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AWS D 1.1-2002-cn-en-3 WPS的免除评定


AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002

Structural Welding Code — Steel

3 Prequalification of WPSs WPS 的免除评定
3.1 Scope适用范围
Prequalification of WPSs (Welding Procedure Specificatio

ns) shall be defined as exemption from the WPS qualification testing required in Section 4. All prequalified WPSs shall be written. In order for a WPS to be prequalified, conformance with all of the applicable requirements of Section 3 shall be required. WPSs that do not conform to the requirements of Section 3 may be qualified by tests in conformance with Section 4 (see Annex IV—Table IV-1). The use of a prequalified joint shall not exempt the Engineer from using engineering judgment in determining the suitability of application of these joints to a welded assembly or connection. For convenience, Annex H lists provisions to be included in a prequalified WPS, and which should be addressed in the fabricator’s or Contractor’s welding program. 焊接工艺规程(WPS)的免除评定必须定义为免除本规范第4 章所要求的WPS 的评定试验。所有免除评定的WPS 必须书面成文。必须符合本章所有适用条款的要求,WPS 才能免除评定。不符合本章要求的WPS,可按第4 章通 过试验进行评定。(见附录 Ⅳ-表 Ⅳ-1)。使用免除评定的接头,绝非免去工程师对这些接头是否适宜于焊接的组 装件或连接作出判断的义务。为使用方便,附录 H列举了 WPS 免除评定的条款, 这些条款应被列入制作者或承包 商的焊接方案中。 Welders, welding operators and tack welders that use prequalified WPSs shall be qualified in conformance with Section 4, Part C. 按免除评定的WPS 操作的焊工、自动焊工和定位焊工必须按第4 章C 进行资格评定。

3.2 Welding Processes焊接方法
3.2.1 Prequalified Processes. 免除评定的焊接方法 SMAW, SAW, GMAW (except GMAW-S), and FCAW WPSs which conform to all of the provisions of Section 3 shall be deemed as prequalified and are therefore approved for use without performing WPS qualification tests for the process. For WPS prequalification, conformance with all of the applicable provisions of Section 3 shall be required. (see 3.1). 药皮焊条电弧焊(SMAW), 埋弧焊(SAW), 气体保护熔化极电弧焊(GMAW)(短路过渡GMAW-S 除外),和药 芯焊丝电弧焊(FCAW)的WPS,只要符合第3 章所有条款的要求,必须视为免除评定,无需进行该焊接方法的 WPS 评定试验而认可使用。对于WPS 免除评定来说,必须符合第 3 章所有适用条款的规定(see 3.1)。 C3.2.1 Prequalified Processes. 免除评定的焊接方法 Certain SMAW, SAW, GMAW (excluding GMAW-S), and FCAW WPSs in conjunction with certain related types of joints have been thoroughly tested and have a long record of proven satisfactory performance. These WPSs and joints are designated as prequalified and may be used without tests or qualification (see Section 4). 某些药皮焊条电弧焊、埋弧焊、气体保护熔化极电弧焊(焊丝熔滴短路过渡除外)和药芯焊丝电弧焊的WPS 连同一些相关类型的接头已经过彻底地试验,并且经长期使用证实其性能良好。这些WPS和接头被称为免除评 定,可以不经试验或评定而使用(见第4章)。 Prequalified provisions are given in Section 3, which includes WPSs, with specific reference to preheat, filler metals, electrode size, and other pertinent requirements. Additional requirements for prequalified joints in tubular construction are given in Section 3. 第3章给出了免除评定的条款,其中包括WPS、具体的、有关的预热、填充金属、焊条 (丝) 尺寸以及其他恰当 的要求。对管材结构免除评定接头的补充要求也列于第3章中。 The use of prequalified joints and WPSs does not necessarily guarantee sound welds. Fabrication capability is still required, together with effective and knowledgeable welding supervision to consistently produce sound welds. 采用免除评定的接头和工艺并不一定能确保焊缝质量,仍需要具有制作能力,连同有效而懂行的焊接监督, 才得以保证始终如一地加工出良好焊缝。 The code does not prohibit the use of any welding process. It also imposes no limitation on the use of any other type of joint; nor does it impose any procedural restrictions on any of the welding processes. It provides for the acceptance of such joints, welding processes, and WPSs on the basis of a successful qualification by the Contractor conducted in conformance with the requirements of the code (see Section 4). 本规范不禁止使用任何其他焊接方法。同时,既不对任何其他接头类型强加限制,也不对任何焊接方法强加任 何工艺性的约束。它规定承包商按本规范的要求,对这些接头、施焊方法和WPS评定合格后,再予认可。 3.2.2 Code Approved Processes. 规范认可的焊接方法 ESW, EGW, GTAW, and GMAW-S welding may be used, provided the WPSs are qualified in conformance with the requirements of Section 4 (see Annex A for GMAW-S). Note that the essential variable limitations in Table 4.5 for GMAW shall also apply to GMAW-S. 电渣焊(ESW)、电气立焊(EGW)、气体保护钨极氩弧焊(GTAW) 和气体保护熔化极电弧焊(短路过渡)(GMAW-S)
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AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002

Structural Welding Code — Steel

方法可以应用,但 WPS 要符合第 4 章的要求评定合格。见附录 A 关于 GMAW-S 的内容。注意表 4.5 中有关 GMAW 基本变素的限制也适用于 GMAW-S。 3.2.3 Other Welding Processes. 其他焊接方法 Other welding processes not covered by 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 may be used, provided the WPSs are qualified by applicable tests as described in Section 4 and approved by the Engineer. 3.2.1 和 3.2.2. In conjunction with the tests, the WPSs and limitation of essential variables applicable to the specific welding process shall be established by the Contractor developing the WPS. The range of essential variables shall be based on documented evidence of experience with the process, or a series of tests shall be conducted to establish the limit of essential variables. Any change in essential variables outside the range so established shall require requalification. 未包括的其他焊接方法,如果按第 4 章规定采取适用的试验进行 WPS 的评定合格、且得到工程师的认可,则可 以应用。开展 WPS 工作的承包商必须结合试验确定这些特定焊接方法的 WPS 适用的基本变素。基本变素的范围 必须根据所用焊接方法经验的文件证明确定,或必须进行一系列试验来确立基本变素的限制。基本变素的任何变 化如果超出如此确定的范围则必须重新评定。

