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高二英语选修8 u1 a land of diversity Grammar


英语· 选修8 (人教版)

第四学时

Grammar

Related Conception(相关概念)
1.名词:表示人或事物的名称的词叫做名词。
2. 名词在句中一般可以作什么成分:

The boy is Li Ming.

主语 主语
<

br />表语 同位语 宾语

Mr. Liang, a 24-year-old boy, teaches us maths. 名词在句中主要作主语、宾语、表语、同位语。

主语从句 Subject Clause

名词性从句 Noun Clause

表语从句 Predicative Clause 宾语从句 Object Clause 同位语从句 Appositive Clause

引导名词性从句的连接词
可分为三类:

1. 从属连词:that(无词义), whether, if, as if不充当从 句的任何成分。 2. 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which不仅起到连接一个句子的作用,同时 也是从句的一个组成部分。 3. 连接副词:when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however本身有词义且在句中充当成分

语 法 精 讲

一、主语从句

1. 概念:在复合句中起主语作用的从句叫主语从句。 主语从句包含两类,__________ 形式主语 和__________ 真正主语 。 (1) that引导主语从句时只起连接作用,没有意义,但不 能省略。 eg: 很显然, 这个司机控制不了他的车。(obvious) It was obvious that the driver could not control his (形式主语) car. That the driver could not control his car was obvious. (真正主语)

用it作形式主语的结构 ① It is+名词+从句 It is a fact that … 事实是…… It is a pity that... 遗憾的是...... It is an honor that ……非常荣幸 It is a shame that... ......真是可耻 It is common knowledge that…是常识

用it作形式主语的结构 ② It is+形容词+从句 (多用should) It is natural that … 很自然…… It is obvious that... 显然...... It is unlikely that... ......不可能 It is strange that … 奇怪的是……

③ It is+不及物动词+从句

It seems that … It happened that … It appears that … It turns out that...

似乎…… 碰巧…… 似乎…… 结果是......

④ It is+过去分词+从句

It is reported that … 据报道…… It has been proved that … 已证实… It is said that … 据说…… It is believed that... 人们认为......

It is a pity that ____________________she has made such a mistake. 她犯这样的错误是令人遗憾的事。 It's strange that ___________________he didn't come yesterday. 他昨天没来是很奇怪的。 It is reported that ___________________the number of wild animals in Africa is decreasing. 据报道非洲野生动物的数量正在减少。 It is said that ___________________there was a terrible plane crash this morning. 据说今天早上有一起可怕的飞机坠毁事故。

语 法 精 讲

(2) if 不能用在句首引导主语从句,这时用 whether; 与or not 搭配表“是否”时,只能 用whether _________。 eg: 他是否离开了还未知。 Whether he left (or not) is unknown. _______________________

注:如果用it 做形式主语,而把主语从句放
在句末时,也可以用if 引导。 It was doubtful if Mary really heard him.

(3)关系代词who, what, which, whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever等,引导主语从句时, 它们分别在从句中担任主语、宾语或定语,不能省略。 Whoever leaves the room last ought to turn off the ①__________ lights. 走得最晚的应当关灯。 ②__________we do must be in the interests of the people. Whatever 我们所做的一定要从人们的利益出发。 ③__________ he said at the meeting astonished everybody What present. 他在会议上的发言使所有入会者吃惊。 ④__________ made the long distance call is not important. Who 谁打的长途电话并不重要。

whoever / whatever 的功用 whoever, whatever 在主语从句中不含疑问意义。 它引导主语从句, 并在从句中作主语、宾语、表语等。 whoever = anyone who whatever = anything that Whoever breaks the law should be punished. (=Anyone who breaks the law should be punished. )

(4) 连接副词有when, where, why, how, whenever, wherever, however,等引导主语从句时,它们在从句 中担任状语,不能省略。此类主语从句可以转换为 以it作形式主语的句子。

Why __________ he didn't come here is not clear to anyone. 他为什么没来谁也不清楚。 How __________ a telephone works is a question which not everyone can answer. 电话是怎样工作的,这个问题并不是每个人都能回\ 答。 Where she has gone is not known yet. __________ 她去了哪儿,还不知道。 When __________ they will start has not been decided yet. 他们何时动身还未定下来。

语 法 精 讲

(5)当主语是一个从句时,谓语动词一般用 第三人称单数 。 ______________ eg: 我们所需要的是更多时间与钱。 What we need is more time and money.

