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汽车广告的语言特点及其翻译


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固J-东’,番
硕士学位论文
Shandong University

Master’s

Thesis

论文题舞:Linguistie F

eatures ofAutomobile
Advertising and Its Translation

汽车广告的语言特点凝其翻译

佟意羲褒
专 监

萋虢霎
英语语言文攀

指导教师姓名 专叠援謇壤务



奎缓疆夔搓

2005年3嚣t5隧

山东大学磺士学位论文

从20世纪初开始,汽车工业就成为制造韭最重要的行业。肤1908年生产密 第~辆福特T形车时起,批量生产就引入了制造业。要想发挥批髓生产的优势就 必须有巨大豹市场需求,这就要徽广告。瑷在,汽车已经成了入髓生活中笼处不 在的东西,这在很大程度上归功于汽车广告。在美国二十世纪20年代到60年代, 大量的平面广告用来健销汽孳,这一时期也被称为美国“平面广告的黄金时期”。 众所周知,荚国被称为。轮子上的国家”,这除了它有先进的援爨生产技术、方 便的交通体系等因索之外,汽车广告也起到了不可替代的作用。 在我国,随着对外开放和社会主义市场经济的建立,20年来,广告渡以超 乎人们想象的速度发展。汽攀广告,作为广告的一个重要组成部分,近年来随着 中国汽车市场,茏冀是家用轿车市场豹飞速发展丽褥到不断壮大。因此,探究汽 擎广告的语言特点及其翻译,不但使人们在休闲之余得到汽车广告方面的信息, 露且对于中国的汽车行业也肖一定的实际意义。 本文分为两部分。第一部分涉及到汽车广告的语言特点,从词汇、句法和语 篇豹屡次进行分析,从嚣得凑汽车广舞有以下三个特点:l菇的汽车广告是鄹队 合作的结果:2将做广告的产品和其他事物联系在一起是当代汽车广告的特点: 3直截了当的叫卖和毫不掩饰的劝买在当代的汽车广告中占据越来越少的位置。 在第一部分的基础上,第二部分进一步探讨了汽车广告翻译过程中涉及豹翻译理 论、翻译策略和存在的问题。最终得出如下结论:作为广告翻译羹要组成部分的 汽车广告翻译,由于它特殊的商业目的,不同于文学翻译和其他翻译,这就决定 了译入语观众和译入语文化的至高地位。

荚键词:

汽车广告语言特点翻译理论翻译策略



出东大学硕士学位论文

Abstract

Automobile industry has been the most important sector in the manufacturing industry since the earlier time in the 20m century,W沁n the first“Ford Model r’Was made in
l 908.mass production has been introduced into the manufacturing industry.In order to take

advantage

of mass production there had

to

be mass markets,and that meant
to people’S


advertising.Nowadays automobiles become ubiquitous
to

life largely owing of printed

advertising.In

the

United
ears

States.there
to

were

huge

amount

advertisements promoting

from the 1920s

the 1960s.which Was the。缸yday of
011

American print advertising.”As is known,Amedca is called“a nation

wheels.”

Among

other

factors

such

8s

advanced mass—production technology,convenient plays

transport system,etc.,auto

advertising

an

unreplaceable role.

In China,with the development of opening up
110 one

OUr

socialist market economy since China's industry has been developing
at a

to the

outside

world,advertising
rapidly in
recent

speed

could imagine twenty years ago+Auto

advertising,has

developed

advertising,as an important branch in years Mong with the SOaring of Chinese

automobile market--especially the family-ear market.Therefore,investigating the linguistic featUres of auto advertising and its translation is both practical and

significant
the

to the

Chinese automobile industry as well髂entertaining

and

informing

to

COllLrnon people.

The thesis faIls

into two parts:Part I deals with the

linguistic

features of auto

advertising.studying the features from the lexicai.syntactical and discourse levels.In the end of
part 1 we draw a conclusion:1.A

perfect

auto

advertisement iS



team work;

2,T1le fusion is the major aim direct persuasion take up【eSS

ofcOntemporary auto advertising;3,Factual claims and and less space in coutemporary ads.On血e basis of Part

L Part II further explores the translation theories,translation strategies and some problems iN the process ofauto advertising translation.In the end ofpart II,we get the following results:Advertising translation,which iS

an

important

branch

ofadvertising, of itS specitic of the target

iS distinct from literary translation and other translation commercial Skopos
or

because

purpose,which determines the supreme

status

audieuce and the target culture.

Key Words:automobile advertising translation strategies

原创性声明
本人郑重声明:所呈交的学位论文,是本人在导师的指导下,独立进 行研究所取得的成果。除文中已经注明引用的内容外,本论文不包含任何 其德个人或集体己经发表或撰写过的科研成果。对本文的研究俸出重要贡 献的个人和集体,均已在文中以明确方式标明。本声明的法律责任由本人
承担。

论文作者签名:



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论文作者签名:遗师签名:≥上笠印日

(保密论文在解密后应遵守此规定)

期:旦堡垒.:』

由末尖学壤圭攀霞论文

Introduction

In more than 100 years of automobile hlstoty,automobile advertising plays强 in the promotion aud development of automobiles.Almost

all埘 翻a善,o蒯role manufacauers admit that粼K敷魄is essential in promoting automobile 鞠翩瑚勤d疆酿塔and辩Lling,㈣if it is in the time of em,tgy crisis.In the modem
society,a new ear begins tO be advertised before it roils off the manld隗ctl埘ng line. Automobile adver畦slng a髫n戡n燃great importance in the advertising in the world.In in 1990,the fees in automobile advertising amount all adveaising fees.In to¥10.6 billion was spent in automobile last year.(2004)Automobile manufacturers and advertisi曩g

a妇up

to麟57 bil珏on,over雠quarter

sell魄agents&re

generous in advmising for m斜know quite well that they will benefit far more than the money they invest. This thesis mainly deals with the linguistic features ofautomobile adverlslng and its translatio也Therefore,it's essential for'us tO define automobile advertising first.In order

to粕∞,锵have

to

wriew the definitions of automobiles and advertising

respectively. 1.The def'mition ofautomobiles

Anautomobilevehicleormechanism;伪强,靠self-propelledvehic廷su/tablefortLqcon a street or roadway.Automobiles a砖usually propelled by internal combustion

engines(using volatile inflammable
about 4 to

蹴^s¥earnengines,Orelectricmotors.冕嚣powerofthedrivingmotor蝴描落from
50臻P.for ordinary vehicles,ran#rig
as

liquids,as gasoline

or

petrol,alcohol naphtha,

from the run-about tO the
are

tour魄娟

蛸tO

as

high

200 H.P.for specially built racing cars.Automobiles

also

commonly,and generally in British usage,called motor cars. From the above

definition,we燃have童rough impression to the definition of the
to get the

automobile.According to etymology,*'auto"mcalas"sel囊and"mobile"麓lc雕搭氇甜 the vehicle is powered by an engine rather than pulled by horses.(http://en:wikfionary.

org/wiki/Automobile)We could summarke

definition of automobiles

which is accepted by most people in the铺ft攫撼:An automobile is a wheeled vehicle that carries its own engin蠢Different types of automobile include c制魏buses,van¥ the most popular by far.Older terms include horseless carriage and moor car,with"motor"referring to what is now usually called the engine.翻酶act ofoperating被automobile is called driving.An amomobile has seats and tracks,with for the driver and,almost
without

c瓣being

exception,for矗耋least榭passenge妻

(http://encyclopedia.1aborlawtalLcom/Automobiles)

山东太学硬士学能论文

2.The definition ofadvertising Advertising is“a form

of∞咖Ued
use

consmners,throu01

the

communication that attempts to persuade of鑫variety of strategies and appeals,to buy

or蝴鑫

complex particular product 01".service.”(Defleur&Dennis.1996")Advertising is valid economic activity in the view of some persons,and a social blight to subject----a others.It is quite possible that 011e person can hold remarkably different views about


advertising触the s∞lme time.Therefore。it is particularly hard to come to a single definition of advertising.Whal o∞thinks of advertising depends on what the pdson is and the way
in

which his

or

her

own
as

life has been involved with advertialn晷Thus

the businessman defines advertising

follows:

Advertising j熹-m越I(etiI培tool that helps协sell branches of弘圳I懈晦and helps tO build confidence in companies and institutions by conveying
accurate

and compelling information tO


consumersaboutthebrandorcompanyandinstitafion.(Weilbadm‘p.1∞

However,defined from the CODSt越er'¥viewpoint in terms of those advertiSements that n函∞some sorts of communication,Weflbacher provides潞a totally different

uponwhichthe脚ereitheractsimmediatelyorstores甜laterrely,application,andLISe,
Advertising is commtmication that佴m.id鹪generally useful。relevant,and pertinent

infonnadon

(Weilbacher,p.16)

Advertising,抟雠have

seen,involves many things and it has a variety ofmeanings. Weilbacher condenses the different points of view into a smoe sentence that reflects

the view ofthose who pay bill for

adv幽mg;he develops this summary definition:
si幽ed by


Advertising consists ofmedh messages for and
tO

business

or

an institution

that wishes
as

advertiserwishes&啦tObe弧orbelieve.(Weilbacher,P。20)
The American

increase the probability thax those reached by these messages will behave or believe

the

I妇-keting Association provides
i∞duag scrvic,cs or



more concise

Olle:

Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually

秘搽澄畦谨in

natm'e about

ideas by idc纛蛙fied sponsors through the various

media.(宁建新。p.1) Yet,modem contemporary advertising
any definition
tO

has be"come too

varied and vast黼activity for
changes in

be

comprehensive.Current ads reflect radical

technologies and the media,social and economic relations,Ottr§翻攒of personal and for group identity.For the insights they provide into the nature of these changes,and the way they prepa∞us for flL劬er changes tO come..,they form a particularly valuable

ll|末天学醺士擘霞论史

field ofstlld睇 AsfarasIknow,thel'eisyetnoformaldefinitionofautomobileadvertislng.However, we could get a rough one by combining the definitions ofautomobiles and advertising: Automobile advertising is the norqTersonal communication ofinformation瓣猢移弦滋 for and usually persuasive in nature about automobiles,related services Or ideas勿

identifiedsponsorsthroughthevariousmedia.、

3.The influence ofautomobile advertising

剥酶first Am。l壹can automobile Iaoe is

run

from

Chicago协Evanston,Illinois and baeL Two oIR ofsix cars finished the辩mile long race,

