INCH-POUND The documentation and process conversion measures necessary to comply with this revision shall be completed by 8 July 2002.
MIL-STD-202G 8 February 2002 SUPERSEDING MIL-
STD-202F 1 APRIL 1980
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
TEST METHOD STANDARD ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENT PARTS
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
1. This military standard is approved for use by all Departments and Agencies of the Department of Defense. 2. Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinent data which may be of use in improving this document should be addressed to: Defense Supply Center Columbus, P.O.Box 3990, Columbus, OH 43216-5000, by using the self-addressed Standardization Document Improvement Proposal (DDForm 1426) appearing at the end of this document or by letter.
PARAGRAPH 1. SCOPE………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.1 Purpose…………………………………………………………………………………… 1.2 Test method numbering system……………………………………………………….. 1.3 Method of reference………………………………………………………………………
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2. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS……………………………………………………………… 2 2.1 General…………………………………………………………………………………… 2 2.2 Government documents………………………………………………………………… 2 2.3 Non-Government publications…………………………………………………………. 3 2.4 Order of precedence…………………………………………………………………….. 3 3. DEFINITIONS……………………………………………………………………………….. 3
4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS……………………………………………………………… 4 4.1 Test requirements……………………………………………………………………….. 4 4.2 Test conditions…………………………………………………………………………… 4 4.3 Reference conditions……………………………………………………………………. 4 4.4 Calibration requirements………………………………………………………………… 4 5. DETAILED REQUIREMENTS…………………………………………………………….. 4
6. NOTES………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 6.1 Intended use……………………………………………………………………………… 4 6.2 Sequence of tests……………………………………………………………………….. 5 6.3 Chemical listing………………………………………………………………………….. 5 6.4 Subject term (key word) listing…………………………………………………………. 6 NUMERICAL INDEX OF TEST METHODS……………………………………………… 7
1. SCOPE 1.1 Purpose. This standard establishes uniform methods for testing electronic and electrical component parts, including basic environmental tests to determine resistance to deleterious effects of natural elements and conditions surrounding military operations, and physical and electrical tests. For the purpose of this standard, the term "component parts" includes such items as capacitors, resistors, switches, relays, transformers, inductors, and others. This standard is intended to apply only to small component parts, weighing up to 300 pounds or having a root mean square test voltage up to 50,000 volts unless otherwise specifically invoked. The test methods described herein have been prepared to serve several purposes: a. To specify suitable conditions obtainable in the laboratory that give test results equivalent to the actual service conditions existing in the field, and to obtain reproducibility of the results of tests. The tests described herein are not to be interpreted as an exact and conclusive representation of actual service operation in any one geographic location, since the only true test for operation in a specific location is an actual service test at that point. To describe in one standard (1) all of the test methods of a similar character which appeared in the various joint or single-service electronic and electrical component parts specifications, (2) those test methods which are feasible for use in several specifications, and (3), the recognized extreme environments, particularly temperatures, barometric pressures, etc., at which component parts will be tested under some of the presently standardized testing procedures. By so consolidating, these methods may be kept uniform and thus result in conservation of equipment, man-hours, and testing facilities. In achieving these objectives, it is necessary to make each of the general tests adaptable to a broad range of electronic and electrical component parts. The test methods described herein for environmental, physical, and electrical tests shall also apply, when applicable, to parts not covered by an approved military specification, military sheet form standard, specification sheet, or drawing.
1.2 Test method numbering system. The test methods are designated by numbers assigned in accordance with the following system: 1.2.1 Class of tests. The tests are divided into three classes: Test methods numbered 101 to 199 inclusive, cover environmental tests; those numbered 201 to 299 inclusive, cover physical characteristics tests; and those numbered 301 to 399 inclusive, cover electrical characteristics tests. Within each class, test methods are serially numbered in the order in which they are introduced into this standard. 1.2.2 Revision of test methods. Revisions of test methods are indicated by a letter following the method number. For example, the original number assigned to the moisture resistance test method is 106; the first revision of that method is 106A, the second revision, 106B, etc. 1.3 Method of reference. When applicable, test methods contained herein shall be referenced in the individual specification by specifying this standard, the method number, and the details required in the summary paragraph of the referenced method. To avoid the necessity for changing specifications which refer to this standard, the revision letter following the method number shall not be used when referencing test methods. For example, use “Method 106”, not “Method 106A”.
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2. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS 2.1 General. The documents listed in this section are specified in sections 3, 4, 5, and individual test methods of this standard. This section does not include documents cited in other sections of this standard or recommended for additional information or as examples. While every effort has been made to ensure the completeness of this list, document users are cautioned that they must meet all specified requirements documents cited in sections 3, 4, 5, and the individual test methods, whether or not they are listed. 2.2 Government documents. 2.2.1 Specifications, standards, and handbooks. The following specifications, standards, and handbooks form a part of this document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of these documents are those listed in the issue of the Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) and supplement thereto, cited in the solicitation. SPECIFICATIONS DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MIL-PRF-680 MIL-S-901 - Degreasing Solvent - Shock Tests, HI (High Impact), Shipboard Machinery, Equipment and Systems, Requirements For
MIL-DTL-1222 - Studs, Bolts, Hex Cap Screws, Socket Head Cap Screws and Nuts MIL-I-24768/14 - Insulation, Plastic, Laminated, Thermosetting, Cotton-Fabric-Base, Phenolic-Resin (FBG) FEDERAL QQ-B-654 QQ-S-698 TT-I-735 - Brazing Alloys, Silver - Steel, Sheet and Strip, Low Carbon - Isopropyl Alcohol
2.2.2 Other government documents, drawings, and publications. The following other government documents, drawings, and publications form a part of this document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise specified, the issues are those cited in the solicitation. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR) 10 CFR 20 10 CFR 30 10 CFR 31 10 CFR 32 - Standards For Protection Against Radiation - Rules of General Applicability to Domestic Licensing of Byproduct Material - General Domestic Licenses For Byproduct Material - Specific Domestic Licenses to Manufacture or Transfer Certain Items Containing Byproduct Material
2.3 Non-Government publications. The following document(s) form a part of this document to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of the document(s) that are DoD adopted are those listed in the issue of the DoDISS cited in the solicitation. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of documents not listed in the DoDISS are the issues of the documents cited in the solicitation (see 6.2). ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA ASA 2.2-1959 - Methods for the Calibration of Shock and Vibration Pickups (Application for copies should be addressed to Acoustical Society of America, 120 Wall Street, 32 York, NY 10005-3993.) AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 - Calibration Laboratories and Measuring and Test Equipment, General Requirements - Solderability Tests For Component Leads, Terminations, Lugs, Terminals and Wires - Requirements For Soldering Fluxes - Requirements For Soldering Pastes - Requirements For Electronic Grade Solder Alloys and Fluxed and Non-Fluxed Solid Solders For Electronic Soldering Applications
ANSI/J-STD-004 ANSI/J-STD-005 ANSI/J-STD-006
(Application for copies should be addressed to the American National Standards Institute, Incorporated, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.)
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS ASTM A-519-96 - Standard Specification For Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
(Application for copies should be addressed to the American National Standards Institute, Incorporated, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.) INSTITUTE FOR INTERCONNECTING AND PACKAGING ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS IPC-4101 - Specification For Base Materials For Rigid and Multilayer Printed Boards
(Application for copies should be addressed to the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, 2215 Sanders Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-6131.) (Non-Government standards and other publications are normally available from the organizations that prepare or distribute the documents. These documents also may be available in or through libraries or other informational services.) 2.4 Order of precedence. In the event of a conflict between the text of this document and the references cited herein, the text of this document takes precedence. Nothing in this document, however, supersedes applicable laws and regulations unless a specific exemption has been obtained. 3. DEFINITIONS This section is not applicable to this standard. 3
4. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 4.1 Test requirements. The requirements which must be met by the component parts subjected to the test methods described herein are specified in the individual specifications. Whenever this standard conflicts with the individual specification, the latter shall govern. 4.2 Test conditions. Unless otherwise specified herein, or in the individual specification, all measurements and tests shall be made at temperatures of 15°C to 35°C (59°F to 95°F) and at ambient air pressure and relative humidity. Whenever these conditions must be closely controlled in order to obtain reproducible results, for referee purposes, a temperature of 25°C, +0°C, -2°C (77°F, +0°F, -3.6°F), relative humidity of 50 ±2 percent, and atmospheric pressure of 650 to 800 millimeters of mercury shall be specified. 4.2.1 Permissible temperature variation in environmental chambers. When chambers are used, specimens under test shall be located only within the working area defined as follows: a. Temperature variation within working area: The controls for the chamber shall be capable of maintaining the temperature of any single reference point within the working area within ±2°C (3.6°F). b. Space variation within working area: Chambers shall be so constructed that, at any given time, the temperature of any point within the working area shall not deviate more than 3°C (5.4°F) from the reference point except for the immediate vicinity of specimens generating heat. 4.3 Reference conditions. Reference conditions as a base for calculations shall be 25°C (77°F) for temperature, or an alternate temperature of 20°C (68°F), 760 millimeters of mercury for air pressure, and a relative humidity of 50 percent. 4.4 Calibration requirements. Calibration shall be applied to those items of measuring and test equipment used to assure product compliance with specifications and contractual requirements. Calibration shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 or equivalent. Calibrated items shall be controlled, used, and stored in a manner suitable to protect calibration integrity. Test equipment requiring calibration shall be identified and labeled in accordance with ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 or equivalent. 5. DETAILED REQUIREMENTS This section is not applicable to this standard. 6. NOTES (This section contains information of a general or explanatory nature which may be helpful, but is not mandatory). 6.1 Intended use. This test method standard specifies uniform procedures for the environmental, physical, and electrical testing of electronic and electrical component piece parts. It is intended as a reference document for test requirements called out in military component specifications and when specified, in other procurement specifications and drawings.
