义桥墩系数 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 23. Define road overflow conditions 定义路面被淹没的条件 154 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 24. Resulting plan view 产生设计图浏览 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 25. Select ―Cross Section‖ 选择“横截面” 155 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 26. Revise contraction & expansion coefficients 修改收缩和扩张系数 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 27. Select ―Ineffective Flow Areas‖ 选择“无效流动区域” 156 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 28. Define ineffective flow areas

定义无效流动区域

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Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 28. (continued) Define ineffective flow areas (接续的)定义无效流动区域 Bridge Approach 桥梁通道 Contraction Region 收缩地区 Expansion Region 扩张地区 Effective Flow Area 无效流动区域 Flow 流动 1234 Ineffective Flow Area 无效流动区域 Exit Cross Section 出口横截面 Approac Cross Sectionh 通道横截面 157 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 29. Perform the analysis 进行分析 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 30. Display cross-section plot 显示横截面图解 158 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 31. Display profile plot 显示剖面图解 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 32. Display 3D plot for 1,000 cfs discharge 为1,000立方英尺/秒的输出量显示3维图解 159 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 33. Display 3D plot for 10,000 cfs discharge 为10,000立方英尺/秒的输出量显示3D图解 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 34. Display 3D plot for 25,000 cfs discharge 为25,000立方英尺/秒的输出量显示3D图解 160 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 35. Display 3D plot for 50,000 cfs discharge 为50,000立方英尺/秒的输出量显示3D图解 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 36. Display 3D plot overlaying all discharges 显示覆盖所有输出量的3维图解 161 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 37. Bridge cross-section output table 桥的横截面输出表格

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Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 38. Bridge profile output table 桥的剖面输出表格 162 Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge 39. Develop a bridge output report Modeling a HEC-RAS Bridge And, that’s it! 这就是我们想要的 163 164

产生一个桥的输出报告

SNETLESSON3 SNET 第三课 Modeling Bridges 模拟桥梁 Along the lower reach of Badger Mill Creek is the Bruce Street bridge. This bridge is thought to be inadequately designed to handle flooding flows. To complicate the hydraulic analysis of this bridge, the roadway deck is sloping upward, left to right, when looking at it in a downstream direction. This lesson shows how to model this bridge for various flow conditions. 沿着Badge Mill Creek 的较低流程就是布鲁斯大街桥。这座桥在处理洪水流动方面 被认为设计的不够合理。为了使这座桥的液压分析复杂化,当向下游方向看时,桥 面是向上倾斜的,从左向右。这一课讲展示如何为各种流动条件模拟这座桥。 3.1 Model Data 模拟数据 For this lesson we provide you with data on the HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM. By default, the lessons are installed to ―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖ subdirectory. You can find the required files to complete this lesson in the subdirectory, "SNET\Lesson 3\initial." In this subdirectory you will find the following files: 这一课中我们在HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM上为你提供了数据。默认情况下,本课 内容被配置在―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖子目录中,你可以在这个子目录中找到相关文 件"SNET\Lesson 3\initial."来完成本课,在子目录中你将找到下列文件: ? CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS - Excel spreadsheet that holds the cross section data for the Lower Reach of Badger Mill Creek. 为Badger Mill Creek的较低流程保存横截面数据的电子表格 ? SNET03.PRJ - HEC-RAS project file for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS工程文件 ? SNET03.F01 - HEC-RAS initial flow data for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS初始流动数据 ? SNET03.G01 - HEC-RAS initial geometry data for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS初始几何数据 ? SNET03.P01 - HEC-RAS initial plan data for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS初始计划数据 ? VERONA.TFW -World coordinate file that holds coordinate system information for Verona.tif. This file is not required. 为Verona.tif保存坐标系统信息的大量坐标文件,这个文件不是必须的 ? VERONA.TIF - This TIFF image will be used to help us create the river reach in this

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lesson. This file is not required. 这个TIFF外形将用来帮助我们在本课中创造河流流 程。这个文件不是必需的 3.2 Setting Up the Project 建立方案 After starting up HEC-RAS, select File | Open Project. Select the project labeled "Lesson 3:Bridge Modeling" from the "\HEC-RAS Training\SNET\Lesson 3\initial" subdirectory. Thiswill open the project for this lesson which will activate the following files: ? Plan: Plan 1:10, 50, 100, 500 year 计划1:10,50,100,500年 ? Geometry: Base Geometry 基本几何 ? Flow: 10 yr, 50 yr, 100 yr, 500 yr 流动:10,50,100,500年 建立HEC-RAS后,选择File | Open Project .从“HEC-RAS Training \SNET\Lesson 2\initial‖中选择标有“Lesson 3:Badger Mill Creek‖ 的工程。这个操作将打开产生下 列文件的工程: 3.3 Defining a Bridge 定义一座桥 First, look at the existing geometry and see where the Bruce Street roadway crossing is located on Badger Mill Creek. Select Edit | Geometric Data to display the Geometric Data Editor. Zoom in so you can see all of the red and green dots on the image as shown in Figure 3.3.1. 首先, 看现存的几何并观察布鲁斯大街路面的交叉口在Badger Mill Creek上的什么位 置。选择Edit | Geometric Data来显示几何数据编辑器。放大它,以便你能看见所有 的红色和绿色的点,如图3.3.1所示。 165 3-2 HEC-RAS Figure 3.3.1 Geometric Data Editor - Existing Geometry 图3.3.1 几何数据编辑器 – 现存几何图形 From Figure 3.3.1 we can see that the Bruce Street crosses Badger Mill Creek between cross sections 1747 and 2354. We will use cross section 1747 as the exit cross section for the Bruce Street Bridge, and cross section 2354 will be the approach cross section. We will need to add cross sections at the downstream face and upstream face of the bridge. These cross sections coincide with the two red dots on either side of the Bruce Street Bridge as shown in Figure 3.3.1. 从图3.3.1中我们可以看到, 布鲁斯大街与Badger Mill Creek交叉在横截面1747和横截 面2354之间。我们将把横截面1747作为布鲁斯大街桥的出口横截面,把横截面2354 作为通道横截面。我们还需要在桥的上游和下游面之间添加横截面。这些横截面与 布鲁斯大街桥两边的红色点保持一致,如图3.3.1所示。 From the Geometric Data Editor, click on the Cross Section button to open the Cross Section Data Editor. In the Cross Section Data Editor, you will notice the four cross sections previously defined from Lesson 1. For this lesson, we will add two more cross sections (1968 and 2082) at the Bruce Street Bridge and modify the reach lengths for river station 2354 to account for the two new cross sections that are to be added