.with蠢鬻b躺嗡time醒7hoursand53 minmes.
骶艟wiilllel',Charles E.Duryea,that same year
places what may be the first automobUe 8d_vI靠ti翻翔撼nt ever,.撒?抛Horseless Carriage. i擎 However,the first auto

adve触g瓤China

鬟耀融瘫雌臀not very clear,毒caltoon related协 m舾mobiles appeared in North United campaign States has

贼呶‘字转西撮》)in 1925.(See Plate 1)In the

China啪
adve蠢stag
for
several

a蕊氢蠕斟蜘
waged

been

generations--since the automotive ideology is ingrained in Americans.

l蛇。s—矧蜒now
most

AsAmericaiscalled毪nation011wheels",

let’¥firsttakea删ghlookatthehistoryof


“’

滚嚣“—_4““日““”“”i

automobile advertising in the U.S.All the 瑚瞎辫lzi瑶advertisements for automobiles below were printed b酞w髓n 1937 and 1992 in the National Geographic. Automobile advertising in the 1920s and 1930s WaS geared toward expanding the mass market for the emerging technology ofthe priVate motor vehicle.In the鬟I瑚瞻

…“’

.:

j。

“。。

掺i磁《罄we have seen)&alternatives ofthe dectrie粕l粒and the diesel
e蝴mplc from
1937:

bus黼

purposely degraded,making them inefficient or unavailable.So the adveaising emphasis was on the practicality,sen哇{臻and reliability ofthe automobile,An

Plymms纛l‰甜疆缓鼬襻酶酽蜊驽。心趣髓馥融蛾蛀逐醛喇删s够rural
砸聪Mar|脚魄p神isI抵
.(1937 P酾麟州蛳

山东大学硕士学位论文

Though it may have

had姗e practical appeal,such缸adⅥrould hardly excite the


prospective cal"buyer today!

A船the Second World War,with
just"wants")Now
the
car as a

deep decline in

m麟transit and a rapid growth in

private cars.advcltiscmcnts shifted away from such mundane qualities of autos.The new message:the right c雒can鞠虹曲presumed or fabricated human"needs.竹(mostly

de慨for getting Ibm∞e place

to

another was

mentioned.Rathei',the automobile had become—-越d lemains today—an genie.available to sarisfy a buyer's deeper desires and cv∞dreams much mo地than
Ina"e transportation.Automobile advertisements have led most

ethe蒯
believe

rarely

Americam

to

that锄automobile

can

give them:

长4。I毋÷‘…pⅦ9吼…。{。8y。1妒i}。。

…■4‘





。1’?



■ire一
SUCC铭S

the higher 7"Meeting ofCadillac 7,phases ofbusiness andfinance and industry,Cadillac 括the overwhelmingfavorite It缸not at all lmus埘... ”,for口伤圯American corporation to have触elltire #vboard membership represented On the Cadillac owner

一"The g溉oing腮's wgre矧at妊意蕊’哆警 ownersI砌,口l劬all
触…SO
"Call
distinguished


group

of motorists.”(1955
÷ ‘. 。

Cadlnac)j
,“





?+‘

out the

reseⅣes with口touch

ofyoar

toe/Ford

g№you
Power Ford V-8 pass in


up to 225 horsepower fo,instant艘when

instants coawt!Get more

the worM0

ofthe lightning that's made favorite'eight.’These erlgfne¥
Ford

wink

with’‘,hoash’in rese朋e...”(1956

V-8) 叫discerning look
at

any

of the

hatch's胁
how

gathering places will usua砂reveal a矾∥prising number of Cadillac cars…The consistent choice o.I
Status

those
they

who choose
have

without restrictio,t And

well

chosen.In

beauty,

in

luxury,in

performance…场矿dealer you…”(1956 Cadillac)
"This baby
can

will be privileged to¥Prpe

road!...pilot
Speed

flick妇toil at anything oli the her out through tr讶ic toward the open

road.,.you're ar知ing the most exciting car in the world lod哆…smooth毋oW西power.exciting

getaway/。(1957

De

Soto)



山东大学硬士学位论文

:ij:;;篡象鬻溅=翟甾锰
.j一 j—nCadillac Ladies Love
to

Pl略。This one is reallyfun





clutches.”0963 Cadillac)


,,














÷

斛Style姒o,:囊强聱octth溺er car掣's.Wanet to?top ,一:7?“~n一、‘’,…”.7一j


the:


:1

j一“Listen!。。a neMl.。.Stereo Tape player that

adds鑫嚣蝴
Thunderbird
I?4

Musie。
。I
。l,:,。

,;dimension。of pleasure 。j’|motoring.。(1966Ford)


to
一j

::~…?+j r“i?…j

。,?



,?攀。猡;,;。卿蒯如蒯№一,(1966,Jeep、
j,,,

。,。Whenit'ssteepandr撕gettwicethe’ho砬…tackle
W。agomer)+,一一+
,’

;,.;


,。

‘7,

.,专口hill.。or¥ortl啦other danger日M矗Incomparable....o---
;“
,’

-r。

;。:
::


’j?一l
,;。

?.’,




’;v 7’:



静;,,7一?:,,+7

j"The

daily暮r泓Dilemmas.Decisions.Detail苴;

裁.’。:,。..Wouldn'titbenicetohave掰,F坫capeMachine?What,

;Seclusion"/~’√,a潮day u's删be伽en,岫a refDal删wr磁inger撇.But..舭now∽,th砌anki ‘&coddling,,:j裂篙删嚣篓淼=篙嚣嚣等


。v

‘:,so

gently,。弘H譬ers弦锰。.coJer¥to

your

se斑e蟛


{‘

Wake
ToughneS¥

it anywhereyou want....it's readyforjustabout

anything.

OFF-ROAD

POWE&



you're

power-hungry,,you've come tO the

rightplace.。(1986

Dodge Power Ram 50)

”鼹dressed加silence.And
R0manee

drove,Until four lanes
one

became tWO.Two became On&And

became



tunnel~Something that was back.。0992 Mercury Sable)
"Go

there

before

w甜

where埘one

Adventure

the

has gone before,.gofather than all others..。A luxurious,and very personal, Ford

statement,。0992

ExpI锨)

table雠雠辩that auto advertising in different times has different features and ap_peal:from也e’嗡cti蜥辑service,and reliability"ofthe automobile in 1930s
From the
to

the"romance,adventure"in 1990s.m



word,auto advertising has influenced



山东太学硬士学.I筻论文

almost a嘲拶aspect jn

Am酬can

people's life.According

to Ivan

Hlioh,an ecologist,

“In short,the American has sacrificed his life笛a whole to the nlolorcar,like

someone who,demented with passion,wrecks his home in order to lavish his inconle 如a promises delights he can only occasionally砌oy.”

capricious姗who

4.Thetypesofautomobileadvertisingandthe scopeofthisthesis According to different advertising media,we advertising into
can

瓢d

auto越嘲s崦in删m闾擒pels’in h瞳t嘁etc.And
is瓣in

in general categorize automobile magazines,over radios and 011 TVs

grouped as 翻瓣former type of adve.ising aims to improve the company's image not to sell a specific automobile.SO it automobile

according to蠡ffcreat弘蜀pa骰嗥amo advertising call be advertising ofautomobile company images and advc脯si.g ofautomobiles.
tO

advertis醇Consequently,
mag瘟,es,print

the public,

缸this these.I only intend to involve in the latter type of automobile advertising mlto furthcrnlorc,in the newspapers and 瓢lvmising to be exact,thou曲the television is an龆出黜∞ly important aiRo

auto越&醛sl:喀in
advertising

advertismg medium.And if there is

advt.-meats)and
advertisements
arc

no印∞斌explanation,all the积vmising(or
in this thesis

U'amlatiou

refer协atttomobile

advertising and automobile advertising translation.Accordingly,mis study iS based on auto Mvertising and its妇韬熊l耋io器from the following弘出lica£o蕾&Some ofthe auto

disp姆OliOS:
Reacier§Digest National Geographic Newsweek

Scientific American
Bustness Week

Fortune Forbes
Sports Illustrated People

Whh the examples from these pubficafions and other

various洳触devices
following chapters:

arc

source文懿will investigate how exploited证auto advert/sing and its translation in拙

chapt盯One deals with lexical features in automobile advenising,j.矗graphological effects and the words used in the auto advertising,

翻,i瞄phonological

a勰pt暂Two studies sentence types,smtence蚰眦舢∞and而etofical devices: imperatives and如le啪giIlives;irregular sentences and nonscntences;rhetorical devices such
as

simile and
auto

metaphors,puns,擀蕊lel砸‰rhetorical

question,

hyperbole。aIc。in

advertising.



坐至态芏曼主竺燕堡苎

一—一

devices Chapter Three analyzes the auto adve—sing at the discourse level:cohesive and covert communication in auto

adver嘲



Chap把r Four explores different schools of translation theories:Peter N倒嘴焖掣s Communicative translation theory,Nida's Functional Equivalence theory and Venneefs Skopostheorie.They are very instructive for the translation of auto advertising.
?