3.3 Base Metal/Filler Metal Combinations母材/填充金属组合
Only base metals and filler metals listed in Table 3.1 may be used in prequalified WPSs. (For the qualification of listed base metals and filler metals, and for base metals and filler metals not listed in Table 3.1, see 4.1.1 只有列入表 3.1 的母材和填充金属可以用于免除评定的 WPS。表 3.1 所列母材和填充金属的评 定以及未列入该 表的母材和填充金属的评定见 4.1.1.) The base metal/filler metal strength relationships below shall be used in conjunction with Table 3.1 to determine whether matching or undermatching filler metals are required. 下列母材和填充金属的强度关系必须与表 3.1 结合使用,以决定究竟是等强度匹配填充金属还是低强度匹配填 充金属。
Relationship 匹配关系 Base Metal(s)母材 Any steel to itself or any steel to another in the same group 同一钢材之间或任一钢材与同组另一钢材之间 Matching 等强度匹配 Any steel in one group to any steel in another 任一组别钢材与另一组别的钢材 Filler Metal Strength Relationship Required 要求匹配的填充金属 Any filler metal listed in the same group 与钢材列入同一组别的任何填充金属 Any filler metal listed for a lower strength group. [SMAW electrodes shall be the lowhydrogen classification] 任何列于较低强度组别的填充金属。 [药皮焊条手工电弧焊用焊条为低氢类] Any filler metal listed for a lower strength group. [SMAW electrodes shall be the lowhydrogen classification] 任何列于较低强度组别的填充金属。 [药皮焊条手工电弧焊用焊条为低氢类]

Undermatching 低强度匹配

Any steel to any steel in any group 任何钢材与任何其他组别的钢材

General Note通注: See Tables 2.3 or 2.5 to determine the filler metal strength requirements to match or undermatch base metal strength. 决定填充金属是等强度匹配或低强度匹配母材金属见表 2.3 或表 2.5 。

C3.3 Base Metal/Filler Metal Combinations母材/填充金属组合
Filler metals with designators listed in Note 3 of Table 3.1 obtain their classification tensile strength by PWHT at 1275° F or 1350° [690° or 730° In the as-welded condition their tensile strengths may exceed 100 ksi [690 MPa]. F C C]. 列于表 3.1 注 7 中的带标号填充金属经 1275°F 或 1350°F [690°C或730°C] 的焊后热处理后,可达到该等的 拉伸强度。它们焊态的拉伸强度可以超过100 ksi [690MPa]。 The electrodes and electrode-flux combinations matching the approved base metals for use in prequalified joints are listed in Table 3.1, matching filler metal requirements. In this table, groups of steel specifications are matched with filler metal classifications having similar tensile strengths. In joints involving base metals that differ in tensile strengths, electrodes applicable to the lower strength material may be used provided they are of the low-hydrogen type if the higher strength base metal requires the use of such electrodes. 用于免除评定的接头、匹配已认可母材的焊条 (丝) 和焊丝 ? 焊剂组合列于表 3.1 匹配的填充金属要求栏中。在 此表中,各组别技术规格的钢材与具有类似拉伸强度等级的填充金属相匹配。在涉及具有不同拉伸强度母材的接 头中,如果较高强度母材需要使用较低强度的填充金属,则可以使用适用于较低强度材料的焊条(丝),不过焊条 (丝)需是低氢型的。

3.4 Engineer’s Approval for Auxiliary Attachments工程师对辅助连接的认可
The Engineer may approve unlisted materials for auxiliary attachments which fall within the chemical composition range of a listed material to be welded with prequalified WPSs. The filler metal and preheat required shall be in conformance with
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Structural Welding Code — Steel

the requirements of 3.5 based upon the similar material strength and chemical composition. 工程师可以认可未列入表中的、用于辅助附件或组件的材料,但其化学成分应在使用免除评定WPS 焊接的、 表 列材料的化学成分范围之内。 所需要的填充金属和预热必须在类似的材料强度和化学成分的基础上遵守3.5 的要求.

3.5 Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature Requirements最低预热温度和道间温度要求
The preheat and interpass temperature shall be sufficient to prevent cracking. Table 3.2 shall be used to determine the minimum preheat and interpass temperatures for steels listed in the code. 预热温度和道间温度须要足够防止裂纹。对于列入本规范的钢材,须利用表3.2 以确定最低预热温度和道间温度.