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downstream of cross section 2354. 从几何数据编辑器中,点击Cross Section按键来打开横截面数据编辑器。在这里, 你将注意到四个在第一课中已经事先定义的横截面。这一课中,我们将在布鲁斯大 街桥上添加两个横截面(1968和2082)并且为河流位置2354修改流程长度来解决将 被添加到横截面2354下游的两个新的横截面。 3.3.1 Defining the Bridge Cross Sections 定义桥的横截面 Now we need to define the additional cross section data for Lower Reach. Open the Excel spreadsheet, cross_section_data.xls. Review the data in the spreadsheet with the data in HEC-RAS. 现在我们需要为较低流程定义额外的横截面数据。打开电子表格 cross_section_data.xls,浏览带有HEC-RAS 中数据的电子表格。 You will notice that there are two additional cross sections in the Excel spreadsheet than are defined in HEC-RAS. River Station 1968 will be the cross section just downstream of the bridge. River Station 2082 will be the cross section just upstream of the bridge. 你将会发现,在电子表格中的横截面比HEC-RAS中定义的横截面多两个。1968位置 将是桥的下游横截面位置。2082位置将是桥的上游横截面位置。 166 Modeling Bridges 3-3 You will also notice that the reach lengths for river station 2354 have changed to account for the two additional cross sections between river station 2354 and river station 1747. 你同样会注意到河流位置2354的流程长度变化了以解决河流位置2354和1747之间增 加的两个横截面。 Also notice that the contraction and expansion coefficients are different at river stations 1968, 2082, and 2354. This is to account for the additional losses due to contraction and expansion of the flow through the bridge structure. 同样会注意到收缩和扩张系数在河流1968,2082和2354位置是不同的。这是为了解 决流动经过桥的结构时所引起的额外的损失。 Use the data from the Excel spreadsheet to define the new cross sections, as you did in Lesson 1. Make sure to change the following: 使用电子表格上的数据来定义新的横截面,如在第一课中所做的,确信更改下列内 容: ? Change the reach lengths for river station 2354 to account for the two additional cross sections that have been inserted downstream of it. 改变河流位置2354的流程长度来解决被插入下游的两个额外的横截面 ? Change the contraction and expansion coefficients at river stations 1968, 2082, and 2354. 改变河流位置1968,2082,和2354的收缩和扩张系数

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After you have completed entering in this new data, select Exit | Exit Cross Section Editor. 完成键入新的数据后,选择Exit | Exit Cross Section Editor. 3.3.2 Declaring the Bridge Structure 声明桥梁结构 Now that the cross sections just downstream and upstream of the Bruce Street Bridge have all been created, we can define the bridge and roadway data. 既然布鲁斯大街桥的上下游横截面都已经定义,我们可以定义桥和路面的数据了。 In the Geometric Data Editor, click the button labeled Brdg/Culv to display the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, as shown in Figure 3.3.2.1. 在几何数据编辑器中,点击标有Brdg/Culv的按钮来显示桥排水渠数据编辑器,如 图3.3.2.1所示。 Figure 3.3.2.1 Bridge Culvert Data Editor 图3.3.2.1 桥排水渠数据编辑器 167 3-4 HEC-RAS In the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, select Options | Add a Bridge and/or Culvert to define the bridge location to be added. As shown in Figure 3.3.2.2, enter ―2000‖ for the River Station for the Bruce Street Bridge and select OK. 在桥排水渠数据编辑器中, 选择Options | Add a Bridge and/or Culvert来定义将被添 加的桥的位置。如图3.3.2.2所示,河流位置键入“2000”,然后选择OK。 Figure 3.3.2.2 River station for the Bruce Street Bridge 图3.3.2.2 布鲁斯大街桥的位置 3.3.3 Defining the Roadway and Bridge Low Chord 定义路面和桥的下弦 In the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, click on the Deck/Roadway button. This will display the Deck/Roadway Data Editor, as shown in Figure 3.3.3.1. 在桥梁排水渠数据编辑器中,点击Deck/Roadway按钮,桥面/路面数据编辑器将显 示出来,如图3.3.3.1所示。 Figure 3.3.3.1 Deck/Roadway Data Editor 图3.3.3.1 桥面/路面数据编辑器 Note that the roadway deck and low chord geometry at the Bruce Street Bridge is sloping upward, going left to right. This will complicate the entering of roadway, low chord, and pier stationing and elevations. So, to simplify entering of this data, we adjusted the cross section geometry stationing so that the bridge opening and channel invert were centered at station 1500 for cross sections 1968 and 2082. 注意: 在布鲁斯大街桥的路面和低弦几何是从左到右向上倾斜的。 这将使键入路面, 低弦,桥墩位置和海拔的数据变得复杂,因此,为了简化它,我们调整横截面几何

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位置以便桥的通道和河渠仰拱在横截面1968和2082的中央位置1500。 Enter the data for the roadway geometry and the low chord geometry for both the upstream face and downstream face of the bridge. Note that this data is contained in the provided spreadsheet cross_section_data.xls. 分别为桥的上下游面键入路面几何和低弦几何数据。这些数据已经在电子表格 cross_section_data.xls中提供。 When you have completed entering this data, the Deck/Roadway Data Editor should look like Figure 3.3.3.2. Select OK. 完成键入数据后,桥面/路面数据编辑器将显示如图3.3.3.2。选择OK。 168 Modeling Bridges 3-5 Figure 3.3.3.2 Completed data for the Deck/Roadway Data Editor 图3.3.3.2 桥面/路面数据编辑器的完成数据 After entering this data, the bridge opening should look like the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, as shown in Figure 3.3.3.3. 键入数据后,桥通道将如桥梁排水渠数据编辑器所显示,如图3.3.3.3所示。 Figure 3.3.3.3 Entered roadway geometry and bridge opening 图3.3.3.3 键入了路面几何和桥通道 3.3.4 Defining the Bridge Piers 定义桥墩 For the Bruce Street Bridge, there are two piers, with a 15-foot center span and 10-foot spans on the outside of the piers. 布鲁斯大街桥有两个桥墩,带有一个15英尺的中央墩距和桥墩外部10英尺的墩距。 169 3-6 HEC-RAS To define the pier data, click on the Pier button from within the Bridge Culvert Data Editor. HEC-RAS will then display the Pier Data Editor, as shown in Figure Figure 3.3.4.1. 要想定义桥墩数据,从桥排水渠数据编辑器中点击Pier按钮。HEC-RAS将为你展示 桥墩数据编辑器,如图3.3.4.1所示。 Figure 3.3.4.1 Pier Data Editor 图3.3.4.1 桥墩数据编辑器 Define the two bridge piers. Try to do this without looking at the completed values provided in Figure 3.3.4.3 and Figure 3.3.4.4. For this bridge: 定义这两个桥墩,试着不参考图3.3.4.3和3.3.4.4中提供的已完成的数值。 1. The two piers centered at stations 1492.5 and 1507.5 (15-foot center span,

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centered at station 1500). 这两个桥墩在1492.5和1507.5位置的中央(15英尺的中央墩距在位置1500处) 2. Piers are 1-foot in diameter. 桥墩的直径为1英尺 3. Piers are square nosed and tailed. 桥墩的前端和尾部是正方形的 4. Remember to extend ends of piers slightly below the bottom of the ground and above the low chord of the bridge. Otherwise, there can be a small gap between the pier and the ground geometry and/or low chord. 记得在地面底部的下方和桥的下弦的上方稍微延长桥墩末端,否则,在桥墩和地 面几何或桥墩和下弦间会有小的缝隙。 To define the appropriate pier coefficients, click on the Bridge Modeling Approach button from the Bridge Culvert Data Editor. HEC-RAS will then display the Bridge Modeling Approach Editor, as shown in Figure 3.3.4.2. 为了定义适当的桥墩系数,从桥排水渠数据编辑器中点击Bridge Modeling Approach按钮。HEC-RAS将显示桥梁模拟方式编辑器,如图3.3.4.2所示。 1. For low flow conditions, use the Energy, Momentum, and Yarnell flow classes and have HEC-RAS select the highest energy as the final answer. 对于低流动条件来说,使用能量,动力,Yarnell流动种类,并使HEC-RAS选择最 高能量作为最终的答案。 2. Ignore the WSPRO check box. 忽略WSPRO 检查箱