Chapter Five concerns translation strategies in anto advertising:u'anslatlon strategies ofanto brand names,headlines and slogans,and some technical auto advertising. the translation of automobile chapter Six is about advertising:different brand nam鹤in Chinese for the¥amc automobile in EnOish, cultural interference and some mistakes made by the Iranslator.

some.problems卷洳妞in



山末大擘硬士学位论文

Part



Linguistic Features of Automobile Advertising

CHAPTER 1

Crapholoocal,Phonological and Lexical Feamrm of Automobile Advertising

1.Graphologiad features Before OUr analysis,we should explain the term graphology SO as to decide the extent ofthe investigation in this to Crystal,graphology is a leTm used by some refer幻the writing system of a language.A graphologlcd atlalysis

li刚s协to

c脚ter.According

would be concerned to establish the minimal contrastive units of visual language。 (crystal,P.143)Leech observes也砒graphological variation is a relatively minor and superficial part of style in fiction,concerning such matters as即enin舀capitalization, hyphenation,italicization and advertising the graphological dovie燃辩pervasive.瓤堵graphologicaZ variation plays缸

paragrap晦(Leech,p.13x)However,in

indispensable role in the d妇略ol腰se ofthe advertising English. Accordingly,in this chapter we shall involve the foUowlng devices:. Heavy 1Jse ofpunctuation Deviant spemns and nonstandard spelling Use oflogotype and v/pograpny Visual emphasis and picture strategies
I.I

Heavy

USe ofpunctuation

advertising is abnormally emphatic.The modem copywriter would probably fail all English examination if onty for his abuse ofpunctuation to achieve effect.He will omit prepositions and con/unct/ons and link
The style of punctuation in automobile

nouns,verbs.adverbs and adjectives with dashes used f豫ly.He will write santences Iike this:
HALF A DECADE AHEAD OTHER

or

dots.The hTcgular

sentences瓣


OF鲫髓l掩校rNT R黼UI矗飘O争塔。Y£走f峪AH嚣^D
AN ACCIDENT.

OF

MAM.)FACTURERS.HOPEFULLY,BEFORE YOU’RE IN

(Volvo) It is observed that most ofthe copywriters have tendency to use very short graphic units,with heavy punctuation。An advertisement is broken down into a series of minhfnal sentene铽the result being that each clause stands 011 its own feet,and is


accorded equal

importan∞with

the others.Therefore,both density
tO each

and

weight of

punctuation

are

signals suggesting emphasis given

informat/on unit.



山东太擘碗士学位论文

that the punctuation system SerVes tWO broad purposes:separation and specification.(Quirk,t620)In English the full stop is"the heaviest punctuation

Quirk

states

mark.9’(Leech,p.217)It carries the

greatest separative force;hence the effect ofusing

the full stop is to emphasiza the autonomy of each piece of information,which is

th麟by asserted with&鑫蝎区il凇forceq嚣in this example:
Its sound is舔unique器its shape.

Itsbrakesareasunique勰itsengine.

轴畦倒神h塔协∞丽嘲蠢
Adwriters prefer prose
tO

It'S riot built

to

be some!dling

to删ofte.
(pO砌Sc}l&吴竟魄,p.65)
into short bits by using full stops where ordinsiy ptlnCUlation蛙alL The technique is used in auto
are

could戤COlllmas

chop

sentences
or 110

取【vati面喀extensively,and We
communicative effects:

now in曩position

to

observe

o啦of

its

WeImilttheMAZDAMPVbasedonaveryslrongfoundation.Theh眦
(Mazda MPV,周喙.p.143)
The extract contains
an

鞠辩d载淑with瓣dement
automobile advertisements.As


example

that might have fiuvzfioned鹪鑫cons娃tuent of the has been separated from the辩ntence into more information preceding sentence,but units.so that the sequence of words will contain mo糟focal elements,thus“豇地 home"will carry the nuclear accent.Such fragmentary sentcnc鹳abound in

of嗤硼m咖湖悯黼”:.叮k

home."In this

CASe

result,the full stop functions躯a stylistic d朗occ

to

indicate鑫d裁珏珏礤c

pause for emphasis.

Apm

from full

stops,copy佩ters

emphasis and dramatic punctuation
or

effect.礅kind of emphasis

also

use

dashes and ellipsis marks
written text would have

to

achieve internal

is signaled by the dashed
no

inserted in the sentence where the normal deal with it in other forms:

03enz 190E,孙晓丽,p.211) The dash would have made difference
to



"graphic units tend to be longer than tone way seems to lend emphasis to the sentence. The empsis in advenialng is automobile advertisements the ellipsis does elHpsis mark achieves stylistic effects.

the reader's processing ofthe辩ntence。As units,”(Leech,p.215)the dash used in this

o融used

as

not

stylistic device.In the following indicate that something is left out.The


Haveyoudfi嘲aForcL….,细嗣妒



墨塞查篷塑圭篓篷建茎


worthrepe龇ing……numbe-roneinownerl∞Ial锣鞭pIifL the effect

Such捐癌鞘l耱蕻∞嗣s

嘲娩

of漱ion.The

ellipsis leaves醛much§o

marks Other punctuat/on marks found in automobile exclamation marks is found especially in and

advelti:scments搬蟹excl删on

question益墙d蹲。Abundant料of
?

headlines and slogans:
THE h"旺DA N咿V

WHOSAYSTHERE'SNOPLACELIKEHOME7(Maz曛氇MFV,燕戮枣14蛰




Jnu'|lisageot'technotogy.shm'ing,wtmteva"happenedtoindividuality?(OPEL)
Look砒aIlThreel

(H艄dlim forme New Plymouth jlI 1930s)

(Cin,oen)

12

Deviant spelling and nonstandard spelling 10。1 Deviant spelling

In

automobile

advectis啦ents,we

observe

that there

are

deliberately spelt words.especi越ly in the brand瑚瞄魄I玎艟auto that the simplest way to call attention协the printed form They
can

be unexpected in
ale

two粥炉because


is论辩unexp潮letters.
h咖∞.breaking

occasionally some adwriters know well

they a摊infrequent锻瘴whole,Or with

because they conventional

co--on letters

spelXing)Vt/'I'L麟adve《sers瓣up names出哆often蝴the
to

unpredictable in

particular sequence.(for

le路

deviant in that we

Lynx,鑫倒叠and

seldom㈣double
Benz is also

make the臻朝f辩stand out.For example,Sanccks is considered cs foflowed by K in English words or names。

coasid蹦xt deviant

b∞甜粼粉astrally do not expect

X and Z in English words or nalalcs.The letccr K is,sometimes,a preference for 50m@ advertisers to replace the letter cl舔in brings out what is unusual,and til秣{b憾memorable'about tire brand haiti..

Kall溉姗。瓤deviation



Anotlm,way撼draw

attention

to

automobiles,as we:call畦撼瓣when
LAN9 DAF,etc.

We recite the

print is the糊嘲髂of individual letters in alphabet.Ofcour鼢rigs pa娃icular

1dad ofplay will be,in so撒e cases,unR'anslatable.Here鑫l毒some examples:M。A茶雌

1纛2

Nonstandard spelling
asb日Llnle

瓤general,we

that words have



standardized spell赫g in the language of

生壅杰主要主曼燕堡苎
English It is the standardization that enables adwriters to manipulate idiosyncratic about it,粥cannot spelling to achieve slmhl effects.When we
flag famous ad slogan ofMcDonald:“I'm

help也峨of

lovin'丸”m auto ads,We also have similar

Price startof¥8,969.Tracer.It'snoth/n’tobeafraidot:

"l'welvc yards long.two

wide,sixty five tons ofAmerican pride,Canyonero,Canyoncro!

Top of tl椿line in utility Sports,unexplained

fires矾a maflef

for the Courts,Canyonem,

Canyoncro!Sheblindseverybodywithb嚣翱g}线ghbeams,she's§squirrel螋《留撕’deer

waac蜘'.drMn’mach.峨Canyonero,Caayonero!
(Canyoncro SUV)

COROLLA.Whe摊PROMISES
And new one●MADE every day.

Ire

kept.

For

DELn谨矧Go,1themanyPROMISESitimmade。Promisestoperformdayin,dayou耋I
Today,Corolla jl busy mardns

over

twenty-five”捌嗽Corolla has EARNED囊REPUTATION for consistently

NEW

range firm ADVANCgD safety

features抽∞毽匪矗嘲科啦materials谯鲢RIgDUCIg

pmmL姒With

TgCHNOLOGICAL systems畦瞰

interior noise levels to^quld hush.

Thel995ToyotaCorolla.It'SthelavmiseofsomethingmM,backedup坶aHERITAGEof
pronfises kept

And RECOGNIZED around the world

a5

the

BENCHMARK ofQuALrrY.

Call

1-800-GO-TOYOTAforaBROCHUREand]OC蕊Ot'lofyore.NEARESTDEALER.

IlOVe What You Do For Me.

(ToyotaCorolla)
As for the adwriters ofCorolla,they some words in bold capital letters to grab the

rc雀lel'S"attcnlion,thus
An advemscr,tO
On

providing霹蒯flavour

use

in the ad.

and speUings;he will exploit other techniques to make the brand n锄e memorable the body copy pleasant read.So in flag next¥ogtion we will investigate the use of

c稚ain extent,is a quasi-anlsl.This means that he does not only play

logotypes and typography in

advertis瞻

出笨丈譬蘸士攀佼论文

1.3

Use of

logotyl髑and typognphr

to identify鑫 A logotype(or logo)is毫specially company ofa brand.It may be糠sign,ShalⅪOt trade character like those oflMereede)

designed礤鲻洳鼯擞蹶used

Be肌氛Shell;in some other eases,the product name is written in eharaeterlstie type, and the type itselfcomes to symbolize the product(e每Ford,Regal and some others). It takes毫sustained承tvertising effort耱establish曩link between糖arbitrary i瑶鑫萨 and勰auto.司艟adverlJser repeats the ad itselfor repeats the same style in&series,of maintains the same style oflayout and typography when the ad appears.Many successful auto brand names黜inextricably concerned with the

趣》洳in

∞融协theirautos,not酶rimingthem,bat姆usingthistyl幽:e.(SeePlate2)
In these i11stallees.a typeface勰tlsed to

whieh they a埠writte啦so

s趣ong徽氇迅翟s‘《}毽蛀。鑫be that some 8ds:锄
sicily


sometimes instead of;the word ot dit嚣eult埝categorize ttm kind of
connection is

kind of'autoi)in addition to,Olt words wlaieh si辨iry it arbitrarily in the COde.It is

indexical:僻associate鑫诺聩蟥妇kind
also‘‘觚element

sigl签eation巍蠡g

semio蛙e terms,In

of

print,瞄tla墨particular琳

part&

Cook suggests that there is which

is涮to

ofmood evocation ofbrand personality,"

define.(Cook,p.85).A_exording协a handwriting

world4mown logos

(Cool‘,p.85)礅status ofsuela i谢参卿主辜dubious,and妇nattwe ofthe搿鼎糖囊蓼
oftypes tllllcleilt,硼旭signifieatiort is both indetermimte and powerful。

suggest如抛邛释船商疆毛姓罄’鹭删for

analyst,跏e

tradition"for Ford.

