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高中英语语法大全之形容词和副词


高中英语语法大全之形容词和副词 形容词及其用法 形容词修饰名词,说明事高考资源网物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容 词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。 1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词, 它有级的变化, 可以用程度副词修饰, 在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。 2)叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有

级的变化,也不可用程 度副词修饰。大多数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。 (错)He is an ill man. (对)The man is ill. (错)She is an afraid girl. (对)The girl is afraid. 这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。 3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字尾的 词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如: something nice 以-ly 结尾的形容词 1)大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,ugly, brotherly,仍为形容词。 改错:(错) She sang lovely. (错) He spoke to me very friendly. (对) Her singing was lovely. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way. 2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。 daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early The Times is a daily paper. The Times is published daily. 用形容词表示类别和整体 1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人, 与谓语动词的复数连接。 the dead, living, 如: the the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry The poor are losing hope. 2)有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese. The English have wonderful sense of humor. 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为: 限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别--名词 a small round table a tall gray building a dirty old brown shirt

a famous German medical school an expensive Japanese sports car 典型例题: 1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys. A.little two otherB.two little otherC.two other littleD.little other two 答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的公式 可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有 C 符合答案。 2)One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace. A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stoneC.old stone ChineseD. Chinese stone old 答案 A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质 地+用途+国家+名词。 3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao? ---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside. A. few last sunnyB. last few sunnyC. last sunny fewD. few sunny last 答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名 词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定 时,可参照下表: 限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+ those + three + beautiful + large + square 新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词 old + brown + wood + table 副词及其基本用法 副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。 一、副词的位置: 1)在动词之前。 2)在 be 动词、助动词之后。 3)多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。 注意: a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。 We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us. b. 方式副词 well,badly 糟、坏,hard 等只放在句尾。 He speaks English well. 二、副词的排列顺序: 1)时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。 2)方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。 Please write slowly and carefully. 3)多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。 注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 改错:(错)I very like English. (对)I like English very much. 注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 I don't know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat.

There is food enough for everyone to eat. 兼有两种形式的副词 1) close 与 closely close 意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地" He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely. 2)late 与 lately late 意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近" You have come too late. What have you been doing lately? 3)deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地" He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film. 4)high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion. 5)wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方" He opened the door wide. English is widely used in the world. 6)free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地" You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like. You may speak freely; say what you like. 形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级, 用来表示事物的等级差别。 原级即形容词的原形, 比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化 两种。 1) 规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 原级 比较级 最高级 一般单音节词未尾加-er,-est tall(高的) great(巨大的) taller greater tallest greatest 以不发音的 e 结尾的单音词和少数以- le 结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st large(大的) able(有能力的) nicer larger

nice(好的)

abler largest ablest

nicest

以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-er,-est big(大的) hot (热的) bigger hotter biggest hottest "以辅音字母+y"结尾的双音节词,改 y 为 i,再加-er,-est busy(忙的) easier busier easiest busiest 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的双音节词未尾加-er,-est narrow(窄的) cleverer narrower cleverest narrowest easy(容易的)

clever(聪明的)

其他双音节词和多音节词,在前面加 more,most 来构成比较级和最高级。 要的) easily(容易地) more important more easily most important most easily 2) 不规则变化 原级 比较级 最高级 good(好的) well(健康的) better best bad (坏的) ill(有病的) worse worst old (老的) older/elder oldest/eldest much/many(多的) more most little(少的) less least far (远的) farther/further farthest/furthest as+形容词或副词原级+as 1)在否定句或疑问句中可用 so… as。 He cannot run so/as fast as you. 2)当 as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。 as +形容词+ a +单数名词 as + many/much +名词 This is as good an example as the other is. I can carry as much paper as you can.. 3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。 This room is twice as big as that one. Your room is the same size as mine.

important( 重

4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as<=>倍数+ then + of This bridge is three times as long as that one. This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. Your room is twice the size of mine. 比较级形容词或副词+than You are taller than I. They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine. 注意: 1)要避免重复使用比较级。 (错) He is more cleverer than his brother. (对) He is more clever than his brother. (对) He is clever than his brother. 2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 (错) China is larger that any country in Asia. (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia. 3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out. 4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。 比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters. 可修饰比较级的词 1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等 2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。 3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。 典型例题: 1)---- Are you feeling ____? ---- Yes,I'm fine now. A. any wellB.anybetterC. quite good D. quite better 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite 修饰原级,well 的比较级为 better. 2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. A.moreB.much more C.much D.more much 答案:C.much 可修饰比较级,因此 B,C 都说得通,但 easier 本身已是比较级,不需 more, 因此 C 为正确答案。 3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. A. the happiest timeB.a more happier time C. much happiest timeD.a much happier time

答案:D。 many, old 和 far 1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词 many more +可数名词复数 2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟 姐妹的长幼关系。 My elder brother is an engineer. Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。 在美语中,father 表示距离,further 表示进一步。 I have nothing further to say. the+最高级+比较范围 1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 注意:使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 (错)Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. (对)Tom is the tallest of the three brothers. 2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 注意: a.very 可修饰最高级,但位置与 much 不同。 This is the very best. This is much the best. b.序数词通常只修饰最高级。 Africa is the second largest continent. 3) 句型转换: Mike is the most intelligent in his class. Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class. 4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构表示最高级含义。 Nothing is so easy as this. =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing. 和 more 有关的词组 1) the more… the more…越……就越…… The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make. 2) more B than A 与其说 A 不如说 B less A than B He is more lazy than slow at his work.

= He is less slow than lazy at his work. 3) no more… than…与……一样……,不比……多 The officials could see no more than the Emperor. no less… than…与……一样…… He is no less diligent than you. 4) more than 不只是,非常 She is more than kind to us all. 典型例题 1)The weather in China is different from____. A. in AmericaB.one in AmericaC. America D. that in America 答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C 不能选。A 没有名 词,后句成分不全,排除。B 和 D 中,B 中的 one 常用来代替可数名词,而 that 可车以代替 不可数或抽象名词,所以选 D。 2) After the new technique was introduced, factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year the before. A. as twice manyB.as many twiceC. twice as manyD. twice many as 答案 C. 此句意为"这个厂 1988 能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形 容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为 C。 This ruler is three times as long as that one


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