6.2 Sequence of tests. The sequence of tests that follow is provided for guidance to specification writers to emphasize the philosophy that parts be mechanically and thermally stressed prior to being subjected to a moisture resistance test. Within any of the three groups and subgroups, the order is preferred but not mandatory. It is recommended that this sequence be followed in all new specifications and when feasible, in revisions of existing specifications. In the case of hermetically sealed parts, when a moisture resistance test is not required, a high sensitivity seal test may be used in lieu of the moisture resistance test. Group I (all samples) Visual inspection Mechanical inspection Electrical measurements Hermetic seal test (if applicable) Group lla (part of a sample) Shock Acceleration Vibration Group llb (part of a sample) Resistance to soldering heat Terminal Strength Thermal Shock
Group III (all units which have passed group II tests) Moisture resistance or seal test on hermetically sealed parts 6.3 Chemical listing. The following is a list of chemicals and their chemical abstracts service (CAS) registry number identified for use in MIL-STD-202 test methods: Material ethylbenzene fluorocarbon/perfluorocarbon helium hydrochloric acid isopropyl alcohol kerosene krypton-85 mineral oil mineral spirits monoethanolamine n-hexane peanut oil propane propylene glycol monomethylether silicone oil sodium chloride sodium hydroxide terpene CAS number 100-41-4 ----------7440-59-7 47-01-0 67-63-0 8008-20-6 13983-27-2 8012-95-1 8052-41-3 141-43-5 110-54-3 8002-03-7 74-98-6 107-98-2 63148-58-3 7647-14-5 1310-73-2 -----------Test method 215 107, 112, 210 112 101 215 215 112 112 215 215 109 112 111 215 112 104 101 215
6.4 Subject term (key word) listing. Acceleration Barometric pressure Capacitance Contact chatter/resistance Current noise Current switching DC resistance Dielectric withstanding voltage Explosion Flammability Humidity Immersion Insulation resistance Life Moisture resistance PIND Quality factor Radiographic inspection Random drop Resistance-temperature characteristic Resistance to soldering heat Resistance to solvents Salt atmosphere Sand and dust Shock Solderability Terminal strength Thermal shock Vibration Voltage coefficient
6.5 Changes from previous issue. Marginal notations are not used in this revision to identify changes with respect to the previous issue due to the extent of the changes.
Custodians: Army - CR Navy - EC Air Force - 11 Review activities: Army - AR, AT, AV, CR4, MI, SM, TE Navy - AS, OS, SH Air Force - 19, 99 NSA - NS
Preparing activity: DLA – CC (Project 59GP-0170)
NUMERICAL INDEX OF TEST METHODS
Test Method Number
Environmental tests (100 class) 101E 102A 103B 104A 105C 106G 107G 108A 109C 110A 111A 112E 8 February 2002 Cancelled 12 September 1963 24 October 1956 12 September 1963 8 February 2002 28 March 1984 12 September 1963 8 February 2002 16 April 1973 16 April 1973 11 October 1988 Salt atmosphere (corrosion) Superseded by Method 107 Humidity (steady state) Immersion Barometric pressure (reduced) Moisture resistance Thermal shock Life (at elevated ambient temperature) Explosion Sand and dust Flammability (external flame) Seal (formerly called salt spray) (see note on Method 102)
Physical characteristics tests (200 class) 201A 202D 203C 204D 205E 206 207B 208H 209 210F 211A 212A 213B 214A 215K 216 217A 24 October 1956 Cancelled 8 February 2002 1 April 1980 Cancelled 12 September 1963 8 February 2002 31 January 1996 18 May 1962 8 February 2002 14 April 1969 16 April 1973 16 April 1973 28 March 1984 8 February 2002 Cancelled 8 February 2002 Vibration Superseded by Method 213 Random drop Vibration, high frequency Superseded by Method 213 Life (rotational) High-impact shock Solderability Radiographic inspection Resistance to soldering heat Terminal strength Acceleration Shock (specified pulse) Random vibration Resistance to solvents Superseded by Method 210 Particle impact noise detection (PIND)
(see note on Method 202)
(see note on Method 205)
(see note on Method 216)
Electrical characteristics tests (300 class)
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312
6 February 1956 6 February 1956 6 February 1956 24 October 1956 24 October 1956 24 October 1956 24 October 1956 29 November 1961 27 May 1965 20 January 1967 14 April 1969 16 April 1973
Dielectric withstanding voltage Insulation resistance DC resistance Resistance temperature characteristic Capacitance Quality factor (Q) Contact resistance Current-noise test for fixed resistors Voltage coefficient of resistance determination procedure Contact-chatter monitoring Life, low level switching Intermediate current switching 7
CLASS 100 ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS
METHOD 101E SALT ATMOSPHERE (CORROSION) (formerly Salt Spray (Corrosion)) 1. PURPOSE. The salt-spray test, in which specimens are subjected to a fine mist of salt solution, has several useful purposes when utilized with full recognition of its deficiencies and limitations. Originally proposed as an accelerated laboratory corrosion test simulating the effects of seacoast atmospheres on metals, with or without protective coatings, this test has been erroneously considered by many as an all-purpose accelerated corrosion test, which if "withstood successfully" will guarantee that metals or protective coatings will prove satisfactory under any corrosive condition. Experience has since shown that there is seldom a direct relationship between resistance to salt atmosphere corrosion and resistance to corrosion in other media, even in so-called "marine" atmospheres and seawater. However, some idea of the relative service life and behavior of different samples of the same (or closely related) metals or of protective coating-base metal combinations in marine and exposed seacoast locations can be gained by means of the salt atmosphere test, provided accumulated data from correlated field service tests and laboratory salt atmosphere tests show that such a relationship does exist, as in the case of aluminum alloys. (Such correlation tests are also necessary to show the degree of acceleration, if any, produced by the laboratory test). The salt atmosphere test is generally considered unreliable for comparing the general corrosion resistance of different kinds of metals or coating-metal combinations, or for predicting their comparative service life. The salt atmosphere test has received its widest acceptance as a test for evaluating the uniformity (specifically, thickness and degree of porosity) of protective coatings, metallic and nonmetallic, and has served this purpose with varying amounts of success. In this connection, the test is useful for evaluating different lots of the same product, once some standard level of performance has been established. The salt atmosphere test is especially helpful as a screening test for revealing particularly inferior coatings. When used to check the porosity of metallic coatings, the test is more dependable when applied to coatings that are cathodic rather than anodic toward the basic metal. This test can also be used to detect the presence of free iron contaminating the surface of another metal, by inspection of the corrosion products. 2. APPARATUS. Apparatus used in the salt atmosphere test shall include the following: a. b. c. d. e. Exposure chamber with racks or fixtures for supporting specimens. Salt-solution reservoir with means for monitoring an adequate level of solution. Means for atomizing the salt solution, including suitable nozzles and compressed air supply. Chamber-heating means and controls. Means for humidifying the air at a temperature above the chamber temperature.
2.1 Chamber. The chamber and all accessories shall be made of material that will not affect the corrosiveness of the salt atmosphere, such as glass, hard rubber, or plastic. All parts of the test setup that come in contact with test specimens shall be of materials that will not cause electrolytic corrosion. The chamber and accessories shall be so constructed and arranged that there is no direct impinging of the spray or dripping of the condensate on the specimens, so that the atmosphere circulates freely about all specimens to the same degree, and so that no liquid which has come in contact with the test specimens returns to the salt-solution reservoir. The chamber shall be properly vented to prevent pressure build up and allow uniform distribution of salt spray. The chamber shall have a suitable means of heating and maintaining the required test temperature. 2.2 Salt solution reservoir. The salt solution reservoir shall be made of material that is non-reactive with the salt solution, e.g., glass, hard rubber, or plastic. The reservoir shall be adequately protected from the surrounding environment and shall have a means to monitor the solution level. The reservoir shall include a means to filter the salt solution in the supply line to the atomizers. When long duration test conditions are specified (e.g. test condition D), the reservoir may be refilled via auxiliary reservoirs so that the test cycle shall not be interrupted.