练一练!

1. ________ makes mistakes must correct them. A. What B. That C. Whoever D. Whatever 2. It worried her a bit _________ her hair was turning grey. A. while B. that C. if D. for 3.When and why he came here _________ yet. A. is not known B. are not known C. has not known D. have not known

4. ____ you don’t like him is none of my business. A. What B. Who

C. That

D. Whether

5. _____________was to return to school.

A. That really interested him
B. What really interested him C. Which really interested him D. That interest him really

语 法 精 讲

二、表语从句

1. 概念:在复合句中充当句子表语的从句叫做表语 从句。 2. 结构:主语+系动词(be, seem, look...)+that从句 连接词 eg: The trouble is that we are short of money. Go and get your coat. It’s where you left it.

引导表语从句的词有: 连词 that,whether,as if (好像,仿佛); 连接代词 who,whose,what,which; 连接副词 when, where, how,why等。

Her wish is _____ that she could lose weight soon. 她的愿望是能够马上减肥。 why the brothers wanted to make That is _____ a bet. 那就是兄弟俩为什么想打赌的原因。 where his grandparents once lived. That is _______ 那就是他祖父母曾经住过的地方。 when My strongest memory is _______ I attended an American wedding. 记忆最深刻的是我参加美国婚礼的时候。

语 法 精 3.讲 引导表语从句的连接词:

(1) 除了上述三类连接词外还有because,as if / as though等。请注意下列句型: ①The reason (why/for which...) is that... eg:他考试不及格的理由是他又懒又粗心。 The reason why he failed in the exam is that he was so lazy and careless.

② It / This/ That is because... It is because you don't know how much I love you.

语 法 精 讲

(2) 连系动词appear,look,seem的两个常用句型: ①It seems / appears that... ②It looks / seems as if /as though...(与事实相符用 陈述语气,与事实相反用虚拟语气) It seems as though he knew nothing about the truth. __________________________________ 他看上去仿佛对真相一无所知。

语 法 精 讲

(3) as 也可以引导表语从句。 Things are not always as they seem to be.

(4) 主句的主语是名词idea, advice, suggestion, order, request, requirement时, 表语从句应用虚拟语气。即: (should) + v. e.g. My suggestion is that we should have a discussion about this matter instead of just setting it aside.

1. The question is ________ we will have our sports meet next week. A.that B. if C. when D. whether 引导表语从句只能用whether而不用if。
2. _______your father wants to know is ________ getting on with your studies. A. What; how are you B. That;how you are C. How;that you are D. What;how you are 表语从句一定要用陈述语序。

3.The problem is _________to take the place of Ted. A. who can we get C. who we can get B. what we can get D. that we can get

4. The reason why he hasn’t come is ________. A.because his mother is ill B. because of his mother’s being ill C. that his mother is ill

D. for his mother is ill

1. 概念:在复合句中充当句子宾语的从句叫做宾 语从句。 2. 句子结构: 主句+ 连接词(引导词) + 宾语从句 3. 连接词: 从属连词that, whether, if 连接代词who, whom, whose, which, what 连接副词where, how, why, when

that Jack told me ____________he had been there twice.
杰克告诉我他去过那里两次。

if / whether Tom asked me ______________I was a student.
汤姆问我是不是学生。

Do you know ______________they who (whom) are waiting for?
你知道他们在等谁吗?