blea撼lgdifferenttypefaces;nndmakingupcopyfor瓣g,usingdifferentsizes
Typography is the and weight

art醴鬻耙嗽挚婴睡髓墨ofwt2ieh there瓣hulldreds ofdesigm;
text

Good typography leads协legibility typeface may lack SOn"跫of the quali锣。f


and黜lCtlVelle(3S,舢a printed in锄e the堍i醚,瓣obvio璐毒xaraple is强

advertising item which may exploit several different types,different sizes oftype and

particular shape of layout The headline can be madc more legible,m黜ningrla and attention-getting if care is taken in its layout.1"o IIchicvc:this.it may be necessary to select suitable length,01"畦话best number for effect A headline may be broken up Or the main copy for勰ad,the stepped so that it c鑫ll

achieve垃瓣effects.’F蜘盎writing

oopy’vriter uses his imagination to think how he can nse display 协highlight the text and encourage people to read it. In tlae following稚the size

of

headlines oftype

of&姆掣蠹忿锎瞄嘲p睦with tlae mea,蠹塔ofthe word,


赫in:

How

F.A.ST ARE YOU C_lOING?





圈购 囵
voIVO


生茎查茎塑主兰垡丝茎



涂.◇翰圜

仓②’,露圆


圆。笾回囡 圈囵曩函圈

BMW
Cadillac

alq

Beijing J唧

Pla址2

山东犬学硬士学位论文

¥uela possibifities of"form enacting meanlng"埘virtually as unlimited advertiser's imaginatiTFl:power OVer ttae a攀愆懿知魏撼龉of hm._guage,and 旭ader's capacity to∞e

as

the
the

h躺a power like that of eomeetiom.In 基metaphor:.it曩垮蜒On the intuitive reeognitioxl of similarities between one field of reference(the form oflanguage)and躺other.


this坤喊ieonieity

as

誓擗辩devices辩observe逸auto
nnd mOl'l§legible.
1.4

emphasize∞l脚points,m蛾the
Visilal

advertising aim tO provide typoglaphi瞳contrast ad Inotc interesting,lllOl℃readable,sad


emph础l Jnd Oietorill|t黼tegf醴 text懒be

T如adwfiter

posifloffmg of the tmits of information in a used to lDlaee vllrying degrees ofl’rominenee 011 them.h this Sl站tiOll we shall discuss One important diff艄ellcc 疑魏峨轴嚣similar b—Mf∞n verbal texts and pictures is tlant the 5clarence has 4 and姐ending吐

knows姗the

d昏诋apply in娅簸嚣畦函纛耀ofimag爱L
the other

begiamg

the

end.Pietua嚣,On

s趟tey a whole picture

蛆end锄be discovered in the
comer,and
the

la锄d,lack this temporal dimen.qion:it is possible to lit册∞。I'towcvet,something corresponaing to a beginning and
case

which辩read墨弘塔e.鬻瓠魅锵嘁the
as

Uppl薯le‰wef right diagonal is indeed越a曲哼mely important dimension in muela painting,勰well in杈h鼬ing layout.
To蛳how
the diagonal is

ofpictures,quite possibly because ofthe way in eye lalOVCS from the upl嚣lett to lower right

used to

emphasize the most

嘁and协撤the
small
car

important删ofart
eye towards the

most important part of the message, look越Plate 3。硼瓣picture shows毫 made
by Vo墩舒矾嘴en

Company.甜惦position ofthe c缸is iust in the upper-left and the trademark of the Volkswagen Company is in llae
lower-right

of

the

picture.1撇

smalllB9 is iust between lhem.珏most cases,tho eyes of the reader is first the guided埝the

small雠then

trademark ofthe Volkswagen Company, finally the bigger words“Think small.” rhrougla this unique way,the concept of "small ear"has been successfully 潮ssed tO the

readers.砸s small谢ad
Company has

for

the

Volkswag捌a
eilaonnou5

Pln他,1
cal'5

aelaieved

success.More than 640.000

had been sold by the end of

山东大学硬士学位论文

1960s.This ad has won"the most distinguished ad"by the top 97 admen in

4西明妇胡g而嬲in
In general,a picture

1976.(姜炜,p.80)
can

be said to form pan of



graphic class(including pictures,


stal眦爆,designs,etc.)of images.Barthes


maintains that the relationship betwq∞n

#cture and what it portrays is a teal one.∞衄血’P.s9)It is observed by Vestergaard and Schroder that pictures arc much richer than language.(vestergaard’P.42)This
possibly explains why the space allocated to photographs in ads nearly always that devoted to the written words.

ex僦ds

2.Phonologicalfeature;ofautomobile advertising Although levels of
our

la啦孵the


focus is

011

choices form impUcit
where it
c卸n

distil蜘ve

ignore,in a trealment of phonological potentials of the written words.Phonological level of style in oral literature,and in written litemtme the written advertisements,we
cannot


always be made explicit in reading aloud.To

lsrge extent,this impticit

phonology

is detemdned by

choice

of words and

structures at the syntactic

level

can

be regarded as纽important ingredient ofstylistic value.

One ofthe tenets ofmodem linguistics is

that]锄guage is essentially non-iconic,that
shape ofwords is in fact
one

the

soond-meaning connection is arbitrary.卫碡phonetic



oftho less promismg areas in which to explore the phenomenon oflanguage imitating n剖岫鹏.Words are conventional and stereotyped units;but beneath the level of the
words,adwriters,like poets,have always known how to

exploit

the symbolic and

evocative value ofsounds.They explore
attract the attention of potential

the sounds ofEnglish for rhetorical effects to

consumers.One of the common devices adwriters
all

borrow from the poet is rhyming.Apart from it,the adwriter has to rhetorical

assortment of

types ofrepetition,such船alliteration,assonalw七and consonallce.AII ofthem belong

devices.(We will

di∞u鲻them in detail in Chapter 21 Besides the echo of

the sounds,advertisers will make words go and pause in time with the So consideration should be given to the

end-focus,pause

and

subject at hand. rhy'&ra,due to the fact

tllal they make the钯x协read fltmntiy and effectively.

2.1

The principle ofend-focus

As we have alliteration to

seen

from the above examples,auto adwriters exploit rhyming and M雌about associations between sound and mealling.Popc declares

that wrhe sound deeply than this the miInmg
or

must鬻釉all echo to the鸵n∞,but¥oIne adwriten penetrate mot-e

suggests.They embrace not only sound symho妇n,but also enactment ofmeaning through end-focus and patterns ofrhythm.

aphorism

According to Leech,the principle that"last is the most

importanf'n城獬that the
on

nuclear

to怫’s

natural position is at the end of the tone unit,specifically

the last

广.0,●}■r

I,

?



山东大学碗士学位论文

What you辨is

the删volvo 960--tmobtrmive

elegance that invites your eye to linger a


little longer.Wh砒you don’t See,however,isjud as important.Under the noble hood awaits

technolo#cally advanced lyJnj血le"2.5 or 3.0 liu'es,six cylinders and 24 valve-dynamic power coupledwith勰intelligentchassis systemfbrol黯talldillg∞adtIoIdin善(Volvo)


The

d啪驿a旭totally in keeping谢llI the vibmt ptn∞ality

ofthe

c玳the

190E is,够ever,

lively,spirited and龃exceptional handler.It also embodies棚the outstanding qualities of

Mercedes-Benz:impeccable伽茸m耐l强the

highest standards of safety

and既c印6讲IaI

reliability.(Benz car) The colon the dash鹤in the ads not only produ=s"space"On the page,but indicate pauses when you read them effect is to make the reader to read on tO get more information about the products being advertised.

and

aloud.仳attention-grabbing



Adwritersknowclearlythatifads alebrokeninto"parcelsofinformation,”therewill be units.They will be free to segment the texts into chunks as

respectively咖r弓tone

they like.But the choice they make will produce a di丘h∞ce text.This certainly seems to discuss the rhythm ofthe text.

to

the deciding of the

Leech discxwet'8 that when the length of graphic units follows&rcg:Ill|n"pattern,the

text靶锄stoprogresswithamemured d)唧衄icmovem.c12t.O.eech,P.216)Theadfor AcuRA敞isakoodexample:
It's the way the city comes alive越night.It's


3.5?liter,210-horsepowar

engine that likes tO

show off morc than a忙岛埔霉eL It's climate control that falIs如ma时皓他between ca=mjstry and村tisny.It's
a streetcar

named desire.It's柚?叩嘲k盯Bose audio system州廿I



Ph.D.in

music appreciation.It's the first satellite-linked navigation system built in-.dash.(or you’II lose
the

directions)It's a c掣that knows

you better than some people.It's the Acura RL.

(Acora RL)
The adwriter

disjoins

by full stop constructions which syntactically form part of the separate graphological signals suggesting the rhythm and intonatinn aloud.
as are

same sentence;making"clean"and"untouched"stand out sentences.The standing-out parts
one

should use in

reading the

text

There躺a【I舳e

atse¥where

every single

word


can

constitute



separate

tone/information unit.The ad for Audi A6 offers US

typical example:


17

‘}’7l一o-■FL

山东大学硬士学位论文

Here the effect is to emphasize the autonomy of each piece of information,which is

th=cby asserted with the rhythm and maximum force. 3.Lexical features in automobile advertising vIaving examined the graphological and phonological devices in the previous sections,various lexical techniques a旭explored here.
auto

advertising in
?

