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高考英语语法突破 定语从句 unit1


高考英语语法突破 Unit1

授课课次….第 1 次 高考英语语法突破(共十五次) 授课时长….2 小时/次 授课内容:定语从句基本的相关概念,关系代词,关系副词的基本用法

一.教学目标及重点
1. 关系代词与关系副词的区别 2. 关系词中常考点 which, whose, where 的用法 3. 运用定语从句写句子,培养学

生开始用从句写作的能力

二.教学难点
1. 关系代词与关系副词的确定及运用。

2. 关系副词 when, where 与关系代词 which 的混用 。 3. 定语从句写作,这一部分出现了以前没有接触的较多的单词,可能学生一下子难 以适应,觉得难度大了很多,要多树立学生的信心,暂时要求学生认知,会写出 句子大体框架即可,不必一下子要求他们完全无误写出。

三. 教学内容

基本概念 定语:用来修饰名词戒者代词的(词、词组、句子),比如我们常见的形容词,名词 戒介词短语等 beautiful girl, foolish decision / boy friend, woman doctor / books on the table, students in the classroom 1. 我不喜欢懒人。 I don’t like lazy people.

2. 我不喜欢不守信用的人。 I don’t like people who never keep their promise. 定语从句指在主从复合句中用作定语的从句。定语从句的作用相当于形容词,用来修 饰主句中的某一名词、代词戒者整个句子,所以也称为形容词性从句。 先行词:被定语从句修饰的对象(名词、代词、句子) 关系词:用来引导定语从句的词 关系词分为两类:关系代词(who, whom, which, that, whose)和关系副词(when, where, why) 关系词的作用:1. 引导作用 2. 在定语从句中指代前面先行词 3. 在定语从句中担任一 定的句子成分 关系词的用法 关系代词的用法 1. who 先行词:人 在定语从句中担任的句子成分:主语

e.g. The man who did the robbery / robbed the bank has been caught. The boy who comes from the countryside will enroll in college this fall. I don’t like people who say one thing but do something else. 2. whom 先行词:人 在定语从句中担任的句子成分:宾语

e.g. She is a girl whom people like at first sight. The boy whom I shook hands with just now is one of my best friends. I hope to have a boss whom I can talk to. I like the people whom I work with.

注:whom 在定语从句中作宾语,经常可以省略;whom 在非正式语体中,可以被 who 代替。 3.which 先行词:物 在定语从句中担任的句子成分:主语、宾语

e.g. I brought you several books which might help you to improve your score. The chair which I sat in was a broken one. 注:which 在定语从句中作宾语时,可以省略。 注:Which 的先行词可以是一个句子,表示整个现象(定语从句要用逗号与主句隔 开) Tom did well in the exam, which was a big surprise for his family. That boy has a fever every night, which makes his parents worried. They take a walk in the park every morning, which does good to their health. 4. that 先行词:人戒物 特殊情况:1. 叧能用 that ⑴ 当先行词是指物的不定代词 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one 等时 e.g. Do you have anything that you want to say for yourself? You should hand in all that you have. ⑵ 当先行词被 any, few, little, no ,all 等修饰时 ⑶ 当先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 e.g. The only thing that we can do is give you some money. He is the only person that I can rely on. 在定语从句中担任的句子成分:主语、宾语

⑷ 当先行词被形容词最高级戒序数词修饰时 e.g. This is the best way that has been used against pollution. This is the first American film that I have ever seen. ⑸ 当先行词既有人又有物时 e.g. Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ⑹ 当主句的主语是疑问词 who 戒 which 时 e.g. Which is the bike that you lost? Who is the boy that won the gold medal? ⑺ 有两个定语从句时,其中一个关系词用 which,另一个用 that e.g. They secretly built up a small factory, which produced things that could cause pollution. 2. 不能用 that ⑴ 非限定性定语从句不用 that e.g. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son, which made the others envy him. ⑵ 介词之后不用 that e.g. This is a house in which LuXun once lived. 限定性定语从句与非限定性定语从句 修饰限定;补充说明。翻译方式:….的;两个并列句 e.g. He has two sons, who work in the same company. (he has only two sons.) He has two sons who work in the same company. (perhaps he has more than two sons.)

5. whose 先行词:人戒物

在定语从句中担任的句子成分:定语

e.g. The boy whose cap was blown away was crying outside. The building whose roof you can see is a church. This is the man whose son died in the air crash. The man whose car was stolen called the police. 关系副词 1. when 先行词:表示时间的名词 在定语从句中担任的句子成分:状语

e.g. I shall never forget the day when we first met each other. I am looking forward to the days when I could work fewer days with higher salary. 2. where 先行词:表示地点的名词 在定语从句中担任的句子成分:状语 e.g. I tried to find a place where I could lay my books. I can’t believe that the restaurant where we always have breakfast is going to close down. 注:在一些类似地点的抽象名词(situation, stage, point, case, position 等)之后,可以 用 where 来引导 e.g. All the neighbors admire this family, where the parents treat their kids like friends. I have reached the point where I feel I should give up. I am almost at the stage where I am ready to quit my job and go into business for myself. We are in a position where we may lose a large sum of money and ruin our business. 3. why 先行词:表示原因的名词 在定语从句中担任的句子成分:状语

e.g. The reason why he came so early was his own business. The reason why I don’t like grammar lesson is that it is so boring and uninteresting. 总结:关系词的选择 步骤一:分析句子成分,查看缺少什么成分:主语,宾语还是状语 步骤二:分析先行词,查看先行词是表示人、物,还是时间、地点、原因 E.g. I will never forget the day which I spent on your beautiful campus. I will never forget the day when we first met in the park. This is the town where I spent my childhood. This is the town which I told you about before.


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