METHOD 101E 8 February 2002 1 of 4
2.3 Air supply. The compressed air entering the atomizers shall be free from all impurities such as oil and dirt. Means shall be provided to humidify and warm the compressed air as required to meet the operating conditions. The air pressure shall be suitable to produce a finely divided dense fog with the atomizer(s) used. To insure against clogging the atomizers by salt deposition, the air should have a relative humidity of 95 to 98 percent at the point of release from the nozzle. A satisfactory method is to pass the air in very fine bubbles through a tower containing heated water. The temperature of the water should be 95°F (35°C) or higher. The permissible temperature increases with increasing volume of air and with decreasing heat insulation of the chamber and temperature of its surroundings. It should not exceed a value above which an excess of moisture is introduced into the chamber (e.g. 110°F (43.3°C) at an air pressure of 12 pounds psi), or a value that makes it impossible to meet the requirement for operating temperature. 3. SALT SOLUTION. The salt used shall be sodium chloride (NaCl) containing on the dry basis not more than 0.1 percent of sodium iodide, and not more than 0.5 percent of total impurities. Do not use sodium chloride (NaCl) containing anti-caking agents because such agents may act as corrosion inhibitors. Unless otherwise specified, the salt solution concentration shall be 5 ±1 percent. The 5 percent solution shall be prepared by dissolving 5 ±1 parts by weight of salt in 95 parts by weight of distilled or deionized water. Water used in the preparation of solutions shall contain not more than 200 parts per million of total solids. The salt solution shall be kept free from solids by filtration. The solution shall be adjusted to and maintained at a specific gravity in accordance with figure 101-1. The pH shall be maintained between 6.5 and 7.2 when measured at a temperature of 95°F ±5°F (35°C ±3°C). Only dilute cp grade hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide shall be used to adjust the pH. 4. PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS. Specimens shall be given a minimum of handling, particularly on the significant surfaces, and shall be prepared for test immediately before exposure. Unless otherwise specified, uncoated metallic or metallic-coated specimens shall be thoroughly cleaned of oil, dirt, and grease as necessary until the surface is free from water break. The cleaning methods shall not include the use of corrosive solvents nor solvents which deposit either corrosive or protective films, nor the use of abrasives other than a paste of pure magnesium oxide. Specimens having an organic coating shall not be solvent cleaned. Those portions of specimens which come in contact with the support and, unless otherwise specified in the case of coated specimens or samples, cut edges and surfaces not required to be coated, shall be protected with a suitable coating of wax or similar substance impervious to moisture. 5. PROCEDURE. 5.1 Maintenance and conditioning of test chamber. The chamber shall be cleaned each time the salt solution in the reservoir has been used up to assure that all materials that could adversely affect the results of subsequent tests are removed. However, no test shall be interrupted for the purpose of chamber cleaning. After the cleaning cycle, upon restarting the chamber, the reservoir shall be filled with salt solution and the chamber shall be stabilized by operating it until the temperature comes to equilibrium, see 5.3. Intermittent operation of the chamber is acceptable, provided the pH and concentration of the salt solution are kept within limits, see 3. 5.2 Location of specimens. Unless otherwise specified, flat specimens and, where practicable, other specimens shall be supported in such a position that the significant surface is approximately 15 degrees from the vertical and parallel to the principal direction of horizontal flow of the fog through the chamber. Other specimens shall be positioned so as to insure most uniform exposure. Whenever practicable, the specimens shall be supported from the bottom or from the side. When specimens are suspended from the top, suspension shall be by means of glass or plastic hooks or wax string; if plastic hooks are used, they shall be fabricated of material that is non-reactive to the salt solution such as lucite. The use of metal hooks is not permitted. Specimens shall be positioned so that they do not contact each other, so that they do not shield each other from the freely settling fog, and so that corrosion products and condensate from one specimen do not fall upon another.
METHOD 101E 8 February 2002 2
5.3 Chamber operation. A salt fog having a temperature of 95°F minimum (35°C minimum) shall be passed through the chamber for the specified test duration (see 5.4). The exposure zone of the chamber shall be maintained at a temperature of 95°F ±5°F (35°C ±3°C). The conditions maintained in all parts of the exposure zone shall be such that a suitable receptacle placed at any point in the exposure zone will collect from 0.5 to 3.0 milliliters of 2 solution per hour for each 80 square centimeters (0.5-3ml/hr/80cm ) of horizontal collecting area (10 centimeters diameter). At least two clean fog-collecting receptacles shall be used; one placed at the perimeter of the test specimens nearest to the (any) nozzle, and the other at the perimeter of the test specimens farthest from the nozzle(s). Receptacles shall be fastened in such a manner that they are not shielded by specimens and so that no drops of solution from specimens or other sources will be collected. The 5 percent solution thus collected shall have a sodium chloride (NaCl) content of from 4 to 6 percent (specific gravity in accordance with figure 101-1) when measured at a temperature of 95°F ±5°F (35°C ±3°C). The specific gravity and quantity of the solution collected shall be checked following each salt atmosphere test. Suitable atomization has been obtained in boxes having a volume of less than 12 cubic feet with the following conditions: a. b. c. Nozzle pressure of from 12 to 18 pounds psi. Orifices of from 0.02 to 0.03 inch in diameter. Atomization of approximately 3 quarts of the salt solution per 10 cubic feet of box volume for each 24 hour period of test.
When using large-size boxes having a volume considerably in excess of 12 cubic feet, the above conditions may have to be modified in order to meet the requirements for operating conditions. 5.4 Length of test. The length of the salt atmosphere test shall be that indicated in one of the following test conditions, as specified: Length of test Test condition A - - - - - - - - - - - 96 hours B - - - - - - - - - - - 48 hours C - - - - - - - - - - - 24 hours D - - - - - - - - - - - 240 hours Unless otherwise specified, the test shall be run continuously for the time indicated or until definite indication of failure is observed, with no interruption except for adjustment of the apparatus and inspection of the specimen. 6. MEASUREMENTS. Upon completion of the salt exposure, the test specimens shall be immediately washed with free flowing deionized water (not warmer that 100°F (38°C)) for at least 5 minutes to remove salt deposits from their surface after which they shall be dried with air or inert gas. As an option, the test specimens may be subjected to a gentle wash or dip in running water (not warmer than 100°F (38°C)) and a light brushing, using a soft hair brush or plastic bristle brush, after which they shall be dried with air or inert gas. The test specimens shall then be subjected to the inspections specified.
7. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the individual specification: a. b. c. Special mounting and details, if applicable (see 5.2). Test condition letter (see 5.4). Measurements after exposure (see 6).
METHOD 101E 8 February 2002 3
FIGURE 101-1. Variations of specific gravity of salt (NaCl) solution with temperature.
METHOD 101E 8 February 2002 4
METHOD 102A TEMPERATURE CYCLING (CANCELED)
When Method 102 Is specified Test condition A, B and D C
Use Method 107 Test condition A B
METHOD 102A 24 October 1956 1 of 1
METHOD 103B HUMIDITY (STEADY STATE) 1. PURPOSE. This test is performed to evaluate the properties of materials used in components as they are influenced by the absorption and diffusion of moisture and moisture vapor. This is an accelerated environmental test, accomplished by the continuous exposure of the specimen to high relative humidity at an elevated temperature. These conditions impose a vapor pressure on the material under test which constitutes the force behind the moisture igration and penetration. Hygroscopic materials are sensitive to moisture, and deteriorate rapidly under humid conditions. Absorption of moisture by many materials results in swelling, which destroys their functional utility, and causes loss of physical strength and changes in other important mechanical properties. Insulating materials that absorb moisture may suffer degradation of their electrical properties. This method, while not necessarily intended as a simulated tropical test, is of use in determining moisture absorption of insulating materials. 2. PROCEDURE. 2.1 Conditioning. The specimens shall be conditioned in a dry oven at a temperature of 40° ±5°C for a period of 24 hours. At the end of this period, measurements shall be made as specified. 2.2 Chamber. The chamber and accessories shall be constructed and arranged in such a manner as to avoid condensate dripping on the specimens under test, and such that the specimens shall be exposed to circulating air. 2.3 Exposure. The specimens shall be placed in a chamber and subjected to a relative humidity of 90 to 95 percent and a temperature of 40° ±2°C for the period of time indicated in one of the following test conditions, as specified: Length of test Test condition A --------240 hours B --------96 hours C --------504 hours D - - - - - - - - - 1,344 hours When specified, a direct-current potential of 100 volts or as specified shall be applied to the specimens during the exposure period. The length of time for the application of voltage and the points of application shall be as specified. 3. FINAL MEASUREMENTS 3.1 At high humidity. Upon completion of the exposure period, and while the specimens are still in the chamber, the specified measurements shall be performed. These measurements may be compared to the initial measurements (see 2.1), when applicable. 3.2 After drying period. Upon completion of the exposure period or following measurements at high humidity if applicable, the specimens shall be conditioned at room ambient conditions for not less than 1 hour, nor more than 2 hours unless otherwise specified, after which the specified measurements shall be performed at room ambient conditions.