3. Select a pier drag coefficient by clicking on the ―?‖ button for a listing of appropriate values to use. 通过点击“?”按钮来为一系列将要使用的适当数值选择一个桥墩的拖拉系数。 4. Select a pier shape coefficient by clicking on the ―?‖ button for a listing of appropriate values to use. 通过点击“?”按钮来为一系列将要使用的适当数值选择一个桥墩的形状系数。 5. It has been determined that when the bridge and/or approach roads are overtopped, the flow can be simulated as combined pressure and/or weir flow. 我们已经确定,当桥或通道被淹没,流动可以被模拟为结合压力或坝流动。 6. Use the defaults for all other inputs. 所有其他的输入量采取默认值 170 Modeling Bridges 3-7 Figure 3.3.4.2 Bridge Modeling Approach Editor 图3.3.4.2 桥梁模拟方法编辑器 After defining the pier data, the pier data should look like the Pier Data Editor shown in Figure 3.3.4.3 and the pier coefficients should look like Figure 3.3.4.4.
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定义了桥墩数据后,桥墩数据应类似于图3.3.4.3所示的桥墩数据编辑器那样,桥墩 系数应类似于图3.3.4.4。 Figure 3.3.4.3 Entered pier geometry 图3.3.4.3 键入桥墩几何 Figure 3.3.4.4 Entered pier coefficients 图3.3.4.4 键入桥墩系数 171 3-8 HEC-RAS 3.3.5 Defining Ineffective Flow Areas 定义无效流动区域 For the defined bridge downstream face and upstream face cross sections, the area just left of and right of the bridge opening is ineffective flow area, that is the water is ponding and not considered effectively carrying flow. HEC-RAS has to be told that this area should be considered ineffective. 对于定义的桥下游和上游的横截面,桥通道的正左边或右边就是无效流动区域,那 里的水形成水池但不被认为会有效地带动水流。 HEC-RAS需要被告知这个区域为无 效的。 Care must be exercised in defining the ineffective flow areas, since the Bruce Street Bridge has a sloping bridge deck and roadway and you do not want to block out any area that is considered available for flow. Generally, you can place the ineffective flow stations 5 feet to the outside of the bridge opening stations. For the downstream face cross section, the elevation of the ineffective flow area is generally a couple of feet below the roadway, since some of the area below the roadway crest downstream of the bridge is considered effective at carrying flow. For the upstream face cross section, the elevation of the ineffective flow area is generally equal to that of the roadway crest, since none of the area below the roadway crest upstream of the bridge is considered effective at carrying flow. 在定义无效流动区域时必须仔细,因为布鲁斯大街桥有一个倾斜的桥面和路面,而 且你不想要阻塞任何被认为可以流动的区域。通常情况下,你可以把无效流动区域 放在距离桥通道外面5英尺处。 对于下游横截面, 无效流动区域的海拔通常是路面下 2英尺, 因为在桥下游的路面顶部以下的部分区域被认为可以带动流动。 对于上游横 截面,无效流动区域的海拔通常等于路面顶部,因为桥上游的路面顶部没有任何区 域被看成是有效带动流动的。 From the Bridge Culvert Data editor, select the 2082 button next to Bounding XS’s. This will display the Cross Section Data editor with cross section 2082 displayed. It will also bring up the Ineffective Flow Area dialog for cross section 2082 as shown in Figure 3.3.5.1. Define the station and elevation of the left and right ineffective flow areas. Repeat this process at cross section 1968. Try to do this without looking at the completed values provided in Figure 3.3.5.2 and Figure 3.3.5.3. 从Bridge Culvert Data编辑器中,选择Bounding XS’s附近的2082按钮。此操作将显 示Cross Section Data编辑器和横截面2082。它也同样会为横截面2082带来 Ineffective Flow Area对话框,如图3.3.2.1所示。定义左右的无效流动区域的位置和

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海拔。 在横截面1968处重复可个步骤。 试着在不参考图3.3.5.2和3.3.5.3中所提供的数 据的情况下操作。 Figure 3.3.5.1 Display Ineffective Flow Area dialog from Bridge Culvert Data editor 图3.3.5.1 从桥排水渠数据编辑器中显示无效流动区域 172 Modeling Bridges 3-9 Figure 3.3.5.2 and Figure 3.3.5.3 show the ineffective flow area station and elevation values used for the Bruce Street Bridge. 图3.3.5.2和3.3.5.3显示了应用于布鲁斯大街桥的无效流动的位置和海拔 Figure 3.3.5.2 Ineffective Flow Area for downstream face cross section 1968 图3.3.5.2 下游横截面1968的无效流动区域 Figure 3.3.5.3 Ineffective Flow Area for upstream face cross section 2082 图3.3.5.3 上游横截面2082的无效流动区域 Figure 3.3.5.4 shows the defined ineffective flow areas at the upstream face and downstream face cross sections. 图3.3.5.4显示了所定义的上游和下游面的横截面的无效流动区域 Figure 3.3.5.4 Defined ineffective flow areas as shown on the Bridge Culvert Editor 图3.3.5.4 在桥排水渠编辑器上显示的已定义的无效流动区 173 3-10 HEC-RAS 3.3.6 Saving Geometry 保存几何数据 From the Geometric Data Editor, select File | Save Geometry Data As. HEC-RAS will display the Save Geometry Data As dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.3.6.1. Enter the title as ―Bridge Geometry.‖ This will allow us later to compare the original river model not containing the bridge structure with the river model containing the bridge structure. In fact, this can be used for comparing different alternative bridge plans. 从几何数据编辑器中, 选择File | Save Geometry Data As. HEC-RAS将作为对话框显 示保存几何数据,如图3.3.6.1所示。键入题目“Bridge Geometry.‖ 这将允许我们稍 后比较不包含桥梁结构的河流模型和包含桥梁结构的河流模型。事实上,这可应用 于比较可变化的桥梁计划。 Figure 3.3.6.1 The Save Geometry Data As dialog box allows us to save different alternative bridge structures for later comparison 图3.3.6.1 保存几何数据对话框允许我们保存不同的可变桥梁结构以便比较 3.4 Running the Analysis 进行分析 On the main HEC-RAS screen click Run | Steady Flow Analysis (or the sixth icon from the left with the running stick man). This will open the Steady Flow Analysis
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dialog as shown in Figure 3.4.1. 在HEC-RAS主屏幕上点击Run | Steady Flow Analysis(或左边第六个图标)。此时 将打开平稳流动分析对话框,如图3.4.1所示。 Figure 3.4.1 Steady Flow Analysis Dialog 图3.4.1 平稳流动分析对话框 The plan should already be defined, so all you need to do is run the analysis. Click Compute at the bottom of the Steady Flow Analysis Dialog to run the analysis on the river. 这个计划应该已经被定义了,因此你需要做的就是进行分析。点击平稳流动对话框 底部的Compute按钮来对河流进行分析。 3.4.1 Examination of Output 检查输出量 We want to look at the profile plot of the Bruce Street Bridge. Return to the main HEC-RAS window and select View |Water Surface Profiles. HEC-RAS will then display a profile plot of the river as shown in Figure 3.4.1.1. 我们想要看布鲁斯大街桥的剖面图解。返回到HEC-RAS主窗口,选择View |Water Surface Profiles. HEC-RAS将展示河流的一个剖面,如图3.4.1.1所示。 174 Modeling Bridges 3-11 Figure 3.4.1.1 Displayed profile plot 图3.4.1.1 显示剖面图解 As shown in Figure 3.4.1.1, from the displayed profile plot choose the Profiles button. We want to look at how the Bruce Street Bridge performs under the 500-year flood. Turn on just the 500-year. You should see that the Bruce Street Bridge is severely flooded, as shown in Figure 3.4.1.2. In reviewing the other flood profiles, we can see that the Bruce Street Bridge can only handle the 10-year flood, and is overtopped for the 50-year and larger floods. 如图3.4.1.1所示,从显示的剖面图解中选择剖面按钮。我们想要观察在500年洪水情 况下布鲁斯大街桥是如何表现的。打开500年,你应该看到此桥被严重地冲刷,如 3.4.2.1所示。在观看其他洪水剖面时,我们能看到此桥仅能处理10年洪水,并且被 50年洪水和更大的洪水所淹没。 Figure 3.4.1.2 Profile plot showing the severe overtopping for the 500-year flood 图3.4.2.1 显示被500年洪水严重淹没的剖面图解 175 176 SNETEXAMPLE4 SENT 第四课 Modeling Culverts 模拟排水渠 Along the upper reach of Badger Mill Creek is the Main Street culvert. This culvert is

