—the Subjunctive Mood
虚 拟 语 气
Q:What’s the difference between the two sentences?
If I am free, I will visit you.
If I were a b
ird, I would fly into the sky.
If I won the lottery now, I would buy an expensive car.
现在事实相反 If he had hurried ,he could have caught the train. 过去事实相反
If I were to go abroad ,I would go to America. 将来事实相反
would should could might would should could might
were /did did / were should do were to do
would should + do could Might
If you had told me in advance, I _____ him at the airport. A. would meet B. would had met C. would have met D. would have meet
B 1) The volleyball match will be put off if it _____.
A. will rain B. rains D. is rained C. rained
2) You didn’t let me drive. If we ____ B in turn, you ____ so tired.（96 N） A. drove…didn’t get B. had driven…wouldn’t have got C. drove…wouldn’t get D. were driving…wouldn’t get
If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now.
If型特例2：省略 if 的条件从句：
用法：从句中有 were, had 或 should 时， 省略if ，而把它们放在句首。 1. If I were you, I would not do that. Were I you, I would not do that. 2. If he should fail in the experiment this time, he would try again. Should he failed in the experiment this time, he would try again. 3. If you had not helped me，I should have failed. Had you not helped me, I should have failed.
Had you listened to the doctor， you ________ all right. A. are B. were C. would be D. would have been
wish + 宾语从句
现在： 过去： 将来：
过去时 (did/were) 过去完成时 (had done)
? I wish I were a bird. (现在)
? I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake. (过去)
? We wish our parents wouldn’t punish us.
If only ，as if/though 与wish用法一样
I wish I _____a were bird.
were I wish every day _____my birthday.
I wish/wished I ____________( hadn’t eaten not eat ) so much watermelon.
虚拟语气 二、类似 if 型（2）
would rather + that （从句） 宁愿……
I’d rather you went tomorrow (now). 宁愿你明天(现在)去。 I’d rather you hadn’t done that. 宁愿你没这样做。
paid ? I would rather you ________(pay) me now（tomorrow）. had gone (go) there ? I would rather you _______ yesterday.
二、类似 if 型（3）
It’s (high) time +that
过去时 (were/did ) Should(不省) +V.
It’s time that you went.
It’s time that you should go.
It’s time that we went to bed.
It’s time that we should go to
虚拟语气 二、类似 if 型（4）
but for +n(要不是),
现在/将来 would/could/should/ might +do
in that case，
过去 would/could/should/ might +have done
1. Without sunlight , or water or air , there ___ no life on the earth . A will have B would be C can be D must be 2 But for the snow , we ___ earlier . A will arrive B would have arrived C arrive D arrived
三、Should +v 型
1.在宾语从句，表语从句，同位语从句，主语从句中。 这种用法的词有： 一个坚持 两个命令 三个建议 四个要求
order, command advise, suggest, propose demand, desire,require, request
三、Should + V 型
2. It is +adj +that ....
important， a pity……
It’s necessary that we should have a walk .
It’s natural that she should do so.
It’s important that we should take good care of the patient.
1. My father did not go to New York; the doctor suggested that he _____ there. A. not went B. won't go C. not go D. not to go
2. Jane’s pale face suggested that he ___ ill . A be B was C should be D is 3.He insists he ______right. A. were B. was C. be D. is
? ? ? ?
过去本来能做但却没做 could have done might have done 过去本可以做但却没做 should/ought to have done 过去本该做但却没做 shouldn’t/oughtn’t to have done 过去本不该做但却做了 本会做但却没做 ? would have done ? wouldn’t have done 本会做但却做了 ? needn’t have done 过去本没必要做但却做了
2. I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I ______ for her. (N 1994) A. had to write it out B. must have written it out C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out
Were, had ,should提前，省略if
1. 一个坚持，两个命令， 三个建议，四个要求。
2. It is（necessary，strange…）+that… 1.过去式 1. wish / if only/as if 2.过去完成
3.could/would/might +do 2. Would rather 1.过去式 2.过去完成 Should（不省） + do 3. It is (high) time that… 过去式
4. But for/otherwise/ without/in that case 同 if 主句
1. 判断是否虚拟 2. 判断虚拟类型 3. 判断虚拟时间
1. Alan ___ the party if he had gone to London. A. would have missed B. had missed C. would miss D. missed
2. If I knew you were coming, I ___ you at the airport. A. had met B. met C. would meet D. would have met
3. If only I ___ to my parents! (But I didn’t.) A. listened B. had listened C. should listen D. would listen
4. Tom suggested that Ann ___ the house. A. sell B. sold C. shall sell D. would sell
5. I wish this bus ___ to the university. A. go B. went C. has gone D. had gone
6. Simon looks as though he never ___ a square meal(吃得 饱), though his parents feed him very well. A. get B. getting C. got D. should get
7. He is talking so much about America as if he ___ there.
A. had been C. was B. were D. been
8. I ___ you some money, but I hadn’t got any then. A. would lend B. would have lent C. could lend D. may have lent
9. – Have you ever been to Beijing? -- No, but I wish I ___.
A. have C. do B. will D. had
10. I don’t think it is the right time that you __.
A. will go C. go B. went D. must go
11. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ＿＿＿＿. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken
12.We are in favor of your proposal that the meeting ______. A. should be put off B. was put off C. should put off D. is to put off
13. --- I stayed at a hotel while in New York. --- Oh, did you? You______ with Barbara. (N 1998)
A. could have stayed C. would stay B. could stay
D. must have stayed