METHOD 103B 12 September 1963 1 of 2
4. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the individual specification: a. b. c. d. Measurements after conditioning (see 2.1). Test condition letter (see 2.3). The length of time and points of application of polarizing voltage, if applicable (see 2.3). Final measurements: (1) (2) At high humidity, if applicable (see 3.1). After drying period (see 3.2).
METHOD 103B 12 September 1963 2
METHOD 104A IMMERSION 1. PURPOSE. This test is performed to determine the effectiveness of the seal of component parts. The immersion of the part under evaluation into liquid at widely different temperatures subjects it to thermal and mechanical stresses which will readily detect a defective terminal assembly, or a partially closed seam or molded enclosure. Defects of these types can result from faulty construction or from mechanical damage such as might be produced during physical or environmental tests. The immersion test is generally performed immediately following such tests because it will tend to aggravate any incipient defects in seals, seams, and bushings which might otherwise escape notice. This test is essentially a laboratory test condition, and the procedure is intended only as a measurement of the effectiveness of the seal following this test. The choice of fresh or salt water as a test liquid is dependent on the nature of the component part under test. When electrical measurements are made after immersion cycling to obtain evidence of leakage through seals, the use of a salt solution instead of fresh water will facilitate detection of moisture penetration. This test provides a simple and ready means of detection of the migration of liquids. Effects noted can include lowered insulation resistance, corrosion of internal parts, and appearance of salt crystals. The test described is not intended as a thermal shock or corrosion test, although it may incidentally reveal inadequacies in these respects. 2. PROCEDURE. This test consists of successive cycles of immersions, each cycle consisting of immersion in a hot bath of fresh (tap) water at a temperature of 65° +5°, -0 °C (149° +9°, -0 °F) followed by immersion in a cold bath. The number of cycles, duration of each immersion, and the nature and temperature of the cold bath shall be as indicated in the applicable test condition listed in table 104-1, as specified. TABLE 104-1 Immersion test conditions. Test condition Number of cycles Duration of each immersion Minutes A B 2 2 15 15 Fresh (tap) water Saturated solution of sodium chloride and water Saturated solution of sodium chloride and water Immersion bath (cold) Temperature of cold bath °C 25 (+10,-5) 25 (+10,-5)
The transfer of specimens from one bath to another shall be accomplished as rapidly as practicable. After completion of the final cycle, specimens shall be thoroughly and quickly washed and all surfaces wiped or air-blasted clean and dry. 3. MEASUREMENTS. Unless otherwise specified, measurements shall be made at least 4 hours, but not more than 24 hours, after completion of the final cycle. Measurements shall be made as specified. 4. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the individual specification: a. b. c. Test condition letter (see 2). Time after final cycle allowed for measurements, if other than that specified (see 3). Measurements after final cycle (see 3).
METHOD 104A 24 October 1956 1 of 1
METHOD 105C BAROMETRIC PRESSURE (REDUCED) 1. PURPOSE. The barometric pressure test is performed under conditions simulating the low atmospheric pressure encountered in the nonpressurized portions of aircraft and other vehicles in high altitude flight. This test is intended primarily to determine the ability of component parts and materials to avoid dielectric-withstanding-voltage failures due to the lowered insulating strength of air and other insulating materials at reduced pressures. Even when low pressures do not produce complete electrical breakdown, corona and its undesirable effects, including losses and ionization, are intensified. Low barometric pressures also serve to decrease the life of electrical contacts, since intensity of arcing is increased under these circumstances. For this reason, endurance tests of electro-mechanical component parts are sometimes conducted at reduced pressures. Low-pressure tests are also performed to determine the ability of seals in component parts to withstand rupture due to the considerable pressure differentials which may be developed under these conditions. The simulated high altitude conditions of this test can also be employed to investigate the influence on component parts operating characteristics, of other effects of reduced pressure, including changes in dielectric constants of materials; reduced mechanical loading on vibrating elements, such as crystals; and decreased ability of thinner air to transfer heat away from heat-producing components. 2. APPARATUS. The apparatus used for the barometric pressure test shall consist of a vacuum pump and a suitable sealed chamber having means for visual observation of the specimen under test when necessary. A suitable pressure indicator shall be used to measure the simulated altitude in feet in the sealed chamber. 3. PROCEDURE. The specimens shall be mounted in the test chamber as specified and the pressure reduced to the value indicated in one of the following test conditions, as specified. Previous references to this method do not specify a test condition; in such cases, test condition B shall be used. While the specimens are maintained at the specified pressure, and after sufficient time has been allowed for all entrapped air in the chamber to escape, the specimens shall be subjected to the specified tests.
Pressure - Maximum Inches of mercury Millimeters of mercury 226.00 87.00 33.00 8.00 1.09 439.00 -6 2.40 x 10 Feet 30,000 50,000 70,000 100,000 150,000 15,000 656,000
Altitude Meters 9,144 15,240 21,336 30,480 45,720 4,572 200,000
A B C D E F G
8.88 3.44 1.31 0.315 0.043 17.3 -8 9.436 x10
4. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the individual specification: a. b. c. d. e. Method of mounting (see 3). Test condition letter (see 3). Tests during subjection to reduced pressure (see 3). Tests after subjection to reduced pressure, if applicable. Exposure time prior to measurements, if applicable.
METHOD 105C 12 September 1963 1 of 1
METHOD 106G MOISTURE RESISTANCE 1. PURPOSE. The moisture resistance test is performed for the purpose of evaluating, in an accelerated manner, the resistance of component parts and constituent materials to the deteriorative effects of the high-humidity and heat conditions typical of tropical environments. Most tropical degradation results directly or indirectly from absorption of moisture vapor and films by vulnerable insulating materials, and from surface wetting of metals and insulation. These phenomena produce many types of deterioration, including corrosion of metals, physical distortion and decomposition of organic materials, leaching out and spending of constituents of materials; and detrimental changes in electrical properties. This test differs from the steady-state humidity test (method 103 of this standard) and derives its added effectiveness in its employment of temperature cycling, which provides alternate periods of condensation and drying essential to the development of the corrosion processes and, in addition, produces a "breathing" action of moisture into partially sealed containers. Increased effectiveness is also obtained by use of a higher temperature, which intensifies the effects of humidity. The test includes low temperature and vibration subcycles (when applicable, see 3.4.2) that act as accelerants to reveal otherwise indiscernible evidence of deterioration since stresses caused by freezing moisture and accentuated by vibration tend to widen cracks and fissures. As a result, the deterioration can be detected by the measurement of electrical characteristics (including such tests as dielectric withstanding voltage and insulation resistance) or by performance of a test for sealing. Provision is made for the application of a polarizing voltage across insulation to investigate the possibility of electrolysis, which can promote eventual dielectric breakdown. This test also provides for electrical loading of certain components, if desired, in order to determine the resistance of current-carrying components, especially fine wires and contacts, to electro-chemical corrosion. Results obtained with this test are reproducible and have been confirmed by investigations of field failures. This test has proven reliable for indicating those parts which are unsuited for tropical field use. 2. APPARATUS. 2.1 Chamber. A test chamber shall be used which can meet the temperature and humidity cycling specified on figure 106-1. The material used to fabricate the platforms and standoffs, which support the specimens, shall be nonreactive in high humidity. Wood or plywood shall not be used because they are resiniferous. Materials shall not be used if they contain formaldehyde or phenol in their composition. Provisions shall be made to prevent condensate from the chamber ceiling dripping onto the test specimens. 2.1.1 Opening of the chamber door. During the periods when the humidity is ascending or descending, the chamber door should not be opened. If the chamber door must be opened, it should be opened during the 16th hour through the 24th hour of an individual cycle. While the chamber is at 25°C (77°F), and the relative humidity tolerance must be maintained, the chamber door should be opened only for a short period of time. 2.1.2 Water. Steam, or distilled and demineralized, or deionized water, having a pH value between 6.0 and 7.2 at 23°C (73.4°F) shall be used to obtain the specified humidity. No rust or corrosive contaminants shall be imposed on the test specimens by the test facility. 3. PROCEDURE. 3.1 Mounting. Specimens shall be mounted by their normal mounting means, in their normal mounting position, but shall be positioned so that they do not contact each other, and so that each specimen receives essentially the same degree of humidity. 3.2 Initial measurements. Prior to step 1 of the first cycle, the specified initial measurements shall be made at room ambient conditions, or as specified.