C3.5 Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature Requirements最低预热温度和道间温度要求
The principle of applying heat until a certain temperature is reached and then maintaining that temperature as a minimum is used to control the cooling rate of weld metal and adjacent base metal. The higher temperature allows more rapid hydrogen diffusion and reduces the tendency for cold cracking. The entire part or only the metal in the vicinity of the joint to be welded may be preheated (see Table 3.2). For a given set of welding conditions, cooling rates will be faster for a weld made without preheat than for a weld made with preheat. The higher preheat temperatures result in slower cooling rates. When cooling is sufficiently slow, it will effectively reduce hardening and cracking. 进行加热直至达到并保持某一最低温度的原则是用以控制焊缝金属及其邻近母材的冷却速度。较高的温度可使 氢较快扩散且减少冷裂的倾向。可对整个部件或仅对待焊接头邻近部位的金属进行预热(见表3.2)。在给定成套 焊接条件下,未经预热的焊缝的冷却速度将高于预热的焊缝者。预热温度越高,冷却速度越低。当冷却足够缓慢 时,则将有效地减少硬化与裂纹倾向。 For quenched and tempered steels, slow cooling is not desirable and is not recommended by the steel producer. 对调质钢而言,不希望慢速冷却,且钢厂也不予推荐。 It should be emphasized that temperatures in Table 3.2 are minimum temperatures, and preheat and interpass temperatures shall be sufficiently high to ensure sound welds. The amount of preheat required to slow down cooling rates so as to produce crack-free, ductile joints will depend on: 应该强调的是,表3.2列举的温度为最低温度,而预热和道间温度必须足够高方能保证焊缝良好。为了降低冷却 速度以得到无裂纹、塑性好的接头所需的预热量将取决于: (1) The ambient temperature周围温度 (2) Heat from the arc电弧热 (3) Heat dissipation of the joint接头的热散失 (4) Chemistry of the steel (weldability) 钢的化学成分(焊接性) (5) Hydrogen content of deposited weld metal熔敷的焊缝金属的氢含量 (6) Degree of restraint in the joint接头拘束程度 Point 1 is considered above. 第1点上述已作考虑。 Point 2 is not presently considered in the code. 第2点本规范目前未作考虑。 Point 3 is partly expressed in the thickness of material. 第3点部分地体现在材料厚度中。 Point 4 is expressed indirectly in grouping of steel designations. 第4点间接地体现于钢材组别标号中。 Point 5 is presently expressed either as nonlow hydrogen welding process or a low hydrogen welding process. 第5点目前分别根据非低氢焊接方法或低氢焊接方法表述。 Point 6 is least tangible and only the general condition is recognized in the provisions of Table 3.2. 第6点最不明确,仅在表3.2的条款中认识到一般的情况。 Based on these factors, the requirements of Table 3.2 should not be considered all-encompassing, and the emphasis on preheat and interpass temperatures as being minimum temperatures assumes added validity. 根据这些因素,不应当认为表3.2的要求是全面的,因而强调预热和道间温度为最低温度就更为必要。 Caution should be used in preheating quenched and tempered steel, and the heat input shall not exceed the steel producer’s recommendation (see 5.7). 调质钢的预热应小心,且线能量严禁超过钢厂的推荐值(见5.7)。 3.5.1 Base Metal/Thickness Combination. 母材金属/厚度组合 The minimum preheat or interpass temperature applied to a joint composed of base metals with different minimum preheats from Table 3.2 (based on Category and thickness) shall be the highest of these minimum preheats. 表 3.2 系按钢材组别和厚度确定最低预热温度和道间温度, 对这些具有不同最低预热温度要求的母材构成的接 头施加的最低预热温度或道间温度,必须取最低预热温度中的最大值。
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3.5.2 Annex XI Option. 附录 XI的选择 Optionally, minimum prehea and interpass temperature may be established on the basis of steel composition. Recognized methods of prediction or guidelines such as those provided in Annex XI, or other methods approved by the Engineer, may be used. However, should the use of these guidelines result in preheat temperatures lower than those of Table 3.2, WPS qualification in conformance with Section 4 shall be required. 最低预热温度和道间温度可以根据钢材化学成分选定,也可使用诸如附录 Ⅺ指导的公认方法或工程师认可的其 他方法。不过,如果据之得出的预热温度低于表 3.2 的要求,则必须按照第 4 章要求进行 WPS 评定。 The methods of Annex XI are based on laboratory cracking tests and may predict preheat temperatures higher than the minimum temperature shown in Table 3.2. The guide may be of value in identifying situations where the risk of cracking is increased due to composition, restraint, hydrogen level or lower welding heat input where higher preheat may be warranted. Alternatively, the guide may assist in defining conditions under which hydrogen cracking is unlikely and where the minimum requirements of Table 3.2 may be safely relaxed. 附录Ⅺ的方法是以实验室裂纹试验为基础,所预测的预热温度可能高于表 3.2 的最低预热温度。在那些由于化 学成分、拘束状态、含氢水平或较低焊接线能量而增加裂纹危险性的场合,有理由需要较高预热,则这一指导也 许是有价值的。换句话说, 这一指导对于可能氢裂以及表 3.2 的最低要求偏低的情况,是有帮助的。 3.5.3 Alternate SAW Preheat and Interpass Temperatures. 补充的 SAW 预热和道间温度 Preheat and interpass temperatures for parallel or multiple electrode SAW shall be selected in conformance with Table 3.2. For single-pass groove or fillet welds, for combinations of metals being welded and the heat input involved, and with the approval of the Engineer, preheat and interpass temperatures may be established which are sufficient to reduce the hardness in the HAZs of the base metal to less than 225 Vickers hardness number for steel having a minimum specified tensile strength not exceeding 60ksi[415 MPa], and 280 Vickers hardness number for steel having a minimum specified tensile strength greater than 60ksi[415 MPa], but not exceeding 70ksi[485 MPa]. 必须按表 3.2 选用平行焊丝或多丝埋弧焊的预热和道间温度。对于单道坡口焊缝或角焊缝来说,可以结合待焊金 属和线能量, 并经工程师认可, 来确定预热温度 和道间温度,该温度要足以降低母材的热影响区硬度,使得规定 的最低抗拉强度不超过60ksi [415Mpa]的母材的热影响区维氏硬度值小于225 ,规定的最低抗拉强度大于 60ksi[415Mpa]但不超过70ksi[485Mpa]的母材的热影响区维氏硬度值小于280 。
Note: The Vickers hardness number shall be determined in conformance with ASTM E 92. If another method of hardness is to be used, the equivalent hardness number shall be determined from ASTM ET 40, and testing shall be performed according to the applicable ASTM specification. 注:维氏硬度值必须按 ASTM E92 确定,如果使用另一种硬度,则必须根据 ASTM-E140 确定当量硬度值,且必须按适用的 ASTM 技术条 件进行测试。

3.5.3.1 Hardness Requirements. 硬度要求 Hardness determination of the HAZ shall be made on the following: 测定热影响区硬度如下进行: (1) Initial macroetch cross sections of a sample test specimen. 样品试件的初始宏观腐蚀横截面。 (2) The surface of the member during the progress of the work. The surface shall be ground prior to hardness testing: 作业过程中的构件表面。硬度测试前必须打磨该表面 : (a) The frequency of such HAZ testing shall be at least one test area per weldment of the thicker metal involved in a joint of each 50 ft [15 m] of groove welds or pair of fillet welds. 这种热影响区的硬度测定次数为:在每 50 英尺(15 米)的坡口焊缝或成对角焊缝的接头中,较厚金属焊件必须至 少有一个测试区域。 (b) These hardness determinations may be discontinued after the procedure has been established to the satisfaction of the Engineer. 工艺已经确定并获工程师满意后,可停止硬度测定。

