Grammar the The past participle as
attribute and predicative 过去分词充当定语和表语
Past participle 过去分词 （done） 作 表 语
inspired 1. John Snow was_________ (inspire) when he thought
about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. interested 2. He became __________ (interest) in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people. polluted 3. He found that it came from the river __________ (pollute) by dirty water. 4. A women liked the water so much that she had it delivered ___________ (deliver) to her house every day. 表 状 态
作 定 语
表 被 动
Translate the following phrases, and try to find out what the items relate to. ? ? ? ? ? ? a broken piece of glass boiled water a used stamp a buried box of coins worn—out shoes a damaged computer 结论：以上的短语都带有过去分词，这些过去 分词都是充当定语，而且我们都可以用过去分 词作表语的形式来改写以上短语。 一片碎玻璃 开水 一枚用过的邮票 一箱埋起来的硬币 穿破的鞋子 一台损坏了的计算机
Complete the table with phrases that have the same meaning.
Past Participle as the Attribute
1. terrified people
Past Participle as the predicative 1. people who are terrified
2. reserved seats
3. polluted water
2. seats which are reserved
3. water that is polluted
4. a crowded room
5. a pleased winner
4. a room that is crowded
5. a winner who is pleased
Past Participle Past Participle as the Predicative as the Attribute 1. children who 1. astonished children look astonished a broken vase 2. a vase that is broken 2. a closed door 3. a door that is closed 3. 4. the audience who feel tired 4. the tired audience a trapped animal 5. an animal that is trapped 5.
Students try to find some rules about the Past Participle as the Attribute and Predicative.
一、过去分词作定语 1、单个的过去分词作定语时一般兼有被动和完成 的意义，常作前置定语。 eg：a lost animal 一只迷路的动物 a used stamp 一枚用过的邮票 an injured finger 一个受伤的手指 a broken coin 一枚破损的硬币 a lighted candle 一支点燃的蜡烛 注意：过去分词作定语时，有时只有被动意义。 e.g.：spoken English 英语口语 written exercises 书面练习
少数表示位移或状态改变的不及物动词的过 去分词只有完成的意义 fallen leaves 落叶 the risen sun 升起来的太阳 the advanced countries 发达国家 drunken man 一个醉鬼 a returned student 一名留学生 a retired teacher 一名退休教师 an escaped prisoner 一名逃跑的囚犯 by-gone days 过去的岁月
2、过去分词作后置定语，表示被动和／或完 成意义。 e.g.：How I regretted the hours wasted in the woods! 我多懊悔在树林浪费的时光啊 I like wearing clothes made of this kind of cloth． 我喜欢穿这种布料做的衣服。 e.g.：The books written by Lu Xun are popular． 鲁迅写的书很受欢迎 We’11 go to visit the bridge built hundreds of years ago． 我们要去看那座建于几百年前的桥。
Practice: Change the following Past Participle into clauses. 1） He told us of the great wrong done to him. = He told us of the great wrong which had been done ___________________________ to him. 注：本句中的过去分词作定语，既表被 动又表完成。
2） The United States is a developed country. = The United Stated is a country which has developed ______________________ .
注：本句中的过去分词作定语，只表示完成。 3） Have you noticed the bridge being built there? = Have you noticed the bridge which is being built ______________________ there? 注：本句中的过去分词作定语，表示被动的 动作正在进行。
二、过去分词作表语 1、过去分词作表语，表示主语的特点或所处 的状态，其前的系动词有包括be在内的多种 形式。 e.g. ： Everyone present is very inspired at his speech． 听了他的发言，在场的所有人都很振奋。 You seem frightened. 你似乎受了惊吓。
2、过去分词作表语，构成的系表结构与 被动语态的区别： 过去分词作表语，强调主语的特点或 所处的状态；而被动语态中，主语是 动词所表示动作的承受者。 e.g.：This shop is now closed．
这家商店现在已经关门了。(状态) This shop is closed at 6 pm everyday． 这家商店每天6点关门。(动作）
Practice: Complete the sentences using the past participle as the predicative.
1. 丢了钱他自责不已。 got blamed He ______________ about losing the money. 2、你为什么总是看上很疲劳？这些日子睡得好吗？ look so tired Why do you always _______________ ? Do you sleep well these days? 3.我对昨晚看的电影很失望。我原以为它能好些。 I _____________________ the film I saw last night, was disappointed with I had expected it to be better.
4. 听 说 那 位 明 星 死 了 ， 人 人 都 很 惊 讶 。 was shocked Everybody ____________to hear the death of the famous film star． 5.要去动物园了，孩子们非常兴奋。 are really excited about The children ______________________ going to the zoo． 6.他的伤口感染了一种新病毒. became infected with His wound ___________________ a new virus．
invited ? Some of the people_____ (invite) to the party couldn’t come. ? There is a car _____ (park) outside the house. ? The library is _____( close) on weekends. ? The _____(worry) mother looked at her ______(worry) son ,looking____ (worry) ? The ______(excite) football match attracted many football funs.
1. Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, B ______ as 3M. A. knowing B. known C. being known D. to be known 解析：答案B。此处考查过去分词作后置 定语，3M与know之间是被动关系，故用过 去分词表示被动。
A 2. The disc, digitally ________ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded 解析：答案A。此处考查过去分词作后置 定语，disc与record之间是被动关系，故 用过去分词表示。
3. Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases D _______ only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 解析：答案D。know与words，expressions， phrases构成动宾关系，故用过去分词表示 被动。
4. The flowers _______ sweet in the botanic B garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt 解析：答案B。此处为现在分词作定语， 修饰flowers。smell为系动词，不能用于 被动语态，相当于which/that smells sweet。
Summarize the use of the past participle as the attribute and predictive.