In the language ofadvertising it would appear that most advertisers tend tO

strengchen

the mood ofthe persuasive discOUl'始with the help

ofgraphological

and phonological

m翩nin黟.Wt/hJle

the text informs,the accompanying photograph伽咀fi如陷its message

and the graphological device

plays缸ancillary

∞mm朗t哪Consequently,advertisers

attention-grabbing skgJs to create an element of interest certainly。a business ofwords.”

and supportive role to the words offile ofIen u辩various lexical techniques鹪

A触iI培is
3.1 The

or剐叩呔among gcadel,3.

Emotive=djecdV矗and boosting

words

speak in positive and giowing terms of the series.Leech says:"Advertising is marked by a wealth ofadjective vocabulary,and a poverty of verb vocabulary.”(钱嫒,p.275)Naturally,auto advertising abounds with emotive

la啦孵of舡Iv口蜘pl咖to
adjectives
which boost the

cars

or∞慨being

advertised,优flatter the good/better/Best,
to

possible als的me心.Among the hi g:Illy frequent

a4jeaives ale.:,删I

free,如机delicious,彝nl'wonde斫d,clean,special,嘶踞'bt备extra,fl豫.pure,
special,superb,矗f孵and
some others.These words a聘easy
examples: find

in

auto

advertising,and here a把some

The new symbol for quality in

America.(slog=t

ofBuick

car) car)

We built

our

reputation蚵building a better oaF.(Slogan

ofSubaru

It is observed that"free”and"new"have strong temptation,and auto writers often

them to lure the customer.David Ogilvy,a famous adwrimr words we can use in headline age free and new.”徽嫒,p.53)Here

says:‰most
are

use

powerful

two examples:

E,q,aIld your driving a【p耐a-∞tO,IPw horizons wilh the all-new Corolla.

(ToyotaCorolla.赵静,p.128)
Our,Mp program will help
program isle..1ust
to

resolve product-related questions about your Honda.This

asI【at any Honda dgllef for a booklet.0_lo.da)

These carefully-chosen words to

create

the illusion of

superi耐ty and

termed weasel

18

山东大学硬士学位论文

堆weasel word is印dy named曲cer the egg碰Ilg habit ofw黜is.A weasel will suck the
to be

inside

ofan egg,leaving h appcm"intact协the causal observer.Upon examination,the egg is discovered

hollow."(E∞holz,p.181)
or

He considers that words

disinI.捌呻into

claims that appear subsumtial UpOn first look but
On

the hollow meaningless

following commonly used

w溉1 words in ads:best,better,help,like,virtual(1y).口暖

anal>sis躺weasels.He

lists tlle

work,彝gH.strengthe珥tackle,comfort,look like,the扣el ofand

80me others.The

abundant u辩ofthe weasel wol'd¥is found in auto ads,moat ofwhich arc‘叮k‘water is w吼’statement."(李绍明,P.115)Here a托¥omc samples ofwea辩1 words:

Therehas姗beenabet柳lime协buyadieselOrabelt"dieseltobI取
(General MotoB a正)

WehoJit鲫∞m嘣蛐byhm击I毽aben甜.铆:



In
as

auto

advertising

solne

words have

no

definite meanings that

Call

be pinned down,

they wolds in this ad for Audi A3:

create a vagl地and undefinable aura

around the word.Consider the italicized

Today lumo'y is no longer量matter of scale.It is That's why the new Audi A3

a捌捌暗m椰of quali伊and/nd/v/dua/ity.

cORI嚣in

three exquisite s耖les:Ambition.Attraction and

Ambience.(Audi A孙

Su删singly,very pl妇numl把-r咖also be vague in



similar

w碍:

When

Ford was asked to飘ltlsI[a吡ia士c his

clsim.it职Ⅳe棚th砒they meant the inside
Schrank。The Language

of the Ford was quieter than the outside.(Jcffery

of Advertising Claims,http'.//sunseLbackbone.olemiss.edu/--egibp/eomp/ad-claims.html)
-I
3.4
Foreign words and langunging

km誉壤ging is
OVal"one's



term used by Potter

to

si幽曩form

of one-up

manship,a辩丽ng
have scant

rivals

au∞u#the

Ilse

offictifiom foreign words ofwhich曲|cy
one's

knowledge,lhcreby inducing feelings of inferiority in

opponenL①锄|n,p.183)

山泰大学硕士学位论文

However,langfiaging may be extehded from nalYow concept ofthe impressive use of foreign words to include a manipulation of the vemacular,a special choice of vocabulary for its own sake.The lI∞of particular expressions shared by the writer and the reader,with the occasional poetic treatment,can be both ego-enhancing and memory飘蟮binin晷


One ofthese derived usages is alliteration

Many brand names

are

alliterated words,as


is Range Rover,Dahnler Doublesix,R0lIs Royce,etc.In auto ads,alliteration

commonly used device ideas:
Retooled Refined Reborn.

to attract the reader’s

attention.The ad for Mazda makes

use

of alliteration when it promises the potential buyers that

Mazda is



vehicle for new

It'snotjmt&眦
It'savehlcleforn州ideas.
Another technique derived from languaging is the use of a familiar expression in m unusual context.Ads may do this by arranging words which belong to different registers together to bring about associations,as agam in this ad for Audi:



These words
are

unconnected in meaning at first glance,but when we read them again,
to tell US that anyone who has enough

We come

to

realize that the adwriter aims

money to buy an Audi A6 will prove to be a words associated with a register throughout the copy meanings.

wise man.Adwriters

c锄also use enough

to evoke those specialized


山东大学硕士学位论文

CHAPTER 2

Syntactical

lteatures曩nd


Rhetorical

Devices

of

Automobile Advertising


I.SeJatelllCl}struetu聘
The first principle of advertising should be easy to read and easy to understand.So most of the auto ads are written in simple words and simple sentences.However, c堰矧ve adwriters ofIeln overstep the limits of the code that a∞删∞atain.even in

gramm码where

we

might

expect to find them determined by clear-ettt rules.At the

syntaedc level We will iliad constx'uetions"wkieh cannot be generated by an English grammar but 8坞nevertheless interpretable.”(Cook,P.140)And it has also been observed by Vestergaard that advertising copy has a tendency to chop sentences into short units by using full stops where ordinary prose would use COmraM or∞

ptmetuafion砒a11.Ocesteraard’p.22)Sentences of irregular sentence by Quirk.In ilolnl}ads only
phenomenon,according Deviant forms
create to

brand姗嚣m prcsetlt,for

this

type眦classitied

under the this

quirk,讹categorize it under the nonscntcn∞.

deviate柚d

eonsm删ons:

themselves.觚in
Simple

compressed mclmings.for they evoke both the form whiela they this section we will involve the following syntactic

sentences



h】他glll盯sentences

Nomentenees
1.I



Simple●enten馏
eontaim a simple elements(subject,verb,object,
the past,a sentence

In contemporary linguistics,a sentence is simple not only because it independent clause,but also bt∞llllsc all its constituent

complement,adverbial)a地phrases,not claus嚣.In
attributive clause would be considered
a a

wi血蛆

simple

sentence.,as

complex,5atltence.but today it is accepted as the complexity is砒the level ofthe phrase,nOt at the level ofthe

sentence

ofclause.

Investigating the style of auto advertising,WC find simple sentences abound in札 Adwriters tend to break dowla the text into series of minimal sentences,the result

№that
The

each

simple senten∞smllds On.its

OWla

feet,and is accorded equal’

importance with

others.I.簏eh

observes that



produce simplicity and

darity.O-胱h,p.219)
renmcd.The ride

succession of simple

sentences锄

wI圮eIba辩and弘瞄cn9贸锄即衄枷got longer.Tllc toot"got higllar.Tk width got
The illlerior

WilCo

comfort

g瞳mo b|删belief.Andyou伽getoI∞myourNiss蛐dealernoWo(NismSunny)
got删t

The ubiquitous Surrey got

山东大学硬士学位论文

1he嗍Civic V)(will
蛐ep Oil ttae gas and

amaze you.It's fun to drive.And,icty

ener器etfieiera.So

s撇On gas as well.

you啪

O-Ionda Civic)

The feature of the simple Scntcne∞is that it c缸early a lot of information at the phrasal level.As a result,it is a convenient vehicle for adwriters who wish to pack a number of relevant
Olr

鲫ltence

in an

ad啪be made quite complex in form and content,淞in this:

related details to the auto advertised.In this way,a simple


Hondawantsyouandyourttondatohaveablg口d_|Ic聊吵撑如吼ms坳(Honda)
SomepeopletIliIll【ofToyota船口ratherconservativecompany.
In some auto ads the
sentences It

a由eefaval

phrases functiomng

as

pre-modifiers II丝ke.the simple

tittle bit longer.

Ate'all,we’vebeenbuildingrdfab/e,high-砌carsforSOlong.
croyo诅Passion Road)

scntenc瑚a∞also made complex with preposilion phrases to list the functions of the products,and amibutive clallS嚣tO supply fill'thor information to e_,,Onfllm tlac customcl'S that the autos or
The simple

rclllted戡玎稍懈玳sutm'ior:.

F=ach model缸designed

N,lth埘“嘞ha'lu'/o埘加缸—讲I.砌and eo/o矿—函讳嚣that卿
侧惦Car)
be short
olr

mcom,/ne/ng铆thes/deastheyareseductiveOntheou口/de.
From the above depending
On

examples讹辨that¥imlfle
eontexlt.Without
Call an

sentellees can

10rig,

purpose and

appropriate purpose

s翻n翻K豁used

abundantly in a蕾ext only make make


Or context,short for choppiness and monotony.

Likewise。too many long sentences

passage heavy and laborious.Skillfall

adwriters,laowcver,锄exploit

variation in sclltetlce length tO achieve great effect.
scntcnct:.