3.6 Limitation of WPS Variables

WPS 变素的限制

All prequalified WPSs to be used shall be prepared by the manufacturer, fabricator, or Contractor as written prequalified WPSs, and shall be available to those authorized to use or examine them. The written WPS may follow any convenient format (see Annex E for examples). The welding parameters set forth in (1) through (4) of this subsection shall be specified on the written WPSs within the limitation of variables described in Table 4.5 for each applicable process. Changes in these parameters, beyond those specified on the written WPS, shall be considered essential changes and shall require a new or revised prequalified written WPS: 所有采用的免除评定的焊接工艺规程 (WPS)必须由制造厂、制作者或承包商编制成书面免除评定的 WPS, 且必 须备授权人使用或检查。书面 WPS 可采用方便的格式(见附录 E 示例)。对每一种适用的焊接方法,本节下述 (1) 至 (4) 的焊接变素,必须按表 4.5 规定的变素变化范围写入书面WPS 中。这些变素的改变如果超出书面 WPS 的规 定,必须视为实质性改变,且必须编制新的或修订的免除评定的书面WPS。
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AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002 (1) Amperage安培(wire feed speed送丝速度) (2) Voltage电压 (3) Travel Speed焊接速度 (4) Shielding Gas Flow Rate保护气体流率

Structural Welding Code — Steel

C3.6 Limitation of WPS Variables

WPS 变素的限制

Although prequalified WPSs are exempt from tests, the code does require that the Contractor prepare a written WPS to be used in fabrication. This is a record of the materials and the welding variables which shows that the WPS meets the requirements for prequalified status. 虽然免除评定的WPS免做试验,但规范强调要求承包商准备一份书面的、制作中使用的WPS。此文件记录所用 材料和焊接变素,以表明WPS符合免除评定状态的要求。 It is the intent of the code that welders, welding operators, tack welders, and inspection personnel have access to the written prequalified WPS. The code requires that four critical variables be specified on the written prequalified WPS within limits that will insure that it provides meaningful guidance to those who implement its provisions. The allowable ranges for amperage, voltage, travel speed, and shielding gas, as applicable, are the same as those allowed for qualified WPSs in 4.7 of the code. The limitation imposed on these four variables are sufficiently conservative to allow rounding off. 规范的意图是使焊工、自动焊工、定位焊工和检验人员接触书面的免除评定的 WPS。规范要求在书面的免除评 定的WPS上明确规定四种关键性的变素,在其限制的范围内为条款的执行者提供有针对性的指导。电流,电压, 焊接速度和保护气体,其按照适用情况的允许范围与那些在规范4.7中评定合格的WPS的容许值相同。对这四种变 素的限制是足够保守的,因此允许对其数值进行取整。 3.6.1 Combination of WPSs. WPS 的组合 A combination of qualified and prequalified WPSs may be used without qualification of the combination, provided the limitation of essential variables applicable to each process is observed. 已评定合格的 WPS 与免除评定的 WPS 可以组合使用而不必评定该组合体,但适用于每一种焊接方法 的基本 变素的限定要得以遵守。

3.7 General WPS Requirements 焊接工艺规程要求概述
All the requirements of Table 3.7 shall be met for prequalified WPSs. 免除评定的 WPS 必须符合表 3.7 的所有要求。 3.7.1 Vertical-Up向上立焊要求 Welding Requirements. The progression for all passes in vertical position welding shall be upward, except that undercut may be repaired vertically downwards when preheat is in conformance with Table 3.2, but not lower than 70° [20° F C]. However, when tubular products are welded, the progression of vertical welding may be upwards or downwards, but only in the direction(s) for which the welder is qualified. 立焊位置的所有焊道均必须由下向上施焊, 只有修补咬边时可以向下立焊,但需按表3.2 规定预热,预热温度 不得低于70° [20° F C]。然而,焊接管材时,立焊可以由下向上或由上向下,但焊工必须通过所焊方向的资格评定. 3.7.2 Width/Depth Pass Limitation. 焊道宽度、 深度限制 Neither the depth nor the maximum width in the cross section of weld metal deposited in each weld pass shall exceed the width at the surface of the weld pass (see Figure 3.1). 每一条焊道的焊缝金属横截面, 无论是深度还是最大宽度, 均严禁超过此焊道表面的宽度(见图 3.1)。 C3.7.2 Width/Depth Pass Limitation. 焊道宽度、 深度限制 The weld nugget or bead shape is an important factor affecting weld cracking. Solidification of molten weld metal due to the quenching effect of the base metal starts along the sides of the weld metal and progresses inward until completed. The last liquid metal to solidify lies in a plane through the centerline of the weld. If the weld depth is greater than the width of the face, the weld surface may solidify prior to center solidification. When this occurs, the shrinkage forces acting on the still hot, semi-liquid center or core of the weld may cause a centerline crack to develop, as shown in Figure C3.1 (A) and (B). This crack may extend throughout the longitudinal length of the weld and may or may not be visible at the weld surface. This condition may also be obtained when fillet welds are made simultaneously on both sides of a joint with the arcs directly opposite each other, as shown in Figure C3.1(C). 焊核或焊道形状是影响焊缝裂纹的重要因素。由于母材的冷却作用,熔融的焊缝金属的凝固沿焊缝金属的边缘 开始,并向中部发展直至完成这一过程。最后凝固的液态金属位于通过焊缝中心线的平面内。如果焊缝深度大于 其表面宽度,则在焊缝中心凝固之前,焊缝表面可能凝固。如果这一情况发生,则作用于仍然热的、半液态的焊 缝中央或芯部的收缩力会导致中心裂纹并发展,如图C3.1 (A)和(B)所示。这种裂纹可能会扩展而贯穿焊缝的纵向 全长,在焊缝表面可能看见或看不见。如图C3.1(C)所示,当两电弧彼此直接相对同时焊接接头两面的角焊缝时, 也会发生这种情况。
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Structural Welding Code — Steel