METHOD 106G 8 February 2002 1 of 4
NOTES: 1. Allowance of 100 percent RH is intended to avoid problems in reading values close to 100 percent RH, but actual chamber operation shall be such so as to avoid condensation. 2. Unless otherwise specified, the steady state temperature tolerance is ±2°C at all points within the immediate vicinity of the specimens and the chamber surfaces. 3. Rate of change of temperature is unspecified; however, specimens shall not be subjected to radiant heat from chamber-conditioning processes. 4. Circulation of air in the chamber shall be at a minimum cubic rate per minute equivalent to 5 times the volume of the chamber.
FIGURE 106-1. Graphical representation of moisture-resistance test.
METHOD 106G 8 February 2002 2
3.3 Number of cycles. Specimens shall be subjected to 10 continuous cycles, each as shown on figure 106-1. In the event of no more than one unintentional test interruption (power interruption or equipment failure) prior to the completion of the specified number of cycles (except for the last cycle), the cycle shall be repeated and the test may continue. Unintentional interruptions occurring during the last cycle require a repeat of the cycle plus an additional uninterrupted cycle. Any intentional interruption, or any unintentional interruption of greater than 24 hours requires a complete retest. 3.4 Subcycle of step 7. During at least 5 of the 10 cycles, a low temperature subcycle and, if applicable, a vibration subcycle shall be performed. 3.4.1 Step 7a. At least 1 hour but not more than 4 hours after step 7 begins, the specimens shall be either removed from the humidity chamber, or the temperature of the chamber shall be reduced. Specimens shall then be conditioned at -10°C ±2°C (14°F ±3.6°F) with humidity not controlled, for 3 hours minimum as indicated on figure 106-1. When a separate cold chamber is not used, care should be taken to assure that the specimens are held at -10°C ±2°C (14°F ±3.6°F) for the full 3 hour period. (If step 7b is not applicable, the specimens shall be returned to 25°C (77°F) at 80 percent relative humidity minimum and kept there until the next cycle begins.) 3.4.2 Step 7b (when applicable). Within 15 minutes after completion of step 7a and with humidity not controlled and temperature at room ambient, specimens shall be vibrated for 15 minutes, using a simple harmonic motion having an amplitude of 0.03 inch (0.76 mm), (0.06 inch (1.52 mm) maximum total excursion), the frequency being varied uniformly between the approximate limits of 10 and 55 hertz (Hz). The entire frequency range, from 10 to 55 Hz and return to 10 Hz, shall be traversed in approximately 1 minute. After step 7b, the specimens shall be returned to 25°C (77°F) at 80 percent relative humidity minimum and kept there until the next cycle begins. NOTE: Step 7b is not applicable to parts that include test schedules with vibration requirements (such as method 201 or method 204 of this standard). These parts must routinely be subjected to, and pass, these requirements. NOTE: Allowance of 100 percent RH is intended to avoid problems in reading values close to 100 percent, but actual chamber operation shall be such so as to avoid condensation. 3.5 Polarization and load. When applicable, polarization voltage shall be 100 volts dc, or as specified. The loading voltage shall be as specified. 3.6 Final measurements. 3.6.1 At high humidity. Upon completion of step 6 of the final cycle (or step 7 if the subcycle of 3.4 is performed during the tenth cycle), when measurements at high humidity are specified, the specimens shall be maintained at a temperature of 25°C ±2°C (77°F ±3.6°F), and a RH of 80 percent minimum for a period of 1? to 3? hours, after which the specified measurements shall be made. Due to the difficulty in making measurements under high humidity conditions, the individual specification shall specify the particular precautions to be followed in making measurements under such conditions. (NOTE: Allowance of 100 percent RH is intended to avoid problems in reading values close to 100 percent, but actual chamber operation shall be such so as to avoid condensation.) 3.6.2 After high humidity. Upon removal from humidity chamber, final measurements shall be made within a period of 1 to 2 hours after the final cycle. During final measurements, specimens shall not be subjected to any means of artificial drying. 3.6.3 After drying period. Following step 6 of the final cycle (or step 7 if the subcycle of 3.4 is performed during the tenth cycle), or following measurements at high humidity, if applicable, specimens shall be conditioned for 24 hours at the ambient conditions specified for the initial measurements (see 3.2) after which the specified measurements shall be made. Measurements may be made during the 24 hour conditioning period; however, any failures which occur shall be considered as failures and shall not be retested later for the purpose of obtaining an acceptable result. METHOD 106G 8 February 2002 3
4. SUMMARY: The following details are to be specified in the individual specification: a. b. c. d. Initial measurements and conditions, if other than room ambient (see 3.2). When applicable, the polarization voltage if other than 100 volts (see 3.5). Loading voltage (see 3.5). Final measurements and measurement conditions (see 3.6).
METHOD 106G 8 February 2002 4
METHOD 107G THERMAL SHOCK 1. PURPOSE. This test is conducted for the purpose of determining the resistance of a part to exposures at extremes of high and low temperatures, and to the shock of alternate exposures to these extremes, such as would be experienced when equipment or parts are transferred to and from heated shelters in arctic areas. These conditions may also be encountered in equipment operated noncontinuously in low-temperature areas or during transportation. Although it is preferred that the specimen reach thermal stability during the exposure specified, in the interest of saving time, parts may be tested at the minimum exposure durations specified, which will not insure thermal stability but only an approach thereto. Permanent changes in operating characteristics and physical damage produced during thermal shock result principally from variations in dimensions and other physical properties. Effects of thermal shock include cracking and delamination of finishes, cracking and crazing of embedding and encapsulating compounds, opening of thermal seals and case seams, leakage of filling materials, rupturing, or cracking of hermetic seals and vacuum glass to metal seals, and changes in electrical characteristics due to mechanical displacement or rupture of conductors or of insulating materials. 2. APPARATUS. Suitable temperature controlled systems shall be used to meet the temperature requirements and test conditions specified in table 107-I or table 107-III. The liquid method is more severe and may damage some components that might not be degraded by the air method. It is not intended for use on nonhermetically sealed components. 2.1 Environmental chambers. A system of sufficient thermal capacity shall be used to change ambient chamber conditions to meet test requirements and to reach specified temperature conditions of steps 1 and 3 of table 107-I. The supply air temperature of the chambers shall reach the specified temperature within a recovery time of 5 minutes after the specimens have been transferred to the appropriate chamber. 2.2 Liquid baths. Suitable temperature controlled baths containing liquids (see table 107-IV) shall be chosen to maintain the specified test conditions (see table 107-III) within the indicated tolerances. A liquid media shall not be used without prior approval of the qualifying activity. 3. PROCEDURE. 3.1 Environmental chambers. Specimens shall be placed so that there is substantially no obstruction to the flow of air across and around the specimen. When special mounting is required, it shall be specified. The specimen shall be subjected to the specified test condition of table 107-I. The first five cycles shall be run continuously. After five cycles, the test may be interrupted after the completion of any full cycle, and the specimens allowed to return to room ambient temperature before testing is resumed. One cycle consists of steps 1 through 4 of the applicable test condition. Specimens shall not be subjected to forced circulating air while being transferred from one chamber to another. Whether single or multiple chambers are used, the effective total transfer time from the specified low temperature to the specified high temperature, or the reverse, shall not exceed 5 minutes. Direct heat conduction to the specimen should be minimized. In the case of multiple chambers, the transfer time shall be defined as the time between withdrawal from the low temperature chamber and introduction into the high temperature chamber or the reverse. NOTE: In single compartment chambers, in which the temperature extremes of steps 1 and 3 are achieved without physical movement of the specimens, steps 2 and 4 are not applicable.
METHOD 107G 28 March 1984 1 of 5
3.2 Liquid baths. Specimens shall be immersed in a suitable liquid that shall be approved by the qualifying activity (see table 107-IV), at the temperature in step 1 of the specified test condition (see table 107-III) for the time specified in table 107-V. Immediately upon the conclusion of step 1, the device shall be transferred to a suitable liquid at the temperature specified in step 2 of the specified test condition. The device shall remain at the high temperature for the time specified in table 107-V. These two steps, step 1 and 2, constitute one cycle of the applicable test condition. Repeat the required number of cycles without interruption as specified in table 107-III. Transfer time from low to high temperature and from high to low temperature shall be less than 10 seconds. TABLE 107-I. Thermal shock test conditions (air). Test condition A A-1 A-2 A-3 Temperature °C -55 +0, -3 25 +10, -5 85 +3, -0 25 +10, -5 Number of cycles 5 25 50 100 Time Test condition B B-1 B-2 B-3 Temperature °C -65 +0, -5 25 +10, -5 125 +3, -0 25 +10, -5 Number of cycles 5 25 50 100 Time Test condition C C-1 C-2 C-3 Temperature °C -65 +0, -5 25 +10, -5 200 +5, -0 25 +10, -5 Number of cycles 5 25 50 100 Time
1 2 3 4
See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum
See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum
See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum
Test condition D D-1 D-2 D-3 Temperature °C -65 +0, -5 25 +10, -5 350 +5, -0 25 +10, -5
Number of cycles 5 25 50 100 Time
Test condition E E-1 E-2 E-3 Temperature °C -65 +0, -5 25 +10, -5 500 +5, -0 25 +10, -5
Number of cycles 5 25 50 100 Time
Test condition F F-1 F-2 F-3 Temperature °C -65 +0, -5 25 +10, -5 150 +3, -0 25 +10, -5
Number of cycles 5 25 50 100 Time
1 2 3 4
See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum
See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum
See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum See table 107-II 5 minutes maximum
METHOD 107G 28 March 1984 2
TABLE 107-II. Exposure time in air at temperature extremes.