Accordingly,in the next section we will have mOl'e tO say about the irregular

1r砖gular∞'ntenecs found in aphoristic
sentences.

ads眦mainly

fragmeatary d]iptieal

sentences

and

The first t),pc of

irregIllar

sentences

classified under irregular selatcnees recovery of these parts depends 013.many factors,c.蛋the sentence pattern,the the context of a舯湖ge勰a whole.Fragmentary proceeding

is fragmentary clliptieal sentences which a增 by Quirk et hi.The ellipticaI parts vary,and the

context,Or响On

sentcnc燃a砖used
number ofpurposes.

in ads,iu most of the cases,for stylistic

effect.聊SCI'V'I,a



/‘



山东大学琢士学位论文

First,fragmentary取加:tc日c鹤seⅣe the brevity principle。allowing the advertiser to achieve two commereiaUy desirable effects:to save space where words cost money;,
and to avoid drawing attention to features of the message whiela do not
SCl'Ve

adverdscrs’interest.The saving-space function plats in most of the classified ads. Cralperin points
out:

。This classified arrangement Ilas resulted in a number

in advertising.The tendency

to

eliminate

from曲暗鞭湘衄㈣nil elements that锄l be done without
cttiptic翻mtence懿n蟛t叭

ofstereot,jped oanerns

regularly employed

缸It pronounced Ol碡in advertisement and snnounc蜘aem writing.The

l'越1110 stylistic fimctiotlt,it is purely technleal.--to economize space.”(Galocrln,p.301)

But in most

auto

advertisements,the lacavy

麟贼ialive
bl屯,vity. Besides

value of its

of fragmentary sentences has“lm own.”Orestergaa吐p.22)The adwritcr ot!ten elimiDllt鹤
l,se

tmecessaly elements,and

leave the most informative parts

on

the陴to

achieve

cco∞mizing

with words

to

achievo

brwity,the fi'agm锄tary

sentcnec

h鹤

other important cfleets,resulting from its a.%qocilltion with particular discour始types, situations and relaliomkil搀.Fi删dy its frequ衄t usc creates a conversational t‘me.We
shall comider in detail a c越ad for the Subaru estatc 1.8.The text is
as

follows:

?

Tk Sub锄-la ofhis ofilll∞


m¥ttbaru oflais

of

k瓜Or how to ke印your msn'iage∞the r锄吐蹦tllfIlIly nIl口IIgII the

rough and the smooth.a'l"ough stormy weattaer lnd big丘eea己Gripping

sty;,Subara

fOUrowl雠I perfea mfriage.n埒Jmty for眦 n埒wordfirstl.24WD supermini.Apoetic:littleBlOvelt.3valvespercylinder.轴peedbox. 3贸5 doors.From only S 6.1911 what's mol'eo n培other I,attn硼A Subam estate,ofcourse.
four-wheel drive.11t world and his wife's favoutite in fact.With ll尼million


drives幻prove it.Mind you,it only takes two to make

Marr/cs

Starting砒蛔铀’599.帅jcll删you啪both

all the practical virtues to sheer

desirability.WitlI鹭啪modeIs
llam研彤don'tyou think?

to

choose from.

be in SubanI fout-wheeI drive

for妇

than S 15,000.A small p一∞幻球咿for lastl,g

Of the twenty-two fragmentary SelltClaces only one contains a main'vcrb"nlllllJcs.” From the phrase"Gripping stutt"onward,the text creates a conversational style whiela lm'sists
to

the very ald,evoked by fillers typical of conversational

discou嫩,

to

(‘in fact',‘mind you’,‘of coul'sc’)interrogatives which imply the presence of interlocutor(‘The otlaer oartner?’‘Don’t you think?’)and ellipses whicla appear
complete and support utterlmc船ofthat interlocutor:

Matlies dl

the肼Ic出司virtues幻sI?e冒dcsifaMl咄


Both pl℃'suppose

grammatical head

recoverable from



pl'cvious sentence--

山东大学颐士学位论文

respectively
phrase to
text all

liotm phrase whiela the relative act∞subjccc for the verb.Although
it

clause咖post-modify,and these啪be found,they lend the whole

a 1101111

air of being onll!half of a conversation,the彻副v∞to questions supplied by "you.”Alternatively one may read the whole笛a dialogue between two spt鞠tkel-s with breaks in text corresponding tO a change of voice,Or two voices both dressed to
"you.”


relationship,in wlaieh people the part of their interlocutor,and do not feel that assulne a to珈1clc璐啪d need to spell out every detail legalistic,ally.rhrough elliptic parts and they and assumptions of¥1111red knowledge,ads create缸atmosphere of intimacy Secondly,the fragmentary
desire
sentence suggests
011

a订岫g

informality.The following shows this:
HYI『ND^I
Always ttlere foryou An Invigorating 1)erformance

Ev啊y Time

Thus

the嘴offragmentary scntenc器in ads is“a formal。钯xtual phenomenon---has
creates
all



di辩伽鹏function."(Cook,p.172)It
indmacy.

atmosphere of proximity and

Another type of irregular sentence is the aphoristic

aNaoristic selatcnec吼哪鼬呱e

is fotmd in

many佴01础s.The
com'lruedom
tO

sent船ce.According to Quirk,the
commoll structural
effects of against each other.By

feature is in the balancing of two equivalent applying this pattern to the advertising,the adwriter aims
ofeatelaing the l'l冀ldelt"'s attention.For example:

aehi叭the

proverbs.In ads such structure is usually used in the headlines and slogalas

as a lncalns

D∞i印cd with

111.computer.

Silenced埘a IllSClro
Built by a robot.

The

third

ly】pc is tlae nonscntenec.Nonsente.ces in advertising a聆usually
IIOUtlIS Ot

exclamatory

adjective

phra螂.These
to

CXpI'CSS approval.or have the force

call

the托a蛔’attention:

exclamatory

Ilouns or

adj(蛆ives

may

A NEW DRIVING EXPERIENCE

山东大学硕士学位论文

The
auto

nonscntenee

in Ms is

an

eeo肋mized,but a creative

device.In SOme

auto

ads,tlle

brand names which act器noun phrases form the noilsentellce¥.Often,this kind of

ads躺only
and

made up of the brand
one ot

ilanlcs

pictures(sometimes

two

words)。

but they have the force of offe墙Or arousal.


11lis is

one ofthe simplest ways to grab the Ieadef’s attention.Look at Plate 5.a lovely boy with a victory gesture attracts lhc

靠蜀de心att倒tion
French

immediately,then the

word"Revolutionmire!”which
at

mea璐“赡Vol'坩o∞ry'’in Eng,lisb.1k
ofCitroen is

logo file lower-riglat corll盯whida is also very nolieeable。So it is a suee.cssful advetlisin蜃 工Sentence types

PI啦5

The most imlxMrtnm senten∞type in written English is the statement.But in everyday conversation粥may mal∞llsc of sentence types suela as conlmands.questions and exclamations u∞of

that缸moIe directly con翻强ncd witla int嘲eting with other people.The th微lyp鹧of sentaaees does suggest sometlling nbout who is也Itening

reading.A question,for imtanee,is neither true

the healer knows something that the whether a question(or command Or would have幻hold for

sDe妇does

1101"‰but
not

Ot

it does typically suggest know.So instead of asking

it幻make螂tO this[ist既et.11le answcl"im’t
our

exclamation)is血啦.We

ask what conditions

as an indirect e_...Olnlllllll正In straight-for,胧nd,a a地Inorc like everyday conversation.For this reason,w℃find in advertising English questions a舱Often used instead of imperative'j,althoup,la we do conic:篮-'TOSS

question啪function

this髓铆赋ads

always

imperatives and exelamatiom.In this section questions.(Wre have touched UpOll

main

con(:enl

is imperatives and

exelatmtio璐in

Chapter one.)

It could be said that the generic sclrltence type for advertising is the ilnpcrlltive, b|鞍m辩all ads a∞Ⅲ西ng Ills to some action.De Voe,a famous adwriter,urges his students to u辩imperatives,in矗p蕾陵进ge’that itself is made up of

inlp训懈and

questions:

sellcelllc嚣m址矾addre镪l directly协you笛t昭—%越this o雠is?Moa pcopk do.It gives file触Iil瞎that∞l弛咖is协lkiI瞎幻口lem from the p|im酣雕Don't fofl萨t
Do you like So rc盛cl

imperatives!nl掣have?similareffect.(Myers,p.47) Note that

adverti..船usc imperatives,not because telting you幻do somethjng really

虫蔓奎兰堡主兰垒丝苎
makes you do what they say,but becau.赞it will create a personal one person talking to another.The form ofan imperative is recognizable
a speaking

effect,a∞雠of
even

without

voice because it typically leaves

out the

subject"you.”The ads urge you to

do the following:
11Iink Small


The new Volvo 960 Range. 11Iink i‘OVa'o
’‘‘

(Volvo) fiord) (Houda Civic Wagon)

Stop in m any Ford of Lincoln-Mercury dea]e1".

Put in ml behind you.



Most

ofthe questions,especially those used at the end ofthe text and those as slogans in adveaising,a聆rhetorical that is,they generally do not expect an a11SWeL Although

they啪interrogative in咖lctI|鸭they

have‘‘the force of assertion Iather than



genuine question.”(Quirk,P.s25)The meaning,oonu"ast to the雄Ip伐I瑚丑ce of the literal wordjng,is vigorously positive.This is one of the more cautious,indirect methods ofcalling
to

action in advertising.

Another more subtle

[questions]can
interprets the

effect questions can have is discovered by Myers:qley contain presuppositions that are almost impossible to discard if onc
expectation is"an
the following

text.”(Myers,p.49)The u∞of presupposition and

extremely frequent feature in
h朗dtine:

advertisin晷”(Vestergaad,p.26)Consider

P助鼬h妇kindof甜AI眦fi髓Wants妯d∞正 Why qI蛾船pl昏,ailing ads?V鼬-rgaard阳l玛the
are

in

explanation:

。The代韪s∞for mis use of headlines which presupposes rather也锄asscft吐碡。谢础瞰b of
statements li岛in t}砖difference

questionordeny孤assertionthana舯嘲私m饥”(№黜c喀a甜。p.26)
We
not only

bd嘲嘞as刚on

the

and presupposition:it is much easier to

have"questions"in

rhetorical

devices.We will

sentence哦but

also"rhetorical questions”in

discuss rhetorical questions and other rhetorical devices in

the next section.

