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高中英语 Module 3 Literature 背景知识拓展 外研版选修7

Module 3 Literature
(一) The works of Shakespeare and Words worth are “rocket-boosters” to the brain and better therapy than self-help books, researchers will say this week. Scientists, p

sychologists and English academics at Liverpool University have found that reading the works of the Bard and other classical writers has a beneficial effect on the mind, catches the reader’s attention and triggers moments of self-reflection. Using scanners, they monitored the brain activity of volunteers as they read works by William Shakespeare , William Wordsworth, T. S. Eliot and others. They then “translated” the texts into more “strai ght- forward”, modern language and again monitored the readers’ brains as they read the words. Scans showed that the more “challenging” prose and poetry set off far more electrical activity in the brain than the more pedestrian versions. Scientists were able to stu dy the brain activity as it responded to each word and record how it “lit up” as the readers encountered unusual words, surprising phrases or difficult sentence structure. This “lighting up” of the mind lasts longer than the initial electrical spark, shifting the brain to a higher gear, encouraging further reading. The research also found that reading poetry, in particular, increases activity in the right hemisphere of the brain, an area concerned with “auto- biographical memory”, helping the reader to reflect on and reappraise their own experiences in light of what they have read. The academics said this meant the classics were more useful than self-help books. Philip Davis, an English professor who has worked on the study with the university’s magnetic resonance centre, will tell a conference this week: “Serious literature acts like a rocket-booster to the brain.” "The research shows the power of literature to shift mental pathways, to create new thoughts, and connec- tions in the young and the staid alike.”

本周将发布的一项研究揭示, 阅读莎士比亚与 华兹华斯的作品好比大脑的“火箭助推器” ,比读 一些自助书籍还要管用。 来自利物浦大学的科学家、 心理学家和英文教 授发现, 阅读莎士比亚及其他古典作家的作品对心 智发展大有裨益,这些作品能够抓住读者的注意 力,引发读者的自我反思。 通过使用扫描仪, 他们监测到接受实验的志愿 者在阅读威廉?莎士比亚、威廉?华兹华斯、T?S? 艾略特和其他作家的作品时的大脑活动。 他们随后将这些文本“翻译”为更为“通 俗 易懂”的现代语言, 然后又对读者在阅读这些文字 时的大脑活动进行了监测。 经扫描发现,散文和诗歌越“具挑战性” ,大 脑中的电流活动就愈加频繁, 而那些通俗化的版本 则达不到这种效果。 科学家们能够研究大脑对每一个词语作 出反 应时的活动, 并记录下读者在遇到生僻词语、 新奇 短语或复杂的句子结构时大脑如何“被激活”。 大脑的这一 “激活” 状态比最初的电火花持续 时间更长,让大脑的转动更高速,鼓励读 者继续 往下阅读。 研究还发现,阅读书籍,尤其是诗歌,可以增 加与 “自传体记忆” 有关的大脑右半球的活动频率, 有助于读者根据阅读内容对个人经历进行反思和 重新评价。 学者们表示, 这意味着阅读古典作品比 阅读自助类书籍更有帮助。

和利物浦大学的磁共振中心一同致力于此项 研究的英文教授菲利普?戴维斯本周将在一次会议 上宣称: “严肃文学的作用相当于大脑的火箭助推

器。 ” “研究显示, 文学作品对年轻人和中老年人都 能产生强大的力量, 它可以转变思维方式, 开拓新 思路,引发新联想。 ”

a s a storyteller. Mo's works include "Red Sorghum", "Frog" and "Big Breasts and Wide Hips", which have been translated into English, French, Swedish, Spanish, German, Italian and Japanese.

(二) MO Yan, winner of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Literature, does not consider himself to be a "literary master." Speaking on his return from Stockholm, he told reporters: "The title 'master' has an intrinsic meani ng, and if someone calls me a literary master, I will think i t may be disguised sarcasm, for I believe I am far from qualified for the title." When asked whether he will "continue to be a storyteller," as he said in his spe ech in Stockholm, he said a good writer should commit himself to writing, instead of meetings and media interviews. The Nobel literature prize has been the "kiss of death" for some writers, Mo said yesterday, with many fail to continue to produce excellent work after winning the accolade. "After the Nobel win, a writer can easily slip into a life that is occupied by trivial matters," he said, adding that he hoped to avoid such a situation. Describing his trip as fruitful and eye-opening, he said he had "a lot of plans" for writing, but would take some time off to rest first. In his "Storytellers" lecture delivered at the Swedish Academy, Mo described himself

莫言,2012 年诺贝尔文学奖得主,并不认为 自己是一个“文学大师” 。 在他从斯德哥尔摩返回时说,他告诉记者: “ ‘大师’标签有一种内在意义,如果有人叫我文 学大师, 我将认为这可能是伪装的讽刺, 因为我相 信我离这个头衔还差得远。 ” 当被问到他是否将“继续做一个讲故事的人” 时, 正如他在斯德哥尔摩演讲时说的, 他说一个好 作家应该献身于写作,而不是会议和媒体采访。 诺贝尔文学奖对于一些作家来说一直是 “死亡 之吻” ,莫言昨日表示,许多人在赢得赞誉之后无 法继续创作出优秀的作品。 “获得诺贝尔奖后,一个作家很容易就陷入被 琐事占据的生活中, ”他说,补充道他希望避免这 样的情况。 他描述他的旅行卓有成效和大开眼界, 他说他 有“很多计划”的写作,但首先会找一段时间去休 息。 在他在瑞典皇家科学院发表的“讲故事的人” 的演讲中,莫言将自己描述成一个讲故事的人。 莫言的作品包括《红高粱》 、 《蛙》和《丰乳肥 臀》 ,已经被翻译成英语、法语、瑞典语、西班牙 语、德语、意大利语和日语。


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