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thought to be adequately designed to handle flooding flows. This lesson shows how to model this culvert for various flow conditions. 沿着Badger Mill Creek的较高流程就是主街道排水渠。 这个排水渠被看成是正确的设 计以处理洪水流动。 4.1 Model Data 模拟数据 For this lesson we provide you with data on the HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM. By default, the lessons are installed to ―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖ subdirectory. You can find the required files to complete this lesson in the subdirectory, "SNET\Lesson 4\initial." In this subdirectory you will find the following files: 这一课中我们在HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM上为你提供了数据。默认情况下,本课 内容被配置在―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖子目录中,你可以在这个子目录中找到相关文 件"SNET\Lesson 4\initial."来完成本课,在子目录中你将找到下列文件: ? CROSS_SECTION_DATA.XLS - Excel spreadsheet that holds the cross section data for the Lower Reach of Badger Mill Creek. 保存Badger Mill Creek的较低流程的横截面数据的电子表格 ? SNET04.PRJ - HEC-RAS project file for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS工程文件 ? SNET04.F01 - HEC-RAS initial flow data for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS初始流动数据 ? SNET04.G01 - HEC-RAS initial geometry data for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS初始几何数据 ? SNET04.P01 - HEC-RAS initial plan data for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS初始计划数据 ? VERONA.TFW -World coordinate file that holds coordinate system information for Verona.tif. This file is not required. 为Verona.tif保存坐标系统信息的大量坐标文件,这个文件不是必须的 ? VERONA.TIF - This TIFF image will be used to help us create the river reach in this lesson. This file is not required. 这个TIFF外形将用来帮助我们在本课中创造河流流程。这个文件不是必需的 4.2 Setting Up the Project 建立方案 After starting up HEC-RAS, select File | Open Project. Select the project labeled "Lesson 4: Badger Mill Creek" from the "\HEC-RAS Training\SNET\Lesson 4\initial" subdirectory. This will open the project for this lesson which will activate the following files: 建立HEC-RAS后,选择File | Open Project .从“HEC-RAS Training \SNET\Lesson 4\initial‖中选择标有“Lesson 4:Badger Mill Creek‖ 的工程。这个操作将打开产生下 列文件的工程: ? Plan: Plan 1:10, 50, 100, and 500 year 计划1:10,50,100,500年 ? Geometry: Base Geometry 基本几何 ? Flow: 10 yr, 50 yr, 100 yr, 500 yr 10,50,100,500年 4.3 Defining a Culvert 定义一个排水渠

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First, look at the existing geometry and see where the Main Street roadway crossing is located that we want to model. Select Edit | Geometric Data to display the Geometric Data Editor.Zoom in so you can see all of the red and green dots on the image as shown in Figure 4.3.1. 首先,看现存的几何并观察我们想要模拟的主大街路面的交叉口在什么位置。选择 Edit | Geometric Data来显示几何数据编辑器。放大它,以便你能看见所有的红色和 绿色的点,如图4.3.1所示。 177 4-2 HEC-RAS Figure 4.3.1 Geometric Data Editor - Existing Geometry 图4.3.1 几何数据编辑器 – 现存几何 From Figure 4.3.1 we can see that the Main Street crosses Badger Mill Creek between cross sections 3703 and 4895. We will use cross section 3703 as the exit cross section for the Main Street culvert crossing, and cross section 4895 will be the approach cross section. 从图4.3.1中我们可以看到,主大街与Badger Mill Creek交叉在横截面3703和横截面 4895之间。我们将把横截面3703作为主大街排水渠的现存横截面,把横截面4895作 为通道横截面。 We will need to add cross sections at the downstream face and upstream face of the culvert. These cross sections coincide with the two red dots on either side of the Main Street crossing as shown in Figure 4.3.1. 我们还需要在排水渠的上游和下游面之间添加横截面。这些横截面与主大街交叉口 两边的红色点保持一致,如图4.3.1所示。 From the Geometric Data Editor, click on the Cross Section button to open the Cross Section Data Editor. In the Cross Section Data Editor, you will notice the eight cross sections previously defined fromLesson 2. For this lesson, we will add twomore cross sections (4158 and 4333) at the Main Street culvert crossing and modify the reach lengths for river station 4895 to account for the two new cross sections that are to be added downstream of cross section 4895. 从几何数据编辑器中,点击Cross Section按键来打开横截面数据编辑器。在这里, 你将注意到8个在第2课中已经事先定义的横截面。这一课中,我们将在主大街排水 渠交叉口上添加两个横截面(4158和4333)并且为河流位置4895修改流程长度来解 决将被添加到横截面4895下游的两个新的横截面。 4.3.1 Defining the Culvert Cross Sections 定义排水渠横截面 Now we need to define the additional cross section data for Upper Reach. Open the Excel spreadsheet, cross_section_data.xls. Review the data in the spreadsheet with the data in HEC-RAS. 现在我们需要为较高流程定义额外的横截面数据。打开电子表格 cross_section_data.xls,浏览带有HEC-RAS 中数据的电子表格。