3.Rhetorical devic瞄

3.1

Simile and metaphors
and simile
or arc

Metaphor

used in advertisements

to

illustrate characteristics of

advertised products

services.

For centuries the study of figurative language was restricted to poetry and speeches. However,we have found various puns in auto ads.And there is also some
tlsc

of

similes and metaphors in pocket"is a simile which
your pocket.”

auto advertisin孚For

example,"Ride like
as

meal毽‘‘“ving(a car)is jnst

easy

as

feather in your having a feather in


山东大学硕士学位论文

One of the advantages offered by metaphor is that itⅡ田kes the l'eader see:50me resemblance bctwl跫ll things and the object featured in the metaphor and the o巧cct to which the metaphorical utterance refers.Furthermore,the reader takes part of the responsibility in deriving f3Jrther assumptions about the object which associates with
the product
or

s州ce.The product
do

or

service will bec..ome


status

symbet,such

as

the

following When

auto ad:



s∞my地what

I辨:Poetry.Poea7

in motion.poetry in

motion,walkirIg by

my side.(New CorollaToyota)

baby in the adwriter's eye.When it is driven, its beauty reminds people of the beauty of poetry.Through this metapho‘.t is very easy for people to think that Corolla in motion is very beautiful,and the owner oftbe
In this


ad’the咖Corolla is j啷t like

Corolla must love it very

much,just ljl‘e

loving№or her

OWIR

baby.Metapho£has

achieved great advertising effect.

3j2.Puns
Puns a地indeed popular with advertisers.Puns would appeaI to

their喇越|d_i黜e


because oftheir wits and humours,and they disarm skepticism since puns by nature

钟not


considered serious.The forceful combination oftwo separate words creates

surprising wonder and widens the image ofa product.


Advertising deliberately causes their andience exlxa processing effort by employing puns.because the first and perhaps the most important requirement ofan ad is that it
should attract and hold such
as a a

pun,a reader may pay no attention


reader’s atWntion.Without all"attention-getting”device tO an act,which would thus achieve no

effect砒alL Moreover,solving

pun∞n

help协retain attention,SO then

an

idea

which the reader might scarcely notice is strengthened because ofthe extra processing

involved.An ad for London Transportation has the following caption:
Less bread.Nojang

黜撕the words"bread"and“jam,”we
to search in
US our

will probably take the words to mean

foodstuff.But such interpretation will have∞be叫ected弱it is irrelevant to the 文..'rvice promoted by the ad.Having put aside the fast interpretation,we will continue memory for more acceptable interpretations.The word“jam"reminds ofu-afficjams,and"bread'’is slang for‘money',thus,we would rccovelc.

Since the ad is promoting London be recovered:

Transportation,somethiIlg

like the following should

出茎奎兰受圭兰竺堡苎

一.

IfyoutravelbyLondonTramlX札h嫡I∞啦y∞lessm哪哆蛐dyouwillnot幽如咄
ja札
AnoO艟r example for puns.m WOMAN:



auto

advertising: this&lgle
a bad

One

reason

why I bough

Summit is that I once tried to put all ofmy

luggageinthebackofaToyotaTercel OFF-CAMERA VOICE:Sounds like

andhju对wouldn't舭

expercience.

WOMAN:Yeah,but豇lallbehindmen洲
understood in two ways:the first is that all this has 他’s all behind me become past也ing;the second is that all luggage has been put into the back luggage compar血ent ofEagle behind the driver. 33.Parallelism Parallelism refers
to the use

now"啪be

of identical

or

equivalent syntactic

o们塔灯Ilcti∞s

in

clauses.Parallelism can reinforce the effect of the advertising and anotion.One of the common ways of doing this is to emphasize the express su-ong

corresponding
similarity.

MorepeoplechooseadosovermyotherpeL


Morepeoplechooseblueoveranyothercolour.
Nl饼e people choose ice acam讲f材any other却瓯

More More

people

choo∞cotton

over

any other fabric.

people choose the Accord OVer any other∞L

We

a糟not being asked to buy the product,just to compare Accord with others attention to the demonstration being provided for our benefit.
Parallel construction in ads also emphasizes diversity and constrast:

to pay

The Temptation Is Great.

啊∞Penance Is Small.

D瞄i驴cd

witlI



computm-.

Silenced by a hscL

Built by a robot.

Usually,the necessary condition in parallel
structure in two or

structure

mol-o part of a above.Parallelism has been and will be widely used in automobile examples advertisements.

sentcn嘲or

is identical,or similar syntactical sentence in close relation as in the



山东大学颈士学位论文

3.7

Rhyme量nd alliteration

Rlayme is preferred in advertising in Older to nlake language sound vigorous in rhythm and sonorous in tonc,and the most important,to evoke the multitude ofwarm associations in the mind of the
cOllSUlnelt'o

True rhyme

always involves the last

accented syllable and any subsequent

umeeented

syllables.End rhyme is the name

is by缸the given commonest type partly be懿mse rhymed words appearing吐the ends of lines make good use ofthe emphatic,terminal position.Rhyme,in auto ads,Often appears in the
to corresponding sounds when they occur at the ends

oflines.砌s

headline and slogan,笛in the following:
If'you

w∽.皿pmssed
(Nissan∞r)

wheatyou鞠wL删s面thistest,
wait until you read this.

OtymlaO
AliOther

d巧

Better way

嘶i∞Minivan)
of initial consonant sounds in


Alliteration is the
sounds

relation

series of words that a∞ playing
0n

nOt far apart,as in Pr/de


andPrejudice,Coca Cola;etc.This

flimilar initial

in words for cleseriptive effect is not

the monopoly of poets,however.

Adwriters make full u辩oftlais teelmique.
As alliteration produces mellifluous and harmonious echoes,it is often used in auto brand names which have appeared Ore'I"the years.

RolIs Royce Karl Kassbohrer Berlinetta Boxer

Mini Mayfair
Range Rover DllillllcT Doublesix

More oil.n,we

find that the

OCCUlTenCc

of alliteration is in headlines and slogans,

where it翻玎vcs to encourage the l'eadcr to continue with the body copy,or to urge the relldat-to get action.Here is
an

example for Duesenburg Automobile ad:

BUILT 1"0 OUTCLASS,OUTRUN AND OI.TrLAST ANY CAR ON THE ROAD

(See

Plate 4)



:)

坐至查兰望主竺堡笙苎



’’


SUr.LT物☆秽节eZ蠢强OUTRUN AND O£,善Z,。稻7蠢孵黝嚣母帮7搿嚣聋O蠢簪
,, /









f●
矗r矗mint.■

S‘?-l,tm■-啊商哪柚嘲瞻钿曩i函m稳击—畦■

●___蹦●_l越埘,k后_k■越



’fk叠¨t0节,“c?r?

豁留蕊蠡戮黧寥戮翘彩
T H g

D R I G



NA L

S r疑A I G H T
Plate4

B l G H T

山末大学硕士学位论文

These examples prove that this oldest rhetoric device of alliteration is date in the eontemporal'y auto adv.-rising.

never

out

of

Repetition,whiela includes repetition of key words Ot that of similar sll'uctures,is applied in advertising to emphasize important features of products Ot services. Cohesion within
lln

ad啪be

advertising favours repetition
Toyota

Over

provided by repetition.In refening to the product, referring expression.Let's look at the ad for

carom'.

Did you heat

I删quiet恤Toyota

Ca_vj,鲫Or

th越it h笛锄available v6目lgine.Maybe


somebody told you也缸most stnndard drive-side

air吨Alld bes£馏Imilt缸^删But啦tllketheirWOn:IS妇解GetinsideaCannyandpfora driveyot峨l£You'll螂that嗍you’w
that

Cam-弦玳Imilt.m G∞曜麒叫vn.Kentucb,.That m可have

Automobile№弘沁calledⅡlc

Catmy XI.,E v6"the

In this act,tbe brand name

of"camry,.is唰four
n姗c
of

hl{矾.。缸饥砖…(Toyotal:蛐ly}

times.We啪蛾o∞obvious
that it will

flmction of repetition is to fix tlac come
to the lips

the姐in l,eadelt-s’mind,so

ofthe pureha蝌lost for a mine.



3.9

Oxymoron
to produce a striking e丘bcL Advertisers


Oxymoron is employed in advertisements

choose two apparently contradictory tcrras that express
of

startling paradox to show

indicate the particular aspect ofthe products

Or

SeI'Viccs.Take the advertisement of

Ford Trucks as蛆example,the headline reads“We don’t iust build cars,”which first
piques the nudienee’s curiosity,for it is impossible for


cal"company that does

not

build ca墙.Then the body copy reads。"We

build FI几『【瓜ES.”By such humorous

incongruity,the advertiser indicates it builds mo咒to satisfy cOIISUmIeI'S’needs and
help achieve the aim in advertising its products successfully.

This device is the

usc

of



part to stand for



whole

Or

vice versa.It is used

to

capture the audience’s attention and

in即沁their

enthusiasm in browsing the

next

information.Look越the example ofGrand Am:

Prec/ous m帆船【Inside.Otaside.Around every collnlCfo 1Hed.Tested."rough协b翻正It's the
IllOSt

solid Grand Am

c咐built

And it's IMlilding

It

solid reputation with the world’s

mOSt hard-nosed critics:our OWletS.Thc 1999 GrandAm Excitement Well built

33



坐塞茎竺堡主兰垡丝苎

The advertiser same time,it

uses

the word"mental"to represent the

caL

Grand Ant And

at the

8rouses

rich associations about the quality of the car.It is made of

precious mental,inside and outside.


In short,all the above rhetorical devices advertisers used

are

to exert the

functions of

language in order

to

make their advertisements charming and fascinating,thuS


helping

allarge sales of automobiles.Advertisers usually craft not
auto

single of these
can


rhetorical devices in their help in pushing the selling.

advertisin岛however,they choose the ones that



山东大学硕士学位论文

Textual Features ofAuto Advertising
In the previous chapter we arc largely

concerned with considering the slzueture of small formal chunks oflanguage,l,anieularly irregular sentences in ads,and exploring the ways in wlaieh particular sclltence types and辩ntcncc sll'ueture have c.onll:tO be
associated with


pardeular information status in advertising.