In view of the above, Table 3.7 requires that neither the depth nor the maximum width in the cross section of the weld metal deposited in each weld pass shall exceed the width at the surface of the weld pass. This is also illustrated in Figure 3.1. Weld bead dimensions may best be measured by sectioning and etching a sample weld. 鉴于上述情况,表3.7要求熔敷于每一焊道的焊缝金属的截面积,其深度或最大宽度都严禁超过焊道表面的宽 度。图3.1也对此作了说明。最好对焊缝试样取剖面并腐蚀以测量焊道尺寸。 3.7.3 Weathering Steel Requirements. 耐候钢要求 For exposed, bare, unpainted applications of ASTM A 588 steel requiring weld metal with atmospheric corrosion resistance and coloring characteristics similar to that of the base metal, the electrode or electrode-flux combination shall conform to Table 3.3. 对裸露、不涂漆的 A588 钢, 要求焊缝金属具有相似于母材的抗大气腐蚀性能和颜色,所用焊条(丝)或焊丝焊 剂组配必须符合表 3.3 的要求。 C3.7.3 Weathering Steel Requirements. 耐候钢要求 The requirements in this subsection are for exposed, bare, unpainted applications of ASTM A 588 steel where atmospheric corrosion resistance and coloring characteristics similar to those of the base metal are required. The filler metals specified in Table 3.3 shall be used to meet this requirement. When welding these steels for other applications, the electrode, the electrode-flux combination, or grade of weld metal specified in Table 3.1 is satisfactory. 这一节是对裸露、不涂漆 ASTM A588 钢的要求,这里要求焊缝金属也具有与母材相似的抗大气腐蚀性能和色 泽特征。表3.3规定的填充金属系用于符合这种要求的情况。如这些钢的焊接用于其他场合,则表 3.1 规定的焊条 (丝),焊丝 ? 焊剂组合或焊缝金属的等级也可满足要求。 The use of filler metals other than those listed in Table 3.3 for welding ASTM A 588 steel (used in bare, exposed applications) is allowed for certain size single-pass fillets (related to welding process), as shown in 3.7.3. Here, the amount of weld metal-base metal admixture results in weld metal coloring and atmospheric corrosion characteristics similar to the base metal. 对ASTM A588 钢(用于裸露情况)的焊接,当施焊一定尺寸的单道角焊缝(与焊接方法有关)时,允许使用表 3.3以外的填充金属,如 3.7.3 所述。这里,填充金属 ? 母材混合物形成焊缝金属的色泽和抗大气腐蚀性能,应与 母材相似。 In multiple-pass welds, a filler metal from Table 3.1 may be used to fill the joint except for the last two layers. Filler metal as specified in Table 3.3 shall be used for the last two surface layers and ends of welds. 在多道焊焊缝中,除最后两焊层外,可用表3.1所列填充金属熔敷接头。最后的表面两焊层和焊缝端部必须使用 表3.3规定的填充金属。 The exceptions to this requirement are as follows: 这一要求允许如下例外: 3.7.3.1 Single-Pass Groove Welds. 单道坡口焊缝 Groove welds made with a single pass or a single pass each side may be made using any of the filler metals for Group II base metals in Table 3.1. 可以使用表 3.1中Ⅱ 组母材所用的任何一种填充金属完成单焊道或每面一单焊道的坡口焊缝。 3.7.3.2 Single-Pass Fillet Welds. 单道角焊缝 Single-pass fillet welds up to the following sizes may be made using any of the filler metals for Group II base metals listed in Table 3.1: 可以使用表 3.1 中 Ⅱ 组母材所用的任何一种填充金属完成不大于下列尺寸的单道角焊缝。 SMAW 1/4 in. [6 mm] SAW 5/16 in. [8 mm] GMAW/FCAW 5/16 in. [8 mm]

3.8 Common Requirements for Parallel Electrode and Multiple Electrode SAW 对平行焊丝或多丝埋弧焊的通用要求
3.8.1 GMAW Root Pass. GMAW根部焊道 Welds may also be made in the root of groove or fillet welds using GMAW, followed by parallel or multiple electrode submerged arcs, provided that the GMAW conforms to the requirements of this section, and providing the spacing between the GMAW and the following SAW arc does not exceed 15 in. [380 mm]. 坡口焊缝或角焊缝的根部也可以用 GMAW 施焊,随后续以平行焊丝或多丝埋弧焊,但GMAW 要符合本章的要 求,并且气体保护金属极焊的电弧与随后的埋弧之间的间距不得超过15 in.[380mm]。

3.9 Fillet Weld Requirements角焊缝要求
See Table 5.8 for minimum fillet weld sizes. 最小角焊缝尺寸见表 5.8。
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AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002 3.9.1 Details (Nontubular). 细则(非管材)

Structural Welding Code — Steel

See Figures 2.1 and 2.5 for the limitations for prequalified fillet welds. 对免除评定的角焊缝的限制见图 2.1和图 2.5。 3.9.2 Details (Tubular). 细则(管材) For prequalified status, fillet welded tubular connections shall conform to the following provisions: 就免除评定而言,用角焊缝焊接的管材连接必须符合下述条款要求: (1) Prequalified WPSs. Fillet welded tubular connections made by SMAW, GMAW, or FCAW processes that may be used without performing WPS qualification tests are detailed in Figure 3.2. (see 2.23.1.2 for limitations)。These details may also be used for GMAW-S qualified in conformance with 4.12.4.3. 免除评定的 WPS。SMAW,GMAW 或 FCAW 焊接方法可以不经 WPS 评定试验而制作角焊缝管材接头,接头 的细节如图 3.2(见2.39.1.2 的有关限定)。这些详细要求也适用于按 4.12.4.3 评定的短路过渡气体保护金属极电弧焊 (GMAW-S)。 (2) Prequalified fillet weld details in lap joints are shown in Figure 2.15. 免除评定的搭接接头角焊缝细节见图 2.15。 3.9.3 Skewed T-Joints. 斜T形接头 Skewed T-joints shall be in conformance with Figure 3.11. 斜T形接头必须符合图3.11。 3.9.3.1 Dihedral Angle Limitations. 二面角限制 The obtuse side of skewed T-joints with dihedral angles greater than 100°shall be prepared as shown in Figure 3.11, Detail C, to allow placement of a weld of the required size. The amount of machining or grinding, etc., of Figure 3.11, Detail C, should not be more than that required to achieve the required weld size (W). 斜T 型接头二面角大于100° 的钝角一侧必须按图3.11详图 C 制作,以便安置所需尺寸的焊缝。按图3.11详图 C 进 行切削或打磨等的金属总量不应大于需要达到的焊缝尺寸(W)所允许者。 3.9.3.2 Minimum Weld Size for Skewed T-Joints. 斜T形接头的最小焊缝尺寸 For skewed T-joints, the minimum weld size for Details A, B, and C in Figure 3.11 shall be in conformance with Table 5.8. 对于斜T形接头,图3.11中的详图A,B和C的最小焊缝尺寸必须符合表5.8的规定。