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You will notice that there are two additional cross sections in the Excel spreadsheet than are defined in HEC-RAS. River Station 4158 will be the cross section just downstream of the culvert. River Station 4333 will be the cross section just upstream of the culvert. 你将会发现,在电子表格中的横截面比HEC-RAS中定义的横截面多两个。4158位置 将是排水渠的下游横截面位置。4333位置将是排水渠的上游横截面位置。 178 Modeling Culverts 4-3 You will also notice that the reach lengths for River Station 4895 have changed to account for the two additional cross sections between River Station 4895 and River Station 3703. 你同样会注意到河流位置4895的流程长度变化了以解决河流位置4895和3703之间增 加的两个横截面。 Also notice that the contraction and expansion coefficients are different at River Station 3703. This is to account for the additional losses due to contraction and expansion of the flow through the culvert structure. 同样会注意到收缩和扩张系数在河流3703位置是不同的。这是为了解决流动经过排 水渠的结构时所引起的额外的损失。 Use the data from the Excel spreadsheet to define the new cross sections, as you did in Lesson 1. 使用电子表格上的数据来定义新的横截面,如在第一课中所做的: Change the reach lengths for River Station 4895 to account for the two additional cross sections that have been inserted downstream of it. 改变河流位置4895的流程长度来解决被插入下游的两个额外的横截面 Change the contraction and expansion coefficients at River Station 3703. 改变河流位置3703的收缩和扩张系数 After you have completed entering in this new data, select Exit | Exit Cross Section Editor. 完成键入新的数据后,选择Exit | Exit Cross Section Editor. 4.3.2 Declaring the Culvert Structure 声明排水渠结构 Now that the cross sections just downstream and upstream of the Main Street Culvert have all been created, we can define the culvert and roadway data. 既然主大街排水渠的上下游横截面都已经定义,我们可以定义排水渠和路面的数据 了。 In the Geometric Data Editor, click the button labeled Brdg/Culv to display the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, as shown in Figure 4.3.2.1.

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在几何数据编辑器中,点击标有Brdg/Culv的按钮来显示桥排水渠数据编辑器,如 图4.3.2.1所示。 Figure 4.3.2.1 Bridge Culvert Data Editor 图4.3.2.1 桥梁排水渠数据编辑器 179 4-4 HEC-RAS In the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, select Options | Add a Bridge and/or Culvert to define the culvert location to be added. As shown in Figure 4.3.2.2, enter ―4250‖ for the River Station for the Main Street Culvert and select OK. 在桥排水渠数据编辑器中, 选择Options | Add a Bridge and/or Culvert来定义将被添 加的排水渠的位置。如图4.3.2.2所示,主大街排水渠河流位置键入“4250”,然后 选择OK。 Figure 4.3.2.2 River station for the Main Street Culvert 图4.3.2.2 主大街排水渠河流位置 4.3.3 Defining the Roadway 定义路面 In the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, click on the Deck/Roadway button. This will display the Deck/Roadway Data Editor, as shown in Figure 4.3.3.1. 在桥梁排水渠数据编辑器中,点击Deck/Roadway按钮,桥面/路面数据编辑器将显 示出来,如图4.3.3.1所示。 Figure 4.3.3.1 Deck/Roadway Data Editor 图4.3.3.1 桥面/路面数据编辑器 Note that the roadway deck at the Main Street culvert crossing is level. However, to simplify entering of culvert centerline station data, we adjusted the cross section geometry stationing so that the culvert opening and channel invert were centered at station 1500 for cross sections 4158 and 4333. 注意:在主大街排水渠交叉口的路面是水平的。然而,为了简化排水渠中心线数据 的输入,我们调整横截面几何位置以便排水渠通道和河渠仰拱位于横截面4158和 4333的中央,即1500位置。 Enter the data for the roadway geometry for both the upstream face and downstream face of the culvert crossing. The top of roadway elevation is 956.8. Note that you need to define the roadway elevation at the starting and ending ground stationing. Note that this data is contained in the provided spreadsheet cross_section_data.xls. 分别为排水渠交叉口的上下游面键入路面几何数据。 路面顶端的海拔为956.8。 注意: 你需要在地面的起始和终止位置定义路面海拔。这些数据已经包含在提供的电子表 格 cross_section_data.xls中。 When you have completed entering this data, the Deck/Roadway Data Editor should look like Figure 4.3.3.2. Select OK.

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完成键入数据后,桥面/路面数据编辑器应该如图4.3.3.2那样,然后点击OK。 180 Modeling Culverts 4-5 Figure 4.3.3.2 Completed data for the Deck/Roadway Data Editor 图4.3.3.2 完成为桥面/路面数据编辑器键入数据 After entering this data, the culvert crossing should look like the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, as shown in Figure 4.3.3.3. 键入数据后,排水渠交叉口将如图4.3.3.3所示的桥梁排水渠数据编辑器那样。 Figure 4.3.3.3 Entered roadway geometry 图4.3.3.3 键入路面几何 The road is not flat.We can model the road this way only if the maximum water surface elevation is not higher than the road way, or else we would need to define the real road geometry. 路面不是平坦的。我们可以这样来模拟路面,即使是水平面海拔的最大值也不高于 路面,否则我们需要定义实际的路面几何。 181 4-6 HEC-RAS 4.3.4 Defining the Culvert Opening 定义排水渠通道 To define the culvert data, click on the Culvert button from within the Bridge Culvert Data editor to display the Culvert Data Editor, as shown in Figure 4.3.4.1. 定义排水渠数据,点击Bridge Culvert Data编辑器上的Culvert按键,来显示Culvert Data Editor,如图4.3.4.1所示。 Figure 4.3.4.1 Culvert Data Editor 图4.3.4.1 排水渠数据编辑器 For the Main Street culvert crossing, there are three concrete box culverts, with a 10foot span and 10.5-foot rise. The culvert wingwalls are simply extended straight out from the culvert opening. The culvert is 84-feet long. 对于主大街排水渠渡口,有三个水泥的箱形涵洞,跨度为10英尺,隆起10.5英尺。 排水渠的护墙直接从排水通道延伸出去。排水渠长84英尺。 The culverts are centered around ground station 1500 at cross sections 4158 and 4333. The upstream invert elevation is 936.5 and the downstream invert elevation is 936.2. Use the data above to define the three culvert openings. Select an entrance loss coefficient by clicking on the ―?‖ button for a listing of appropriate values to use. After defining the culvert data, the culvert data should look like the Culvert Data Editor shown in Figure 4.3.4.2. 排水渠的中心环绕在1500位置, 位于横截面4158和4333之间。 上游仰拱海拔为936.5, 下游仰拱海拔为936.2。用上述数据来定义三个排水渠通道。通过点击“?”来为一