Wb begin this chapter by considering how large elaunks of language

c0111e

to

be

interpreted鹊a text.Wc will treat ads as a discoul'船lype.Accordingly,in this chapter we will first examine the function of pronouns in advertising,as the choice of pronouns clllTies signifiea.ee in a wide range of texts lluit坨珥毯;em SOmt{sort of interaction and in the second coherence in血e
texts

will explore cohesive de'viees and of ads and their eommunieativc effect The last Sectioll of this
covert

s咖∞we

d确pter discusses the u∞ofthe

communication in SOme ads.

One of the most

distiDctiYi,fealu麟of

edaoiee of pl'on01.t13s Callrics
sort

advertising is in its u船of l帆'OnOtmS.The si霉垃臣∞n∞in a~vide range of texts that reprc鲫at SOtne

of intcraclJon.As we know,certain di.北oul-se types favour certain pronouns: diaries,for example,favour the first person,written nalTativctlL the first Or thira. prayers the second,seiendtie discourse the third and SO On.Ads use all three persons.


but in particular ways.We is the ma.ufaeturer:,I is olden.the advertiser,the expert,the
relator ofexperiences and motives leading to purchase ofthe product;he/she is often the person who did not
use

the product;and they usually refers
use

to the

great

undistinguished mass that fail to frequent,and most divergent from ofyou.
You in ads contains and suggests


the峨ofother

the product But the most striking and most diSCOUl'SC type is the ubiquitous use



contradiction.It assumes knowledge ofthe individual addressee

OllC-to-.ont:relationship.The adwriter makes you singled out from the crowded.By purchasing IIlc product Or benefiting from the Sen,iCe,you will become a
bit lnol吧of example:

yourselt:solllcone

special。and realizing your unique

potential.For

Conformity has its

eomf矾s.But ifyou

enjoy being

independent

and living life tO n碡fullest,it's probably not foryou

We knowjt匝howyou feel(Toyota Passion Ro翻1 WHICH MAN WOULD
1"0UVOTE FOR?

ads,Myers maintains that theyou in solnc ads is powerful b嘲alse it is slippery,not becausc it picks outjust onc person.(Myers.p.79)It is used just k蛾lu辩 tlac advertiser cannot know WhOm they am reachi赡. Contrary
to the

生奎查兰堡主兰竺堡苎

Cock in his z7圮Discourse

of彳dw腑啦g makes



comparison betwe姐you used in


ads andyou used in poems and songs.He discovers that theyou ofads has exophora involving reference tO

double

(Cook,P.156)m cham曲啦ofads

sonl∞nc in the picture
sometimes look

and to the receiver's own sel£

both瓤№s∞蛐d
encourages


out

ofthe picture,making them
in the
text,

addresser.nIis double reference,originaling
at


the triangle which affects completion l'eceivcr and onc ofthe people in the picture..
Sender

co-reference

bc|阳7渤the


㈣㈣③



(cha删@
pa搬(the

This dual identity ofyou is matched by the mysterious identity of叩’which is not revealed.The visual p他saK宅of ano也er character)distracts fi'om this

abscnce。mating m
to win US OVer

illUSion that the dialogue is between the character and the Ig:Idrcssce.The use ofyou in ads is part ofa high-involvement strategy which attempts by very direct address;they step uninvited into ilne∞est in 0111"most intimate conccri坞. We is always tricky,b∞ause it
OUt

world,expressing

c蛆be

used in both exclusive and inclusive爱玎lse.that


is’either

the pa-son who is spoken to.In advemsing the including more colNtlllon u∞of w世is to refer to the adw盯tiscr,not i船lIldillg the audience,
not

or础uding

projecting

the

i瑚ge ofthe company鹳personal,笛the following ads show:.
by you.

Everything’"曲is driven

(Ford) froyota
Passion

臃knowjust how
,in ads olin speaks

you feel

Road)
paradox.

as

the potential consumer,the adviser,but it raises
an all



Many
one

ads ca/l

on

the OOIISUIn燃'to bd7,omc another

commodity

or

se锄to
Or

offer

individual.Ads offering consmption of alternative of defining ourselves:if We


buy,say,a kind of car,WC will be distinctive individuals.It is advertiser addresses thousands
saille

paradox bjcause tlle

millions of people with tlm same message at the
car.

time,and always 110pes that more than o鹏ofthem will buy the
We。and you

m pronouns Z

remind璐of the

basic communicative situation of the

spe,aket(advertiseO and the hearer(customer).We might think third p廿'SOR pronouns would be straightforward,because they don't involve eitiler the two parties to the
communication.But they can be used to set up positi01Lq.He or she typically refers tO someone known to the reader,either known through the ad,or known because taken for granted
as

part

ofthe髓妇,s Iife.Look

at the

following ad:

WHAl‘’S MINE IS MINE

山东大学硕士学位论丈

‘WOW,’he sai正‘a

System-Porsche
to

ensim

That's high-performance.’

'Ifldp.k 1was supposed it'llgetmefromAtoB.’

be impressed or something.Frankly,all lask from

my谢is that

Reliably,ofcourse.And safely.

Happily we both agreed that
Were absolutely ideal

the州∞(from£5,099)and


running
?

costs(ridiculously low)

(Atthough'僻bickered



bit about whetlIef tO go for three Oil"five doors.)

1won,oflconditionthattheboy-ra∞rgottOdriverithome.

Hedlvughtlwesjokingwhen/toldh/m:‘Justthisonce’.(VolkswagenSeat)
(SeePlate 6)

殛l胛.粥Ⅷbwt蚋Seat错耐:'垤I●如毋脚e童mine‘




_

7,

,,

Plate6


Through the

picture,眦can

clearly idvatify that“,refers

to the speaker white"he”
or

refers to the young gentleman in the picture who may be the lover speaker that is known tO the

friend of the

reader,‘、.,e”here refers to the speaker and the young gentleman exclusive of the manufactures

or

car

salesperson.

2.Cohesive devices and coherence Halliday and Hasan take the view that the pI佃嗯ry determinant of whether
set of



山东大学硕士学位论文

scntcnc.燃do ot do not constitute a text depends Oil cohesive relationships within and between the sentences,which ereat嚣texture.They outline a taxonomy of typ鹤of cohesive relationships fully established within a tcxt,providing cohesive

which锄be

ties

of explieit marked cohesive relationship in texts is indicated by formal markers whiela relate what is about to be said to what has been said beforc-.-markcrs then.Look at the


wlaieh bind

text

together.A familiar type

like谢but,∞and
?

example:



Remember your first car?You dreamed about it.And you dreamed about it And when you
finally got it,you showed it ott;And cve,rbody talked about

it.Well

that’s the way we’亿

feelinginAlabama rightnOW.TheMn∞desM..elassisAlabama'sfirstvehicle.,d[11dIiowthnt h,s in the showroom,it簧暑ms eVa了b州ly

is协№about

it.

fMereedes-13enz M-cla豁car)

In ads lexieal cohesion is used to allow fusion between the l,nxtuet phrases,by Izeating them Volvo:
1IS

n锄e

and ot.h盱

though they V,'elt℃semantically l'elllted

tO

it,as the ad for


HAU7ADECADE^旺ADOFGOVER》琢旺孙rrREGIII.^卫oNS.
YEARS^}n:AD OF 01l瑾R MAl电yE^CTURERS.

HOI'EFOLLY,BEFORE YOU’RE IN AN ACCIDENT.

There is nothing but the eolaesive chin ofnouns and adverb:all refer advanced
Int:asutcs

tO the

active and


taken by Volvo mamffaeturers to assum driving safety.By the

lexieal cohesion,the adwriter succeeds in bringing the association to the readef's mind:Volvo's manufaetur啦lay muela emphasis 011.safety problem,and all the safety equipments in Volvo are advanced and in the lead.
It iS easy tO find texts in ads,which display few if any explicit markers of eohesive relations.Yule argues that it is the underlying semantic relation which actually has the cohesive

power.(Yule,P.195)11lis assumes
to identify a
on

that readers do not depend

on

formal

markers of cohesion in order
correctly remark.*"we insist

inte】fpl咖any

text丛a text.As Halliday and Hasan passage笛a text if there is the

remotest possibility of doing SO.”(r蹦ziday,p.23)That leads惦tO the concept of coherence---"the ovcrall quality ofunity and meaning perceived in discourse.”(Cook,

p.154)Although

aided by cohesion,and almost always accompanied by it,cohesion

?depends upon such factors蹈the lallglmge users,knowledge of the world,the inference they l瑚ke,mad the assumptiolls they laolck and in particular of the way in which communication is mediated

姆.

through

the

USC

of speeela acts.As advertising has

matured,formidable restrictions hayc grown up alongside it,imposed by publishers, the law or advertisers’OWll organizations.Iffactual elairm戤tmtrue,the advertiser is
held responsible.Factual

clail璐and direct persuasion thus take
inolt'e

uD

less and less

SpaCe

in modem ads.As



result,wc find

and nlol宅ads

arc

markers of eohesive

relations.砌s

written with few explicit

can

be illuswated by the ad for Chrysler's

Plymouth:

山东大学硕士学位论文

"Look越An Three!

BUT DON’T BUY ANY IX)W-PRICED CAR I

n哪L

YOU’VE D刚VEN T1_匝

NEW PLYMOUTH WITH

FLOATING

POWER.(Plymouth)

In the act,the adwriter doesn’t directly proclaim the low-priced Plymouth and urge the D懿Idef to buy it,but advises the read盯first to visit several places to compare the prices and performance of the
car

cars.‰,here

can

be paraphrased either

as

three


shops

or

the Big

Three.(GM,Ford and ChrysleO Of
to the

c,ourse,Chrysler is

lot

inferior

to the other two in terms to pay

of sales,scale and profits.This ad implicitly hints
success.

customers

attention

low-priced Plymouth,hence achieves great

3.Covert communication As We know,advertising is typical of矗situation in which the speaker is not trustworthy and the hearer is not uus血S.It is mutually manifest to both the advertiser and his address

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