3.10 Plug and Slot Weld Requirements塞焊缝和槽焊缝要求
The details of plug and slot welds made by the SMAW, GMAW (except GMAW-S), or FCAW processes are described in 3.10.1 through 3.10.3, 2.5.2 through 2.5.4, and 2.5.6, and they may be used without performing the WPS qualification described in Section 4, provided the technique provisions of 5.25 are met. 3.10.1 至 3.10.3,2.5.2 至 2.5.4 和 2.5.6 列出了由 SMAW, GMAW(不包括短路过渡)或 FCAW焊接方法所焊的 塞焊和槽焊的详细要求,并且,如果符合 5.25 技术条款的要求,则可不进行第 4 章规定的 WPS 评定而采用。

C3.10 Plug and Slot Weld Requirements塞焊缝和槽焊缝要求
Plug and slot welds conforming to the dimensional requirements of 2.5, welded by techniques described in 5.25 and using materials listed in Table 3.1 or Annex M are considered prequalified and may be used without performing joint WPS qualification tests. 使用表3.1或附录M所列的材料、以5.25规定的技术焊接的、符合2.5的尺寸要求的塞焊缝和槽焊缝,被认为 符合免除评定的要求,可以无需进行接头的焊接工艺评定试验而使用。 3.10.1 Diameter Limitations. 直径限制 The minimum diameter of the hole for a plug weld shall be no less than the thickness of the part containing it plus 5/16 in. [8 mm], preferably rounded to the next greater odd 1/16 in. [2 mm]. The maximum diameter shall equal the minimum diameter plus 1/8 in. [3 mm] or 2-1/4 times the thickness of the member, whichever is greater. 塞焊孔的最小直径严禁小于开孔板厚度加 5/16 in. [8mm] ,最好将其四舍五入为大出1/16 in. [2mm]的下一个奇数 值。塞焊孔的最大直径必须等于最小直径数值加1/8 in. [3mm] , 或开孔件厚度的 2-1/4 倍, 取两值中较大者。 3.10.2 Slot Length. 槽孔长度 The length of the slot for a slot weld shall not exceed ten times the thickness of the part containing it. The width of the slot shall be no less than the thickness of the part containing it plus 5/16 in. [8 mm], preferably rounded to the next greater odd 1/16 in. [2 mm]. The maximum width shall equal the minimum width plus 1/8 in. [3 mm] or 2-1/4 times the thickness of the member, whichever is greater. 槽焊缝用的槽孔长度严禁超过开孔件厚度的 10 倍。槽宽严禁小于开孔件厚度加5/16 in. [8mm],最好将之归整为 大出 1/16 in. [2mm]的下一个奇数值。最大宽度必须等于最小宽度加1/8 in. [3mm],或开孔件厚度的 2-1/4 倍,取两 值中较大者。 3.10.3 Depth of Filling. 填焊深度
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The depth of filling of plug or slot welds in metal 5/8 in. [16 mm] thick or less shall be equal to the thickness of the material. In metal over 5/8 in. [16 mm] thick, it shall be at least one-half the thickness of the material, but no less than 5/8 in. [16 mm]. 在厚度等于或小于 5/8 in. [16mm]的母材上塞焊或槽焊的填焊深度必须等于母材厚度。在厚度大于 5/8 in. [16mm] 的母材上,填焊深度必须至少为母材厚度的一半,但不得小于 5/8 in.[16mm]。

3.11 Common Requirements of PJP and CJP Groove Welds 部分熔透和完全熔透坡口焊缝的通用要求
3.11.1 FCAW/GMAW in SMAW Joints. FCAW、 GMAW 采用 SMAW 的接头型式 Groove preparations detailed for prequalified SMAW joints may be used for prequalified GMAW or FCAW. SMAW 所用免除评定的接头坡口制备细则可用于免除评定的 GMAW 或 FCAW。 3.11.2 Corner Joint Preparation. 角接接头制备 For corner joints, the outside groove preparation may be in either or both members, provided the basic groove configuration is not changed and adequate edge distance is maintained to support the welding operations without excessive melting. 如果坡口的基本形状不变, 且留有足够的边缘距离以保持焊接操作而不过分熔化,则角接接头外侧坡口可在任 一构件上加工,也可在两构件上都加工。 C3.11.2 Corner Joint Preparation. 角接接头制备 The code allows an alternative option for preparation of the groove in one or both members for all bevel- and J-groove welds in corner joints as shown in Figure C3.2. 如图C3.2所示,对于角接接头中所有单边削斜和J形坡口焊缝,规范容许在一个构件或两个构件上制备坡口,这 两种方法择一。 This provision was prompted by lamellar tearing considerations allowing all or part of the preparation in the vertical member of the joint. Such groove preparation reduces the residual tensile stresses, arising from shrinkage of welds on cooling, that act in the through-thickness direction in a single vertical plane, as shown in prequalified corner joints diagrammed in Figures 3.3, 3.4, and 3.11. Therefore, the probability of lamellar tearing can be reduced for these joints by the groove preparation now allowed by the code. However, some unprepared thickness, “a,” as shown in Figure C3.2, shall be maintained to prevent melting of the top part of the vertical plate. This may easily be done by preparing the groove in both members (angle β). 这一条款是因考虑层状撕裂而引起的,允许在接头的竖直构件上全部或部分地制备坡口。这样制备的坡口减少 了因焊缝冷却收缩而引起的残余拉应力,这种应力在单独的竖直平面内、以贯穿厚度的方向起作用,如图3.3,3.4 和3.11中图解的免除评定的角接接头所示。因此,规范现在所允许的坡口制备使这些接头降低了层状撕裂的可能 性。然而,必须保留一些未加工的厚度a(如图C3.2所示),以免竖直板顶角部熔塌。在两个构件上制作坡口(角 度β )是容易做到这一点的。 3.11.3 Root Openings. 根部间隙 Joint root openings may vary as noted in 3.12.3 and 3.13.1. However, for automatic or machine welding using FCAW, GMAW, and SAW processes, the maximum root opening variation (minimum to maximum opening as fit-up) may not exceed 1/8 in. [3 mm]. Variations greater than 1/8 in. [3 mm] shall be locally corrected prior to automatic or machine welding. 接头根部间隙可在如 3.12.3 和 3.13.1 所述范围内变化。 然而当 FCAW, GMAW和 SAW 使用自动或机械方法 焊接时,根部间隙最大差值(装配时最大间隙与最小间隙差值)不超过1/8 in. [3mm]。当差值超过 1/8 in. [3mm] 时,必须在自动或机械施焊前局部修整。