Weight of specimen
Minimum time (for steps 1 and 3) Hours 1/4 (or as specified) ? 1 2 4 8
1 ounce (28 grams and below) Above 1 ounce (28 grams) to .3 pound (136 grams), inclusive Above .3 pounds (136 grams) to 3 pounds (1.36 kilograms), inclusive Above 3 pounds (1.36 kilograms) to 30 pounds (13.6 kilograms), inclusive Above 30 pounds (13.6 kilograms) to 300 pounds (136 kilograms), inclusive Above 300 pounds (136 kilograms)
TABLE 107-III. Thermal shock conditions (liquid).
Test condition AA AA-1 AA-2
Number of cycles 5 15 25 Time
Test condition BB BB-1 BB-2
Number of cycles 5 15 25 Time
Test condition CC CC-1 CC-2
Number of cycles 5 15 25 Time
Test condition DD DD-1 DD-2
Number of cycles 5 15 25 Time
°C 1 2 -0 +2, -10 100 +10, -2 See table 107-V See table 107-V
°C -65 +0, -10 125 +10, -0 See table 107-V See table 107-V
°C -65 +0, -10 150 +10, -0 See table 107-V See table 107-V
°C -65 +0, -10 200 +10, -0 See table 107-V See table 107-V
METHOD 107G 28 March 1984 3
TABLE 107-IV. Suggested thermal fluids. 1/ 2/
Test condition Step 1
AA, AA-1, AA-2 fluids FC40 4/ or Water 3/
BB, BB-1, BB-2 Fluids FC77 4/
CC, CC-1, CC-2 fluids FC77 4/
DD, DD-1, DD-2 fluids FC77 4/
D02 D02-TS D/80 Step 2 FC40 4/ Water 3/
D02 D02-TS D/80 FC70 FC40
D02 D02-TS D/80 FC70 FC40
D02 D02-TS D/80 FC70 4/
D02 D02-TS D03 1/ 2/ 3/ See 2.2.
D02 D02-TS D03
D02 D02-TS D03
D05 LS/230 LS/215
Ethylene glycol shall not be used as a thermal shock test fluid. Tap water is indicated as an acceptable fluid for this temperature range. Its suitability chemically shall be established prior to use. A mixture of water and alcohol may be used to prevent freezing at the low temperature extreme. The water shall not be allowed to boil at the upper temperature extreme. FC77, FC70, FC40 are the registered trademark of 3M. UCON-WS process fluid is the registered trademark of Union Carbide Corporation. D02, D02-TS, D03, D05, D/80, LS/215 and LS/230 are the registered trademark of Ausimont (Division of Montedison).
4/ 5/ 6/
TABLE 107-V. Exposure time in liquid at temperature extremes.
Weight of specimen
Minimum time (for steps 1 and 2) ? 2 5
.05 ounce (1.4 grams) and below Above .05 ounce (1.4 grams) to .5 ounce (14 grams) Above .5 ounce (14 grams) to 5 ounces (140 grams)
METHOD 107G 28 March 1984 4
4. MEASUREMENTS. Specified measurements shall be made prior to the first cycle and upon completion of the final cycle, except that failures shall be based on measurements made after the specimen has stabilized at room temperature following the final cycle. 5. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the individual specification: a. b. c. d. e. Recovery time if other than 5 minutes (see 2.1). Special mounting, if applicable (see 3). Type test (air or liquid) and test condition (see 3). Transfer time if other than specified in 3.1 or 3.2. Measurements before and after cycling (see 4).
METHOD 107G 28 March 1984 5
METHOD 108A LIFE (AT ELEVATED AMBIENT TEMPERATURE) 1. PURPOSE. This test is conducted for the purpose of determining the effects on electrical and mechanical characteristics of a part, resulting from exposure of the part to an elevated ambient temperature for a specified length of time, while the part is performing its operational function. This test method is not intended for testing parts whose life is expressed in the number of operations. Evidence of deterioration resulting from this test can at times be determined by visual examination; however, the effects may be more readily ascertained by measurements or tests prior to, during, or after exposure. Surge current, total resistance, dielectric strength, insulation resistance, and capacitance are types of measurements that would show the deleterious effects due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. 2. APPARATUS. A suitable chamber shall be used which will maintain the temperature at the required test temperature and tolerance (see 3.2) to which the parts will be subjected. Temperature measurements shall be made within a specified number of unobstructed inches from any one part or group of like parts under test. In addition, the temperature measurement shall be made at a position where the effects of heat generated by the parts have the least effect on the recorded temperature. Chamber construction shall minimize the influence of radiant heat on the parts being tested. Chambers that utilize circulating liquid as a heat exchanger, free-convection (gravity type) chambers, and circulating air chambers may be used providing that the other requirements of this test method are met. When specified, this test shall be made in still air. (Still air is defined as surrounding air with no circulation other than that created by the heat of the part being operated.) The employment of baffling devices and the coating of their surfaces with a heat-absorbing finish are permitted. When a test is conducted on parts that do not have the still-air requirement, there shall be no direct impingement of the forced-air supply upon the parts. 3. PROCEDURE. 3.1 Mounting. Specimens shall be mounted as specified by their normal mounting means. When groups of specimens are to be subjected to test simultaneously, the mounting distance between specimens shall be as specified for the individual groups. When the distance is not specified, the mounting distance shall be sufficient to minimize the temperature of one specimen affecting the temperature of another. Specimens fabricated of different materials, which may have a detrimental effect on each other and alter the results of this test, shall not be tested simultaneously. 3.2 Test temperature. Specimens shall be subjected to one of the following test temperatures with accompanying tolerances, as specified: Temperature and tolerance 1/ °C 70 ±2 85 ±2 100 ±2 125 ±3 150 ±3 200 ±5 350 (± as specified) 500 (± as specified) °F 158 ±3.6 185 ±3.6 212 ±3.6 257 ±5.4 302 ±5.4 392 ±9 662 (± as specified) 932 (± as specified)
1/ For tests on resistors only, in a still-air environment, the maximum temperature tolerance shall be ±5°C (±9°F).
METHOD 108A 12 September 1963 1 of 2
3.3 Operating conditions. The test potential, duty cycle, load, and other operating conditions, as applicable, applied to the specimen during exposure shall be as specified. 3.4 Length of test. Specimens shall be subjected to one of the following test conditions, as specified: Test condition A ------------------B ------------------C ------------------D ------------------F ------------------G ------------------H ------------------I ------------------J ------------------K ------------------Length of test, hours 96 250 500 1,000 2,000 3,000 5,000 10,000 30,000 50,000
NOTE: Test condition E (1,500 hour test) has been deleted from this test method. 4. MEASUREMENTS. Specified measurements shall be made prior to, during, or after exposure, as specified. If applicable, frequency of measurements, and portion of the duty cycle in which measurements are to be made, while the specimen is subjected to test, shall be as specified. 5. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the individual specification: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Distance of temperature measurements from specimens, in inches (see 2). Still-air requirement, when applicable (see 2). Method of mounting and distance between specimens, if required (see 3.1). Test temperature and tolerance (see 3.2). Operating conditions (see 3.3). Test condition letter (see 3.4). Measurements (see 4). (1) (2) Prior to, during, or after exposure (see 4). Frequency of measurements, and portion of duty cycle during test, if applicable (see 4).
