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高考英语语法专题复习讲义-虚拟语气


语法复习专题(10)虚拟语气

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一、考点聚焦

1、虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中 (1)表示与现在事实相反的假设,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“过 去式(be 动词的 过去式用 were) ” ,而主句中的谓语动词用“would / should/ could / might + 动词原形” 。如: If I were

a boy, I would join the army. If the had time, she should go with you. (2)表示与过去的事实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用过去完成时 ,主句中的谓 语动词则用“would / should / might / could + have +过去分词” 。如: If he had taken my advice, he would have succeeded in the competition. (3) 表示与将来事实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词一般过去时或 should(were to) + 动词原形,而主句中的谓语动词则用 would / should/ could might + 动词原形。如; If it were to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off. (4)当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形 式要根据它所表示的时间作相应调整。如: If they had worked hard, they would be very tired.(从句说的是过去,主句指的是现在) 以下表格是虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中时,主句和从句谓语动词的形式:
条件状语从句 与过去事实相反 与现在事实相反 与将来事实相反 had + 过去分词 一般过去时(be 用 were) 一般过去时或 should(were to) + 动词原形 主 句 should /would/could/might + have + 过去分词 would/should/could/might + 动词原形 Would/should/cold/might + 动词原形

有时侯在使用时可省略 if,句子则可换成下列形式,即“were / had / should +主语” 。如: Were I a boy, I would join the army. Had he taken my advice, he would have succeeded. Were it not for the expense, I wo uld go to Britain. 2、虚拟语气用于名词性从句 (1)虚 拟语气在宾语从句中的运用。 ①“wish + 宾语从句”表示不能实现的愿望,译为“要是??就好了”等。表示现在 不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时;表示将来不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓 语动词用“would/could + 动词原形” ;表示过去不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用“had + 过去分词”或“could(should) + have + 过去分词” 。如: I wish it were spring all the year round. I wish I had known the answer. I wish I could fly like a bird. ②在表示建议、要求、命令等的动词 suggest、advise、propose、demand、require、insist request、command、order 等后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用 should + 动词原形或是动词原形。 如: She suggested we (should)leave here at once.
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The doctor ordered she should be operated. (2)虚拟语气在同位语从句和表语从句中的运用。 作表示建议、 要求、 命令等的名词 advise、 idea、 order、 demand、 plan、 proposal、 suggestion、 request 等的表语从句和同位语从句,从句中的谓语动词用“ (should) + 动词原形” 。如: His suggestion that we ( should)go to Shanghai is wonderful. My idea is that they (should)pay 100 dollars. (3)虚拟语气在主语从句中的运用。 在主语从句中,谓语动词的虚拟语气用“should + 动词原形”的结构,表示惊奇、不相 信、理应如此等。如: It is necessary(important, natural, strange, etc.)tha t we should clean the room every day. It was a p ity (a shame, no wonder, etc.)that you should be so careless. It will be desired(suggested, decided, ordered, requested, proposed, etc.)that she should finish her homework this afternoon. 注意:这种从句表示的是事实。如果说人对这种事实表现出惊奇的情感,就可用虚拟 语气。反之,如果不表示惊奇等情感,th at 从句也可用陈述句语气。如: It is pity that you can’t swim. 3、虚拟语气在其他场合的运用 (1)虚拟语气在 as if/as though、ev en if/even though 等引导的表语从句或状语从句中, 如 果从句表示的动作发生在过去,用过去完成时;指现在状况,则用一般过去时;指将来 状况则用过去将来时。如: He did it as if he were an expert. Even if she were here, she could not solve the problem. (2)虚拟语气用于定语从句中。 这种从句常用于句型“It is (high)time (that) … ”中,定语从句的谓语动词用一般过去 时(be 用 were)或 should + 动词原形,意思是“(现在)该??” 。如: It’s time that I picked up my daughter. It’s high time we were going. (3)虚拟语气用在 if only 引导的感叹句中。如: If only I were a bird. If only I had taken his advice. (4)虚拟语气在一些简单句中的运用。 ①情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人谦虚、客气、有礼貌或语气委婉, 常出现在日常会话中。如: It would be better for you not to stay up too late. Would you be kind enough to close the door? ②用于一些习惯表达法中。如: Would you like a cup of tea? I would rather not tell you.

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二、精典名题导解

选择填空 1. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _______. (NMET 95) A.breaks B.has brok en C.were broken D.had been broken
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解析:答案为 C。本题考查的是 as if 引导的让步状语从句中的语气问题,as if 引导的 状语从句如果与事实一致,不用虚拟语气,如果与事实相反,应用虚拟语气。题中“当铅笔 的一部分浸在水中,铅笔看上去好像断了” 。而实际上铅笔并未断,与事实相反,前半部分 陈述是一般现在时,因而本句是对一般现在时的虚拟,用 were broken。 2. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she ___________, she would have met my brother.(NMET 94) A.has come B.did come C.came D.had come 解析:答案为 D。本题考查的是 if 条件句中的虚拟语气。题意是:我在会议上没看到 你姐姐,故你姐姐没来。因此如果“她来了”与事实相反,前面一句交代了虚拟语气的时态 是一般过去时的虚拟,所以 if 从句中用 had+过去分词。 3. —If he ___________, he ________that food. —Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.(NMET 93) A.was warned; would not take B.had been warned; would not have taken C.would be warned; had not taken D.would have been warned; had not taken 解析: 答案为 B。 本题考查的是条件状语从句与主句表示与事实相反时虚拟语气的用法。 根据下一句语境可知,他事先并没有得到警告,表示过去时间的虚拟语气,故选 B。 4.Mr.White at 8:30 for the meeting, but he didn’t show up. A. should have arrived B. should arrive C. should have had arrived D. should be arriving 解析:答案为 A。本题考虚拟语气及责备的用法,全句意为:Mr.white 8:30(原本)应 该到会的,但他没露面。全句谈的是过去的事,故应使用 should have done 结构,表原本该 做而没做的事。 5.—I’ll tell Mary about her new job tomorrow. —You her last week. A. ought to tell B. would have told C. must tell D. should have told 解析:答案为 D。本题考查情态动词用法 ,should(ought to)have done 表示说话人对 发生的事性“责备”故选 D。 6.—Let’s go and have a good drink tonight. — Have you got the first prize in the competition? A. What for? B. Thanks a lot. C. Yes, I’d li ke to. D. Why not? 解析:答案为 A。考语境及交际用语。前句建议:今晚咱们出去好好喝一顿吧。喝一 顿应有个来由和原因,且多是为了庆祝某事,所以后句问:为何事(庆祝)?你是不是在竞 赛中得了一等奖?这样才能表示后者惊讶、疑问和兴奋,what for:为何而做某事?其余均 不合语境。

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