3.12 PJP Requirements PJP 要求
PJP groove welds shall be made using the joint details described in Figure 3.3. The joint dimensional limitations described in 3.12.3 shall apply. PJP坡口焊缝必须按图3.3规定的接头详图制作。3.12.3规定的尺寸限定必须采用。 3.12.1 Definition. 定义 Except as provided in 3.13.4 and Figure 3.4 (B-L1-S), groove welds without steel backing, welded from one side, and groove welds welded from both sides, but without backgouging, are considered PJP groove welds. 除3.13.4 条款及图3.4 (B-L1-S)以外,仅从一面施焊而背部无钢衬垫的坡口焊缝,以及从二面施焊但背面不清根 的坡口焊缝,均视为接头部分熔透坡口焊缝。 3.12.2 Weld Size. 焊缝尺寸 The weld size (E) of a prequalified PJP groove shall be as shown in Figure 3.3 for the particular welding process, joint designation, groove angle, and welding position proposed for use in welding fabrication.
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AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002

Structural Welding Code — Steel

免除评定的接头部分熔透坡口的焊缝尺寸(E)必须如图 3.3 所示,该图提出了用于焊接制作的特定焊接方法、 接头代号、坡口角度和焊接位置。 3.12.2.1 Prequalified Weld Sizes免除评定的焊缝尺寸 (1) The minimum weld size of PJP single- or double-V, bevel-, J-, and U-groove welds, types 2 through 9, shall be as shown in Table 3.4. The base metal thickness shall be sufficient to incorporate the requirements of the joint details selected, conforming to the variances outlined in 3.12.3 and the requirements of Table 3.4. PJP的单面或双面的V形,单边V形< 形>,J形和U形坡口焊缝的最小焊缝尺寸,即焊缝类型2至类型9,必须如表 3.4所示。 母材必须有足够厚度以能体现所选的接头详图的要求,符合3.12.3提出的变化范围和表3.4的要求。 (2) The maximum base metal thickness shall not be limited. 严禁限制母材的最大厚度。 (3) The PJP square butt weld B-P1 and flare-bevel groove weld BTC-P10 minimum weld sizes shall be calculated from Figure 3.3. PJP I形坡口对接焊缝B-P1和喇叭形单边坡口焊缝BTC-P10的最小焊缝尺寸必须根据图3.3 计算。 (4) Shop or working drawings shall specify the design grooves depths “S” applicable for the weld size “(E)” required per 3.12.2. (Note that this requirement shall not apply to the B-P1 and BTC-P10 details.) 施工图和加工详图必须规定设计坡口深度“S”以适合按3.12.2要求的焊缝尺寸“(E)”(注意本要求严禁用于B-P1 和BTC-P10详图) 3.12.3 Joint Dimensions接头尺寸 (1) Dimensions of groove welds specified in 3.12 may vary on design or detail drawings within the limits of tolerances shown in the “As Detailed” column in Figure 3.3. 3.12中规定的坡口焊缝尺寸可在设计或草图的基础上改变,但要在图3.3“零件图用”列所示公差的限定之内。 (2) Fit-up tolerances of Figure 3.3 may be applied to the dimensions shown on the detail drawing. However, the use of fit-up tolerances does not exempt the user from meeting the minimum weld size requirements of 3.12.2.1. 图3.3的装配公差可用于标注详图尺寸。然而,装配用公差不能免除使用者需符合3.12.2.1对最小焊缝尺寸要求。 (3) J- and U-grooves may be prepared before or after assembly. J形和U形坡口可在装配前或在装配后制备。 3.12.4 Details (Tubular). 详细要求(管材) Details for PJP tubular groove welds that are accorded prequalified status shall conform to the following provisions: 符 合免除评定要求的管材接头的部分熔透坡口焊缝细则必须符合以下条款: (1) PJP tubular groove welds, other than T-, Y-, and K-connections, may be used without performing the WPS qualification tests, when these may be applied and shall meet all of the joint dimension limitations as described in Figure 3.3. 除T、Y 和K 形节点之外的管材接头部分熔透(PJP)坡口焊缝,当其能够适用且符合图3.3 中规定的所有接头尺 寸的限定时,可以不作WPS 评定试验。 (2) PJP T-, Y-, and K-tubular connections, welded only by the SMAW, GMAW or FCAW process, may be used without performing the WPS qualification tests, when they may be applied and shall meet all of the joint dimension limitations as described in Figure 3.5. These details may also be used for GMAW-S qualified in conformance with 4.12.4.3. 管材接头部分熔透(PJP)的T、Y 和K 形节点,当能够适用且又符合图3.5 中规定的所有接头尺寸限定,并且只 使用SMAW, GMAW 或FCAW 方法时,可不作WPS 评定试验。这些细则也可用于按4.12.4.3 的要求而评定合格的 GMAW-S 方法。 3.12.4.1 Matched Box Connections. 相配的方管连接 Details for PJP groove welds in these connections, the corner dimensions and the radii of the main tube are shown in Figure 3.5. Fillet welds may be used in toe and heel zones (see Figure 3.2). If the corner dimension or the radius of the main tube, or both, are less than as shown if Figure 3.5, a sample joint of the side detail shall be made and sectioned to verify the weld size. The test weld shall be made in the horizontal position. This requirement may be waived if the branch tube is beveled as shown for CJP groove welds in Figure 3.6. 在这些接头部分熔透(PJP)坡口焊缝的连接中,角部尺寸和主管半径的细则如图3.5 所示。角焊缝可用于趾部 和跟部区域(见图3.2)。如果角部尺寸或主管半径分别或同时小于图3.5 所示,则必须焊接一个侧面细部的样品接 头并切开以核实其焊缝尺寸。试样焊缝必须在横焊位置施焊。如果支管为如图3.6 所示的接头完全熔透(CJP)坡 口焊缝那样开有坡口,则可不限定在横焊位置施焊。