METHOD 108A 12 September 1963 2
METHOD 109C EXPLOSION 1. PURPOSE. The purpose of this method is to determine if a part, while operating, will ignite an ambient explosive atmosphere. This environment is prevalent in aircraft; therefore, the test is conducted at ground level and various reduced barometric pressures. The parts subjected to this type of test are not enclosed in casings designed to prevent flame or explosion propagation. 2. APPARATUS. 2.1 Test facility. The test apparatus consists of a test chamber or cabinet together with associated equipment, safety provisions, and auxiliary instrumentation necessary to establish, maintain, and monitor the specified test conditions. The chamber should be equipped with a system for mixing and circulation of the explosive air-fuel mixture, a means to ignite the air-fuel mixture such as a spark-gap device, as well as a means to collect and determine the explosiveness of a sample of the mixture such as a spark gap or glow plug ignition source with sufficient energy to ignite a 3.82 percent hexane mixture. An alternative method of determining the explosive characteristics of the vapor is use of a calibrated explosive gas meter that verifies the degree of explosiveness and the concentration of the air-fuel mixture. The chamber or cabinet should include provisions for the electrical and mechanical operation of the specimen under test. 2.1.1 Test facility performance requirements. 220.127.116.11 Chamber design pressure. The test chamber shall be capable of withstanding any explosion pressure up to and including 300 pounds per square inch (2 megapascals). 18.104.22.168 Pressure altitude. The test chamber shall be capable of maintaining any desired pressure altitude from sea level to 60,000 feet (18,250 meters) ± 2 percent. 22.214.171.124 Chamber air temperature. The air temperature within the test chamber shall be uniform and shall be controllable between 20°C ± 3°C and 240°C ± 3°C. 2.2 Fuel. Unless otherwise specified, the fuel for explosive atmosphere testing shall be the single-component hydrocarbon n-hexane, either reagent grade or 95% n-hexane with 5% other hexane isomers. This fuel is used since its ignition properties for flammable atmosphere testing are equal to or more sensitive than the similar properties of both 100/130 octane aviation gasoline, JP-4, and JP-8 jet engine fuel. Optimum mixtures of n-hexane and air will ignite from hot-spot temperatures as low as 223°C (433°F) while optimum JP-4 jet engine fuel-air mixtures require a minimum temperature of 230°C (445°F) for auto-ignition, and 100/130 octane aviation gasoline and air requires 441°C (825°F) for hot-spot ignition. Minimum spark energy inputs for ignition of optimum fuel vapor and air mixtures are essentially the same for n-hexane and for 100/130 octane aviation gasoline. Much higher minimum spark energy input is required to ignite JP-4 or JP-8 jet engine fuel and air mixtures. Use of fuels other than hexane is not recommended. CAUTION: If the individual specification allows the use of an alternate fuel, the specification must also provide all the specific details associated with the alternate fuel, such as safety precautions and fuel-air mixture equation. 2.3 Fuel vapor mixture. Use a homogeneous fuel-air mixture in the correct fuel-air ratios for the explosive atmosphere test. Fuel weight calculated to total 3.8 percent by volume of the test atmosphere represents 1.8 stoichiometric equivalents of n-hexane in air, giving a mixture needing only minimum energy for ignition. This yields an air/vapor ratio (AVR) of 8.33 by weight.
METHOD 109C 8 February 2002 1 of 4
Required information to determine fuel weight: (1) Chamber air temperature during the test (2) Fuel temperature (3) Specific gravity of n-hexane (see figure 109-1) (4) Test altitude: (e.g. 20,000 feet (6100 meters)). Atmospheric pressure in pascals: 46.6 kPa (6.76 psia) (5) Net volume of the test chamber: free volume less test item displacement expressed in liters or cubic feet.
Calculation of the volume of liquid n-hexane fuel for each test altitude: (1) In metric units:
Volume of 95 percent n-hexane (ml) = ( 4.27x10 ? 4 )
(net chamber vol (liters) x (chamber pressure (pascals ) (chamber temp (K ) x (specific gravity of n ? hexane)
(2) In English units: Volume of 95 percent n-hexane (ml) = (150.41) (net chamber vol (ft 3 )) x (chamber pressure (psia ) (chamber temp ( R ) x (specific gravity of n ? hexane)
2.3.1 Effect of humidity on flammable atmosphere. Humidity is always present in an explosive atmosphere test. The effect of humidity upon the fuel-air composition need not be considered in the test if the ambient air dewpoint temperature is 10°C (50°F) or less because this concentration of water vapor only increases the n-hexane fuel concentration from 3.82 percent to 3.85 percent of the test atmosphere. If the atmospheric pressure is cycled from an equivalent of 5000 feet (1525 meters) above the test level to 5000 feet below (a 34 percent change in pressure), the volume of n-hexane will decrease from 4.61 percent to 3.08 percent. This decrease will compensate for the fuel enrichment effect that results from water vapor dilution of the test air supply. 2.4 Altitude simulation. The energy required to ignite a fuel-air mixture increases as pressure decreases. Ignition energy does not drop significantly for test altitudes below sea level. This test is not appropriate for test altitudes above approximately 52,000 feet (≈16,000 meters) where the lack of oxygen inhibits ignition. 3. PROCEDURE. 3.1 Test preparation. 3.1.1 Controls. Before each test, verify the critical parameters. Ensure spark devices function properly and the fuel atomizing system is free from deposits that could inhibit its functioning. Adjust the empty test chamber to the highest test altitude, shut off the vacuum system and measure the rate of any air leakage. Verify that any leakage will not prevent the test from being performed as required; i.e., introduce the test fuel and wait three minutes for full vaporization, yet still be at least 3300 feet (≈1000m) above the test altitude.
METHOD 109C 8 February 2002 2
126.96.36.199 Mounting. The specimen to be tested shall be mounted in the test chamber in such a manner that normal electrical operation is possible and so that the mechanical controls may be operated through the pressure seals from the exterior of the chamber. All external covers of the test specimen shall be removed or opened to insure adequate circulation of the explosive mixture. The test specimen shall then be operated to determine that it is functioning properly and to observe the location of any sparking or high temperature spots that may constitute potential explosion hazards. 3.1.2 Loading. Applicable mechanical and electrical loads applied to the specimen shall be as specified in the individual specification. Proper precaution shall be taken to duplicate the normal load in respect to torque, voltage, current, inductive reactance, etc. In all instances it shall be considered preferable to operate the specimen as it normally functions during service use. 3.2 Test execution. The following provides the procedural steps for execution of the explosive atmosphere test; a. With the test item installed, the test chamber shall be sealed and the test item and chamber inner walls stabilized to 71°C ±3°C (160°F ±5°F), or to a lower temperature as specified, if the specimen is designed to operate at a lower temperature. Adjust the chamber air pressure to simulate the desired test altitude (see 3.3) plus an additional 10,000 feet to allow for introducing, vaporizing, and mixing the fuel with the air as described in 2.3. Slowly introduce the required volume of n-hexane into the test chamber. Circulate the test atmosphere and continue to reduce the simulated chamber altitude for at least three minutes to allow for complete vaporization of fuel and the development of a homogeneous mixture. At a pressure equivalent to 5,000 feet (1525 meters) above the test altitude, verify the potential explosiveness of the fuel-air vapor by attempting to ignite a sample of the mixture taken from the test chamber by using a spark-gap device or glow plug ignition source with sufficient energy to ignite a 3.82 percent hexane mixture. If ignition does not occur, purge the chamber of the fuel vapor and repeat steps a through e. (An alternative method of determining the explosive characteristics of the vapor is by using a calibrated explosive gas meter that verifies the degree of explosiveness and the concentration of the fuel-air mixture.) Operate the test specimen and continue operation through step g. Make and break electrical contacts as frequently and reasonably possible. If no explosion occurs as a result of operation of the test specimen, slowly reduce the simulated chamber altitude to 5,000 feet (1525 meters) below the test altitude (at a rate no faster than 330 feet (100 meters) per minute by bleeding air into the chamber). Perform one last operational check and switch off power to the test specimen. If no explosion has occurred as the result of operation of the test specimen by the time the simulated altitude has reached 5,000 feet (1525 meters) below the test altitude, verify the potential explosiveness of the airvapor mixture as in step e. If ignition does not occur with the sample, purge the chamber of the fuel vapor, and repeat the test from step a. Repeat steps b through h for the required test altitudes (see 3.3).
3.3 Test altitudes. Unless otherwise specified, the test shall be accomplished at simulated test altitudes of local ground level to 5,000 feet, 20,000 feet, and 40,000 feet. However, if an explosion occurs at an altitude of less than 40,000 feet, further testing shall be discontinued.
METHOD 109C 8 February 2002 3
4. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the individual specification. a. b. c. d. Fuel, if other than that specified and all specific details associated with the fuel (see 2.2). Mechanical and electrical load (see 3.1.2). Chamber temperature condition, if lower than 71°C ±3°C (160°F ±5°F) (see 3.2 a). Test altitudes, if other than those specified (see 3.3).