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系列将使用的数值选择入口损失系数。排水渠的系数应该如图4.3.4.2所示的排水渠 数据编辑器。 Figure 4.3.4.2 Entered culvert data 图4.3.4.2 键入排水渠数据 182 Modeling Culverts 4-7 4.3.5 Defining Ineffective Flow Areas 定义无效流动区域 For the defined culvert downstream face and upstream face cross sections, the area just left of and right of the culvert opening is ineffective flow area, that is the water is ponding and not considered effectively carrying flow. HEC-RAS has to be told that this area should be considered ineffective. 对于定义的排水渠下游和上游的横截面,排水渠通道的正左边或右边就是无效流动 区域,那里的水形成水池但不被认为会有效地带动水流。HEC-RAS需要被告知这个 区域为无效的。 Care must be exercised in defining the ineffective flow areas. Generally, you can place the ineffective flow stations 5 feet to the outside of the culvert opening. For the downstream face cross section, the elevation of the ineffective flow area is generally a couple of feet below the roadway, since some of the area below the roadway crest downstream of the culvert is considered effective at carrying flow. For the upstream face cross section, the elevation of the ineffective flow area is generally equal to that of the roadway crest, since none of the area below the roadway crest upstream of the culvert is considered effective at carrying flow. 在定义无效流动区域时必须仔细,通常情况下,你可以把无效流动区域放在距离排 水渠通道外面5英尺处。 对于下游横截面, 无效流动区域的海拔通常是路面下2英尺, 因为在桥下游的路面顶部以下的部分区域被认为可以带动流动。对于上游横截面, 无效流动区域的海拔通常等于路面顶部,因为排水渠上游的路面顶部没有任何区域 被看成是有效带动流动的。 From the Bridge Culvert Data editor, select the 4333 button next to Bounding XS’s. This wll display the Cross SectionData editorwith cross section 4333 displayed. It will also display the Ineffective Flow Area dialog for cross section 4333 as shown in Figure 4.3.5.1. Define the station and elevation of the left and right ineffective flow areas. Repeat this process at cross section 4158. Try to do this without looking at the completed values provided in Figure 4.3.5.2 and Figure 4.3.5.3. 从Bridge Culvert Data编辑器中,选择Bounding XS’s附近的4333按钮。此操作将显 示Cross Section Data编辑器和横截面4333。它也同样会为横截面4333带来 Ineffective Flow Area对话框,如图4.3.5.1所示。定义左右的无效流动区域的位置和 海拔。 在横截面4158处重复可个步骤。 试着在不参考图4.3.5.2和4.3.5.3中所提供的数 据的情况下操作。 Figure 4.3.5.1 Display Ineffective Flow Area dialog from Bridge Culvert Data editor.

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图4.3.5.1

从桥梁排水渠数据编辑器中显示无效流动区域对话框

Figure 4.3.5.2 and Figure 4.3.5.3 show the ineffective flow area station and elevation values used for the Main Street Culvert. 图4.3.5.2和4.3.5.3显示了用于主大街排水渠的无效流动位置和海拔数值。 183 4-8 HEC-RAS Figure 4.3.5.2 Ineffective Flow Area for downstream face cross section 4158 图4.3.5.2 下游横截面4158的无效流动区域 Figure 4.3.5.3 Ineffective Flow Area for upstream face cross section 4333 图4.3.5.3 上游横截面4333的无效流动区域 Figure 4.3.5.4 shows the defined ineffective flow areas at the upstream face and downstream face cross sections. 图4.3.5.4 显示了定义的上下游横截面的无效流动区域 Figure 4.3.5.4 Defined ineffective flow areas as shown on the Bridge Culvert Editor 图4.3.5.4 在桥梁排水渠编辑器上显示的无效流动区域 184 Modeling Culverts 4-9 4.3.6 Saving Geometry 保存几何数据 From the Geometric Data Editor, select File | Save Geometry Data As. HEC-RAS will display the Save Geometry Data As dialog box, as shown in Figure 4.3.6.1. Enter the title as ―Culvert Geometry.‖ This will allow us later to compare the original river model not containing the culvert structure with the river model containing the culvert structure. In fact, this can be used for comparing different alternative culvert plans. 从几何数据编辑器中, 选择File | Save Geometry Data As. HEC-RAS将作为对话框显 示保存几何数据,如图4.3.6.1所示。键入题目“Culvert Geometry.‖ 这将允许我们稍 后比较不包含排水渠结构的河流模型和包含排水渠结构的河流模型。事实上,这可 应用于比较可变化的排水渠计划。 Figure 4.3.6.1 The Save Geometry Data As dialog box allows us to save different alternative culvert designs for later comparison 图3.3.6.1 保存几何数据对话框允许我们保存不同的可变排水渠结构以便比较 4.4 Running the Analysis 进行分析 On the main HEC-RAS screen click Run | Steady Flow Analysis (or the sixth icon from the left with the running stick man). This will open the Steady Flow Analysis dialog as shown in Figure 4.4.1. 在HEC-RAS主屏幕上点击Run | Steady Flow Analysis(或左边第六个图标)。此时 将打开平稳流动分析对话框,如图4.4.1所示。

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Figure 4.4.1 Steady Flow Analysis Dialog 图4.4.1 平稳流动分析对话框 The plan should already be defined, so all you need to do is run the analysis. Click Compute at the bottom of the Steady Flow Analysis Dialog to run the analysis on the river. 这个计划应该已经被定义了,因此你需要做的就是进行分析。点击平稳流动对话框 底部的Compute按钮来对河流进行分析。 4.4.1 Examination of Output 检查输出量 We want to look at the profile plot of the Main Street Culvert. Return to the main HEC-RAS window and select View |Water Surface Profiles. HEC-RAS will then display a profile plot of the river as shown in Figure 4.4.1.1. 我们想要看主大街排水渠的剖面图解。返回到HEC-RAS主窗口,选择View |Water Surface Profiles. HEC-RAS将展示河流的一个剖面,如图4.4.1.1所示。 185 4-10 HEC-RAS Figure 4.4.1.1 Displayed profile plot 图4.4.1.1 显示剖面图解 As shown in Figure 4.4.1.1, from the displayed profile plot choose the Profiles button. We want to look at how the Main Street Culvert performs under the 500-year flood. Turn on just the 500-year. You should see that the Main Street Culvert handles this flood with ease, as shown in Figure 4.4.1.2. 如图4.4.1.1所示,从显示的剖面图解中选择剖面按钮。我们想要观察在500年洪水情 况下布鲁斯大街桥是如何表现的。 打开500年, 你应该看到主大街桥轻松地处理这场 洪水,如图4.4.1.2所示。 Figure 4.4.1.2 Profile plot showing the 500-year flood is handled with ease 图4.4.2.1 显示500年的洪水被轻松处理的剖面图解 186 Advanced Bridge and Culvert Modeling Topics 高级的桥梁和排水渠模拟的主题 Comparison Between HEC-2 & HEC-RAS Bridges and Culverts HEC-2和HEC-RAS桥梁和排水渠的比较 _ HEC-2 Normal Bridge vs. HEC-RAS Bridge _ HEC-2 Special Bridge vs. HEC-RAS Bridge _ HEC-2 Culvert vs. HEC-RAS Culvert 187 HEC-2 Special Bridge Methodology HEC-2 _ Uses a trapezoidal approximation

