可以表示时间，原因，条件，结果，伴随，让步等情况。 举例： 1.Seeing from the top of the mountain，he saw a beautiful city. 2.Her mother died in 2001，leaving her with her younger brother. 3.Having read the letter from her
daughter，he sat down with relief. 4.Not having received any letter from him, I gave him a call. 对比：Not knowing his dress，she went to a policeman for help. 5.Seen from the top of the mountain，Chongqing is a beautiful city. 6.The child learns fast，well brought up by his parents. 7.Being struck by the heavy storm，they felt helpless. 8.Having been told many times，he still repeated the same mistake.
形式 Doing 意义 与句中主语为逻辑上的主动关系，与谓语同时或基本 同时发生 Having done Done Being done 与句中主语为逻辑上的主动关系，先于谓语发生 与句中主语为逻辑上的被动关系 与句中主语为逻辑上的被动关系，与谓语同时发生， 一般放在句首，表示原因 Having been done 与句中主语为逻辑上的被动关系，先于谓语发生
注意点： 1. 表示时间关系的分词短语有时候可以由 while/when 引出。 Eg：When offered help，one often says，“thank you”. Be careful when crossing the street.
2. 有些分词货不定式短语作状语， 其形式不受上下文限制， 我们称其为独立成分。 常见的有： Generally/frankly speaking； Judging from/by； Considering/ taking .....into consideration； To tell you the truth； Seeing....考虑到； Supposing....假如，如果； Provided (that)....如果； 3. 独立主格的问题。 非谓语动词做状语时， 他的逻辑主语和句子主语是一致的。但有时候非谓语动词 带有自己的逻辑主语，在句中作状语。我们称这种为独立主格结构。如： The test finished（=when the test was finished），we began our holiday. The president killed （=after the president was killed） ， the whole country was in deep sorrow. Weather permitting(= if the weather permits), we are going to visit you.
真题演练（2014 年） ：
1. (北京) 25. Last night, there were millions of people _______ the opening ceremony live on TV. A. watch 2. (福建) 27. __ B. to watch C. watched D. watching the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears B. Spent C. Having spent D. To spend
more mature than those of her age. A. Spending 3. (湖南) 23._______ your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions. A. Understanding C. Being understood B. To be understood D. Having understood
4. (湖南) 27. There is no greater pleasure than lying on my back in the middle of the grassland, _____at the night sky. A. to stare B. staring C. stared D.having stared 5. (江苏) 29. His lecture____, a lively question-and-answer session followed.
A. being given C. to be given A. Having spent A. saying several times. A. Working out
B. having given D. having been given B. To spent B. says C. Spent C. said D. To have spent D. having said
6. (江西) 31. ___nearly all our money , we couldn’t afford to stay at a hotel . 7. (山东) 6. There is a note pinned to the door______ when the shop will open again. 8. (陕西) 20. ________ the difficult math problem, I have consulted Professor Russell B. Worked out C. To work out D. Work out
9. (四川) 7. — I hope to take the computer course. — Good idea. ____ more about it, visit this website. A. To find out C. To be finding out B. Finding out D. Having found out
10. (天津) 7. Clearly and thoughtfully ________, the book inspires confidence in students who wish to seek their own answers. A. writing C. written B. to write D. being written