FIGURE 109-1. Specific gravity of n-hexane
METHOD 109C 8 February 2002 4
METHOD 110A SAND AND DUST 1. PURPOSE. The dust test is used during the development, test, and evaluation of equipment to ascertain their ability to resist the effects of a dry dust (fine sand) laden atmosphere. This test simulates the effect of sharp edged dust (fine sand) particles, up to 150 microns in size, which may penetrate into cracks, crevices, bearings, and joints, and cause a variety of damage such as fouling moving parts, making relays inoperative, forming electrically conductive bridges with resulting "shorts" and acting as a nucleus for the collection of water vapor, and hence a source of possible corrosion and malfunction of equipment. This test is applicable to all mechanical, electrical, electronic, electrochemical, and electromechanical devices for which exposure to the effects of a dry dust (fine sand) laden atmosphere is anticipated. 2. APPARATUS. The test facility shall consist of a chamber and accessories to control dust concentration, velocity, temperature, and humidity of dust-laden air. In order to provide adequate circulation of the dust laden air, no more than 50 percent of the cross-sectional area (normal to air flow) and 30 percent of the volume of the chamber shall be occupied by the test item(s). The chamber shall be provided with a suitable means of maintaining and verifying the dust concentration in circulation. A minimum acceptable means for doing this is by use of a properly calibrated smoke meter and standard light source. The dust-laden air shall be introduced into the test space in such a manner as to allow it to become approximately laminar in flow before it strikes the test item. 2.1 Dust requirements. The dust used in this test shall be a fine sand (97-99% by weight SiO2) of angular structure, and shall have the following size distribution as determined by weight, using the U.S. Standard Sieve Series. a. b. c. d. 100 percent of this dust shall pass through a 100-mesh screen. 98 ±2 percent of the dust shall pass through a 140-mesh screen. 90 ±2 percent of the dust shall pass through a 200-mesh screen. 75 ±2 percent of the dust shall pass through a 325-mesh screen.
"140-mesh silica flour" as produced by the Ottawa Silica Company, Ottawa, Illinois, or equal, is satisfactory for use in the performance of these tests. 3. PROCEDURE. Place the test item in the chamber, positioned as near the center of the chamber as practicable. If more than one item is being tested, there shall be a minimum clearance of 4 inches between surfaces of test items or any other material or object capable of furnishing protection. Also, no surface of the test item shall be closer than 4 inches from any wall of the test chamber. Orient the item so as to expose the most critical or vulnerable parts to the dust stream. The test item orientation may be changed during the test if so required by the component specification. Step 1 Set the chamber controls to maintain an internal chamber temperature of 23°C (73°F) and a relative humidity of less than 22 percent. Adjust the air velocity to 1,750 ±250 feet per minute. Adjust the dust feeder to control the dust concentration at 0.3 ±0.2 grams per cubic foot. With test item nonoperating, maintain these conditions for 6 hours. Stop the dust feed and reduce the air velocity to 300 ±200 feet per minute. Raise the internal chamber air temperature to 63°C (145°F) and adjust humidity control to maintain a relative humidity of less than 10 percent. Hold these conditions for 16 hours.
Step 2 -
METHOD 110A 16 April 1973 1 of 2
Step 3 -
While holding chamber temperature at 63°C (145°F) adjust the air velocity to 1,750 ±250 fpm, maintain a relative humidity of less than 10 percent. Adjust the dust feeder to control the dust concentration at 0.3 ±0.2 grams per cubic foot. With the test item nonoperating, maintain these conditions for 6 hours. Turn off all chamber controls and allow the test item to return to standard ambient conditions. Remove accumulated dust from the test item by brushing, wiping, or shaking, care being taken to avoid introduction of additional dust into the test item. Under no circumstances, shall dust be removed by either air blast or vacuum cleaning. 1. This test specimen may be operating during either or both of the 6-hour test periods (step 1 or 3) if so required by the component specification. 2. When the component specifications reference test conditions A, B, or C of the previous version of this test method, steps 1 through 4 of this test will be used unless otherwise specified.
Step 4 -
4. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the component specification. a. b. Change in orientation during test, if required. Whether component is to operate during test and length of time required for operation and measurements. Whether the second 6-hour test at 63°C (145°F) shall be performed immediately after reaching stabilization in step 2.
METHOD 110A 16 April 1973 2
METHOD 111A FLAMMABILITY (EXTERNAL FLAME) 1. PURPOSE. This test is performed for the purpose of determining the flammability of a part exposed to an external flame. Flammability is defined as the ability of a part to support combustion. This can be determined by the following: the time it takes for a part to become self-extinguishing after application of a flame; that the part does not support violent burning; that exposure of a part to a flame does not result in an explosive-type fire; or that spreading of surface burning on larger parts is deterred. The principal factors which affect the results of an external flame test are -- the heat of the flame at the point of impingement; the size of the flame; the time of exposure to the flame; the volume of the part and other heat-sink effects; the presence of circulating materials and surfaces of the parts. 2. APPARATUS. 2.1 Test chamber. An enclosure protected from air currents, but provided with means for venting fumes and admitting an adequate supply of fresh air at the bottom, shall be used. A standard chemistry hood with the exhaust fan turned off, or a metal box about 2 feet wide by 3 feet high and 2 feet deep, with a removable front, a viewing window, and holes for air intake and venting of fumes, is satisfactory. Adequate safety precautions should be taken to protect personnel from possible explosion of the test specimens. 2.2 Mounting apparatus. Within the test chamber, a support stand with suitable adjustable vertical brackets or other mounting clamps shall be used to hold the specimens at the specified distance and position (see 3) with respect to the applied flame. Mounting clamps, in order not to act as heat sinks, shall be thermally insulated from the specimens. The flame shall not impinge on the clamp(s) or other devices which hold the specimens. 2.3 Propane torch. A propane torch, having a nozzle assembly conforming to Model TX-1 of "Bernzomatic Corporation", or equal, shall be the source of the flame. "Cracked" propane gas shall be used as the fuel. A suggested torch assembly is shown on figure 111-1, Burner head. 2.4 Timing device. A timing device, which can indicate time in seconds, shall be used to determine the time of application of the flame and the time of burning of visible flame on the specimen. 3. PROCEDURE. The specimen shall be mounted in the test chamber (see 2.1) with the mounting apparatus therein (see 2.2) and at the distance and position specified. The torch shall be placed so that the axis of the flame is in the vertical direction, unless otherwise specified in the individual specification. When the torch is ignited, and after the flame is stable, the flow of gas through the nozzle of the torch (see 2.3) shall be adjusted so that the inner-cone length is 1/2 inch between the inner-cone tip and a point in the plane of the nozzle rim. The specimen shall be placed so that the point of impingement of the flame on the specimen is 1-1/2 inches from the nozzle rim along the flame axis. The point of impingement of the flame shall be as specified in the individual specification. The flame shall be applied to the specimen for a period of 15 seconds unless specified in the individual specification, as determined by the timing device (see 2.4), and then removed. Upon removal of the applied flame, the time of burning of visible flame on the specimen, as determined by the timing device, shall be recorded. The recorded time shall then be compared with the allowable time specified in the individual specification. Any violent burning of the specimen or explosive-type fire shall be recorded. 4. CLEANING. In order to clearly observe the burned area; carbon from the propane gas may be removed by brushing or buffing the specimen. 5. MEASUREMENTS. Upon completion of the test, measurements shall be made as specified in the individual specification.
METHOD 111A 16 April 1973 1 of 5
6. SUMMARY. The following details are to be specified in the individual specification: a. b. c. d. e. Direction of axis of flame, if other than vertical (see 3). Point of impingement of applied flame (see 3). Time of application of flame, if other than 15 seconds (see 3). Allowable time for burning of visible flame on specimen (see 3). Measurements after test (see 5).
METHOD 111A 16 April 1973 2
Inches .0004 .002 .005 .006 .010 .021 .041 .062 .082 .120 .123
mm 0.01 0.05 0.13 0.15 0.25 0.53 1.04 1.57 2.08 3.05 3.12
Inches .125 .127 .130 .192 .194 .250 .302 .322 .625 1.688
mm 3.18 3.23 3.30 4.88 4.93 6.35 7.67 8.18 15.18 42.88
FIGURE 111-1. Burner head.
METHOD 111A 16 April 1973 3
Inches .003 .005 .011 .039 .042 .046 .170 .200
mm 0.08 0.13 0.28 0.99 1.07 1.17 4.32 5.08
Inches .300 .470 .495 .500 .562 .745 .750 1.187
mm 7.62 11.94 12.57 12.70 14.27 18.92 19.05 30.15
MATERIAL: BRASS 2 BODY-BURNER
FIGURE 111-1. Burner head - Continued.
METHOD 111A 16 April 1973 4
Inches .002 .005 .081 .090 .095 .156 .187 .198 .202 .250 .360
mm 0.05 0.13 2.06 2.29 2.41 3.96 4.75 5.03 5.13 6.35 9.14
Inches .370 .375 .395 .405 .430 .433 .443 .500 .715 .720 1.500
mm 9.40 9.53 10.03 10.29 10.92 11.00 11.25 12.70 18.16 18.29 38.10
MATERIAL: BRASS 3 BASE-BURNER
FIGURE 111-1. Burner head - Continued.
METHOD 111A 16 April 1973 5