HEC-2独特的桥梁方法 使用梯形的近似值

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_ Uses a single pier 使用单独的桥墩 _ When flowing under pressure flow conditions, assumes fully submerged opening 当流动处于压力流动条件时,假设完全淹没通道 _ Ignores the bridge low chord geometry 忽视桥梁的下弦几何 _ Need to match existing GR stations and elevations when defining roadway geometry 当定义路面几何时,需要与现存的GR位置和海拔向匹配。 HEC-RAS _ Uses the actual bridge opening 使用实际的桥通道 _ Define each pier separately 分别定义每个桥墩 _ Flow can either be fully submerged, or operating as like a sluice gate 流动既可以被完全淹没,也可以像一个水闸门一样操纵 。 _ Uses the low chord geometry information to compute the bridge opening area 使用低弦几何信息来计算桥的通道面积。 _ No need to match existing ground stations or elevations 不需要与现存的地面位置和海拔匹配 HEC-2 Normal Bridge Methodology HEC-2正常的桥梁方法 HEC-2 _ Pier information entered as part of the bridge low chord data 键入的桥墩信息作为桥下弦的一部分 _ Need to match existing GR stations and elevations when defining low chord and roadway geometry 当定义下弦和路面几何时需要与现存的GR位置和海拔匹配 _ Requires 6 cross sections to define bridge structure 需要6个横截面来定义桥梁结构 HEC-RAS _ Define each pier separately from any other data 从其他的数据分别定义每个桥墩 _ No need to match existing ground stations or elevations 不需要与现存的地面位置和海拔相匹配。 _ Uses 4 cross sections to define bridge structure 用4个横截面来定义桥梁结构 188 Culvert Hydraulic Computations 排水渠液压计算 HEC-2 _ Supports only box and circular culvert shapes 仅支持方形和圆形排水渠形状 _ Limited to the same size and shape barrels when more than one culvert defined at a crossing 当在一个渡口定义多个排水渠时,受限于相同的尺寸和大小的管状物。 _ Required same invert elevation for multiple culverts at a crossing 一个渡口的多重排水渠需要相同的仰拱海拔 _ Assumes that the culvert is centered between the bank stations 假设排水渠位于河岸位置的中央。

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HEC-RAS _ Supports box, circular, semicircle, arch, pipe arch, vertical ellipse, and horizontal ellipse 支持方形,圆形,半圆形,弓形,圆拱形,垂直椭圆和水平椭圆 _ Can mix culvert shapes, sizes, and all other parameters for each crossing 对于每个渡口可以综合排水渠的形状,尺寸和所有其他的参量 _ Culverts can be at different elevations 排水渠可以是不同的海拔 _ User defined centerline station for each culvert opening 使用者为每个排水渠通道定义中心线位置 Advanced Topics 先进的主题 _ Multiple bridge and culvert openings 多重桥梁和排水渠通道 _ Bridges with railings 有围杆的桥梁 _ Perched bridges 滞水桥 _ Low water bridges 低水桥 _ Skewed bridges 斜桥(与河堤斜交) _ Eccentric bridges 偏执桥 _ Parallel bridges 平行桥 _ Dams and weirs 堤和堰 _ Bridge Scour 桥冲刷 189 Multiple Openings 多重通道 Multiple Openings HEC-RAS will assist in determining the flow area stagnation points between bridge openings and bridge culvert openings, but not for conveyance areas HEC-RAS将帮助决定在桥通道的桥排水渠通道间的流动区域滞留点, 但不是流通区 域。 190 Multiple Openings 多重通道 Stagnation Points 滞留点 _ Each group assigned stagnation points 每组被赋予滞留点 _ Stagnation points for conveyances are fixed, others may float 流动区域的滞留点是固定的,其他的可以浮动 _ Openings are described from left to right 通道被从左向右描述 Multiple Opening Types 多重的通道类型 _ Three types of openings 三种类型的通道 _ Bridges 桥梁 _ Culverts 排水渠

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_ Conveyances 流动 _ May have multiple bridge openings 可能有多重桥梁通道 _ Adjacent culverts may be considered as a single group 相邻的排水渠可以被看作一个单独的组 _ May have multiple culvert groups 可能有多重的排水渠组 191 Multiple Opening Dialog 多重通道对话框 Perched Bridge 滞水桥 192 Perched Bridge 滞水桥 Top of Roadway 路面顶端 Bridge Low Chord 桥低弦 Natural Ground Profile 自然地面剖面 Perched Bridge Deck 滞水桥面 Analysis of Perched Bridge 分析滞水桥 _ Consider especially when: 尤其考虑以下情况: _ Large proportion of flow is in overbanks 流动的大面积在漫滩中 _ Roadway approach section is not elevated 路面通道面没有提高 _ Weir flow submergence is high (> 70%) 坝流动淹没高(大于%70) _ Note: Minimum top-of-road elevation may be below maximum low chord elevation 注意:路面顶端最小值可能低于下弦海拔最大值 193 Skewed Bridge 斜桥 Flow Bridge 流动桥 Channel Bank Bridge 河渠岸边桥 Skew 歪斜的 Analysis of Skewed Bridge 分析斜桥 _ Adjust for skew only if skew angle is more than 18 degrees and less than 30 degrees 仅在倾斜角大于18度,小于30度的时候调整倾斜度 _ Note that bridge opening values are not adjusted automatically for skew angle 注意:桥通道数值不是自动地为倾斜角调整 194 Eccentric Bridge Opening 偏执桥通道 Moderately Eccentric Bridge 中等偏执桥 Severely Eccentric Bridg e严重偏执桥 4 1 4

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1 1 1 1 1 Inactive Flow Area 消极流动区域 Approach 通道 Section ? Exit Section ? Flow BCDEA 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 Flow Approach Sections 流动通道部分 Exit Sections 出口部分 Inactive Flow Area 消极流动区域 BCDEA Parallel Bridges 平行桥 Effective Top of Roadway 路面的有效顶端 Actual Top of Roadway 路面的实际顶端 Bridge 桥 Flow 流动 Plan View 平面图浏览 Elevation View Bridge Opening 海拔浏览 桥梁通道 195 Analysis of Parallel Bridges 分析平行桥 _ Option 1: Adjustment of single bridge loss 选择1:调整单个桥梁损失 _ Head Loss = 1.3 to 1.55 times single bridge 压头损失= 单个桥损失的1.3到1.55倍 _ Option 2: Two bridge models 选择2 :两个桥梁模型 _ Choose method according to standard criteria 根据标准选择方法 _ Restrict effective area between bridges

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限制桥之间的有效区域 _ Expansion zone of upstream bridge will intersect contraction zone of downstream bridge 桥上游扩张区域将横断桥下游收缩区域 Analysis of Dams (Spillways) and Other Weirs 分析坝(泄洪坝)和其他的堰坝 196 Inline Weirs and Gated Spillways using HEC-RAS 使用HEC-RAS内嵌堰和选通泄洪道 _ Weir and/or a series of gated spillways directly inline with main river system 堰或一系列选通泄洪道直接内嵌主河流系统 _ Multiple identical gates may be entered 可能键入多重的相似的门 _ Gate editor (similar to culvert editor) 门的编辑器(与排水渠编辑器相似) _ Weir editor (similar to roadway editor) 堰编辑器(与路面编辑器相似) _ Radial and vertical lift gates 光线状的和垂直的提升门 _ Ogee, broad, or sharp crests for weirs and gates 堰和门的S形,宽阔的或尖的顶部 _ Gated openings may be controlled for each profile 选通通道可能由每个剖面控制 Computing Bridge Scour 计算桥的冲刷 197 Bridge Scour Computations 桥冲刷计算 _ Same procedures as Federal Highway Administration Publication HEC-18 与“联合高速公路管理出版物HEC-18的程序相同” _ Sponsored by Federal Highway Administration 由“联合高速公路管理”主办 _ First example of hydraulic design component of HEC-RAS HEC-RAS的首例液压设计组成元件 Bridge Scour 桥冲刷 198 Bridge Scour Bridge Scour 199 Bridge Scour Types of Bridge Scour 桥冲刷类型 _ Contraction Scour 收缩冲刷 _ Live Bed Equation 活动河床平衡 _ Clear Water Equation 清水平衡 _ Pier Scour 桥墩冲刷 _ CSU Equation CSU平衡 _ Froehlich Equation