He didn't say_________________________. when we would meet again 他 没 说 我 们 什 么 时 候 再 见面。

what the teacher said Pay attention to______________________. 注意听老师说的话。
what we did yesterday He is pleased with_____________________. 他对我们昨天所做的一切感到很满意。

4. 连词(引导词)的使用:

① 当宾语从句是陈述句时(包括肯定句和否定句), 连
词由that引导, 因为that 在从句中不作任何成分, 也没

有任何具体意思, 因此在口语或非正式文体中常省略。
② 当宾语从句是一般疑问句时, 由连词whether或if 引导 , 因为if / whether翻译成“是否”, 具有一定的 意 义, 所以不能省略。

连词(引导词)的使用: ③当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时, 由特殊疑问词充当连 接词, 因为该特殊疑问词(即连接词)在从句中担任一 定的句子成分, 具有一定的意义, 所以不可以省略。 ④ 宾语从句应使用陈述句的语序。

5. 宾语从句要注意的情况
(1) that 在宾语从句中可以省略。当谓语动词 后出现多个宾语从句并列时,往往只有第一个 that可以省略。 I forget (that) my research paper was due on Tuesday and that my teacher had said that he would not accept late papers. 我忘了星期二要交论文,我的老师说他不接受 迟交的论文。

(2)如果主句的谓语是过去时,宾语从句的时态应按“时 态呼应”规则调整成过去范畴的相应时态;若宾语从句 表示的是客观真理或普遍现象,从句仍可保持“现在” 范畴时态,不可“呼应”调整。 He said that he _____________________________. would fly to Egypt the next day 他说他第二天将飞往埃及。 She remembered that she __________________________________. had left her umbrella in the library 她记起她把伞忘在图书馆了。 The teacher told us that ______________________________________________ light travels faster than sound does. 老师告诉我们光速比声速快。

(3)动词doubt 用在疑问句或否定句时,其后宾 语从句常用that作连接词;用在肯定句时,连 接词用whether或if皆可,而不用that。
that he will get there in time? Do you doubt__________________

你怀疑他是否准时到达?

that your answer is wrong I don’t doubt ______________________.

我很肯定你的答案是错的。
if / whether I can do it He doubts _____________________.

他怀疑我能否应付得了。

(4) 在接复合宾语的句子中, 为了保持句子平衡, 用it作

形式宾语, 将从句放于句尾(即:主语+谓语+it +宾
补+that从句), 常接复合宾语的动词有: make, find,

see, hear, feel, think ...

e.g. I think it necessary...

I find it interesting...
I make it a rule...

宾补 真正的宾语 She made it clear that it was not her fault. 她清楚表明那不是她的错。 I feel it possible that that you you will will finish finish the the work work in inaaday. day. 我觉得你在一天之内完成这项工作是可能的。 She made it a rule that she got up early every morning. morning. 她把每天早起定为规矩。

(5) whether 和if 都有“是否” 的意思,一般 情况下两者可以换用,但在下列情况中只能用 whether: ①在介词后;②与 or not 连用。 ③连接词后直接加不定式,不能用 if 只能用 whether。

而从句是否定句时一般用 if。

if He doesn't care _________ it isn't a fine day. 他 不 在 意 是 否 是 个 好 天气。 whether Everything depends on ___________we have enough time. 一切都取决于我们是否有足够的时间。 whether to stay or not. He doesn’t know ____________
他不知道是否该留下来。

语 法 精 注意区分 讲 it

作形式主语的主语从句与强调句的区别 强调句句型“It is/was+被强调部分+that”,去掉“It is/was...that”,句子仍然成立。 It is natural that they should have different views. (主语从句) It is only lately that he has had a family himself. (强调句) It was in the hotel where he stayed that we discussed the serious problem. (强调句)

语 法 精 讲

注意it 作形式主语的主语从句和as引导的非限 制性定语从句的不同: It is known to all that the earth is round.
(主语从句)

As is known to all, the earth is round.
(非限制性定语从句)

一、用合适的连接词填空 1.The newcomer went to the library the other day whatever and searched for__________he could find about ∧ 宾语 Mark Twain. 状从 where 2. You should make it a rule to leave things ________ 状语 you can find them often. 宾从

that 3. You are saying ________everyone should be equal, and this is__________what I disagree .
4. I like it in the autumn ________ when the weather is clear 状语 and bright.
宾语



5.The boss wanted an assistant ________ who is knowledgeable in French with work experience.
6.—This house looks beautiful, doesn't it? which —Well, I’d rather have a house, ________is beautiful to look, but more comfortable to live in.


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