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_ Abutment Scour 桥台冲刷 _ HIRE Equation HIRE 平衡 _ Froehlich Equation 200 Define Flow Distribution Sub-Areas 定义流动分配区域 Define Contraction Scour Data 定义收缩冲刷数据 201 Compute Shear Velocity 计算纯速率 Define Pier Scour Data 定义桥墩冲刷数据 202 Define Abutment Scour Data 定义桥台冲刷数据 Bridge Scour Graphical Results 桥梁冲刷的绘图结果 203 Bridge Scour Output Results 桥梁冲刷输出量结果 204 SNETLESSON5 SENT 第五课 Modeling Multiple Openings 定义多重通道 This lesson will illustrate how to develop conveyance, bridge and culvert openings at the same roadway crossing, and how to make comparisons between different designs. 这一课将阐述如何在相同的路面交叉口处完善流通,桥梁,和排水渠通道,如何比 较不同的设计。 5.1 Introduction 简介 The bridge as shown in Figure 5.1.1 causes too much of a backwater effect, according to the reviewing agency. The client has asked us to consider adding two ―relief‖ culverts under the right approach roadway. 如图5.1.1所示的桥梁,据核准机构提供信息,此桥引起了很严重的滞水现象。客户 让我们考虑在右边路面通道增加两个“救助”排水渠。 Figure 5.1.1 Existing bridge structure 图5.1.1 现存的桥的结构 Also, after looking at the profiles of the existing bridge, we have decided that the approach on the left side of the bridge opening should be modeled as conveyance flow instead of weir flow. 同样,在看过现存的桥的剖面后,我们决定桥通道左边的通道应该被模拟成流通流 动,而不是堰流动。 5.2 Model Data 模拟数据

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For this lesson we provide you with data on the HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM. By default, the lessons are installed to ―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖ subdirectory. You can find the required files to complete this lesson in the subdirectory, "SNET\Lesson 6\initial." In this subdirectory you will find the following files: 这一课中我们在HEC-RAS Training CD-ROM上为你提供了数据。默认情况下,本课 内容被配置在―C:\HEC-RAS Training‖子目录中,你可以在这个子目录中找到相关文 件"SNET\Lesson 4\initial."来完成本课,在子目录中你将找到下列文件: ? SNET05.PRJ - HEC-RAS project file for this lesson. 本课的HEC-RAS工程文件 ? SNET05.F01 - HEC-RAS initial flow data for this lesson. 本课中HEC-RAS的初始流动数据 205 5-2 HEC-RAS ? SNET05.G01 - HEC-RAS initial geometry data for this lesson. 本课中HEC-RAS初始几何数据 ? SNET05.P01 - HEC-RAS initial plan data for this lesson. 本课中HEC-RAS初始计划数据 5.3 Setting Up the Project 建立方案 After starting up HEC-RAS, select File | Open Project. Select the project labeled "Lesson 5: Multiple Openings" from the "\HEC-RAS Training\SNET\Lesson 5\initial" subdirectory. This will open the project for this lesson which will activate the following files: 建立HEC-RAS后,选择File | Open Project .从“HEC-RAS Training \SNET\Lesson 4\initial‖中选择标有“Lesson 5:Multiple Openings‖ 的工程。这个操作将打开产生下 列文件的工程: ? Plan: Plan 2: Bridge 计划2:桥梁 ? Geometry: Bridge Geometry 桥梁几何 ? Flow: 3 Flow Profiles Bridge 流动剖面桥 5.4 Entering the Culvert Data 键入排水渠数据 Select Edit | Geometric Data to display the Geometric Data Editor. Click the Bridge/ Culvert button. HEC-RAS will display the Bridge Culvert Data Editor, as shown in Figure 5.4.1. 选择Edit | Geometric Data来显示几何数据编辑器。点击Bridge/ Culvert按键。 HEC-RAS将展示桥排水渠数据编辑器,如图5.4.1所示。 Figure 5.4.1 Bridge Culvert Data Editor 图5.4.1 桥排水渠数据编辑器 5.4.1 Entering Culvert Group 1 键入第一组排水渠 Click the Culvert button and enter the following data for culvert group 1. If you want, you can change the names of the culvert group from the default by clicking the

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Rename button on the upper right. 点击Culvert按键并为第一组排水渠键入如下数据。如果你想要为排水渠组改名称, 你可以在默认情况下点击右上方的Rename按键来完成。 206 Modeling Multiple Openings 5-3 模拟多重通道5-3 ? One concrete box culvert, 6 feet high and 20 feet wide 一个水泥箱形涵洞,高6英尺,宽20英尺 ? Wingwall flared 45 degrees, entrance is square-edge at crown 翼墙外倾45度,入口顶部呈方形 ? Length = 40 feet 长度为40英尺 ? Concrete is to be formed by smooth wood and unfinished 水泥将由光滑的木材形成并未完成 ? Use exit loss = 1.0 使用出口损失为1.0 ? Upstream invert is at 521 feet and centered at 760 上游仰拱在521英尺处,中央位于760英尺处 ? Downstream invert is at 520.9 and centered also at 760 下游仰拱在520.9英尺处,中央仍位于760处 After the data is entered, click OK. This will return you to the Bridge Geometry Screen. Click Apply Data and check the bridge plot to see if the culvert was entered properly as shown in Figure 5.4.1.1 and Figure 5.4.1.2. 数据被键入后,点击OK。这将使你返回到桥梁几何屏幕。点击Apply Data并检查桥 的图解看排水渠是否如图5.4.1.1和5.4.1.2那样被正确的键入。 Figure 5.4.1.1 Culvert Group 1 added 图5.4.1.1 第一组排水渠被添加 207 5-4 HEC-RAS Figure 5.4.1.2 Culvert Group 1 defined 图5.4.1.2 第一组排水渠被定义 5.4.2 Entering Culvert Group 2 键入第二组排水渠 Click the Culvert button again, then click the Add button at the top of the screen. Enter the following data for culvert group 2.

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再次点击Culvert按键,然后点击屏幕顶端的Add按钮。为第二组排水渠键入下列数 据 ? One corrugated metal arch, fully paved - 3 foot rise and 20 foot span 一个有加强筋的金属拱,完全铺设-拱起3英尺,跨度20英尺 ? Length = 40 feet 长度为40英尺 ?

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