3.13 CJP Groove Weld Requirements接头完全熔透 (CJP) 坡口焊缝要求
CJP groove welds which may be used without performing the WPS qualification test described in Section 4 shall be as detailed in Figure 3.4 and are subject to the limitations described in 3.13.1. 接头完全熔透的坡口焊缝可以不进行第 4 章规定的 WPS 评定试验而实施,其详细要求见图3.4,并接受 3.13.1 条款之限定。
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AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002

Structural Welding Code — Steel

3.13.1 Joint Dimensions. 接头尺寸 Dimensions of groove welds specified in 3.13 may vary on design or detail drawings within the limits or tolerances shown in the “As Detailed” column in Figure 3.4. 3.13. Fit up tolerance of Figure 3.4 may be applied to the dimension shown on the detail drawing. 规定的坡口焊缝尺寸可以在设计图或零件图上改变,改变的公差范围如图3.4“零件图用”纵行所示。图 3.4 的装 配公差可用于详图尺寸。 C3.13.1 Joint Dimensions. 接头尺寸 After preparation, the second side of double welded joints may not exactly match the sketches shown for prequalified welded joints in Figure 3.3 due to inherent limitations of the back gouging process. U- and J-shapes may appear to be combined with V- and bevel shapes. This is an acceptable condition. 在接头坡口制备后,双面焊接接头的另一面,由于背部清根方法的固有局限性,其形状不可能精确地与图3.3中 免除评定的焊接接头所示的简图一样。可能出现U形和J形与V形和单边削斜形状结合的情况。这种状况是可接受。 C Figure 3.3 Effective Weld Size of Flare-Bevel- Groove Welded Joints. 半喇叭形坡口焊接接头的有效焊缝尺寸 Tests have been performed on cold formed ASTM A 500 material exhibiting a “c” dimension as small as T1 with a nominal radius of 2t. As the radius increases, the “c” dimension also increases. The corner curvature may not be a quadrant of a circle tangent to the sides. 已用ASTM A500的冷成型材料(c尺寸与T1一样小,公称半径为2t)进行了试验。如果半径增加,c尺寸也增加。 The corner dimension, “c,” may be less than the radius of the corner. 角部弯曲部分可能不是一个与边相切的园的四分之一。角部尺寸c可以小于角部半径。 3.13.2 J- and U-Groove Preparation. J 和 U 形坡口制备 J- and U-grooves and the other side of partially welded double-V and double-bevel grooves may be prepared before or after assembly. After backgouging, the other side of partially welded double-V or double-bevel joints should resemble a prequalified U- or J-joint configuration at the joint root. J 和 U 形坡口以及背面已部分施焊的双面 V 形和双面单边削斜坡口的另一面可在装配前或装配后制备。在背部 清根后,已部分施焊的双面 V 形和双面单边削斜坡口的另一面应当在根部有类似于免除评定的 U 形或 J 形接头的 形状。 3.13.3 Tubular Butt Joints. 管材对接接头 For tubular groove welds to be given prequalified status, the following conditions shall apply: 管材坡口焊缝若要免除评定,必须满足下列条件: (1) Prequalified WPSs. 免除评定的WPS Where welding from both sides or welding from one side with backing is possible, any WPS and groove detail that is appropriately prequalified in conformance with Section 3 may be used, except that SAW is only prequalified for diameters greater than or equal to 24 in. [600 mm]. Welded joint details shall be in conformance with Section 3. 除了 SAW 只对直径大于或等于 24 in. [600mm]的管材接头可免除评定者外,在那些可能从两面焊接或使用衬垫 的单面焊接的场合,凡符合第三章要求免除评定的任何 WPS和坡口细节均可应用。焊接接头详细要求必须符合第 三章的规定。 (2) Nonprequalified Joint Detail. 非免除评定接头细则 There are no prequalified joint details for CJP groove welds in butt joints made from one side without backing (see 4.12.2). 无衬垫仅从一面施焊的对接接头完全熔透(CJP)坡口焊缝不能免除评定(见 4.12.2). 。 3.13.4 Tubular T-, Y-, and K-Connections. 管材的 T,Y 和 K 形节点 Details for CJP groove welds welded from one side without backing in tubular T-, Y-, and K-connections used in circular tubes are described in this section. The applicable circumferential range of Details A, B, C, and D are described in Figures 3.6 and 3.7, and the ranges of local dihedral angles, [Ψ], corresponding to these are described in Table 3.5. 本节所述系圆形管材的 T, Y 和 K 形节点、无衬垫只从一面施焊的接头完全熔透的坡口焊缝详细要求。 适用于 细则 A、B、C 和 D 的圆周情况如图 3.6 和图 3.7 所示,其对应的局部二面角[ψ] 范围见表 3.5 的规定。 Joint dimensions including groove angles are described in Table 3.6 and Figure 3.8. When selecting a profile (compatible with fatigue category used in design) as a function of thickness, the guidelines of 2.20.6.7 shall be observed. Alternative weld profiles that may be required for thicker sections are described in Figure 3.9. In the absence of special fatigue requirements, these profiles shall be applicable to branch thicknesses exceeding 5/8 in. [16mm]. 表 3.6 和图 3.8 规定了包括坡口角度在内的接头尺寸。当选择随厚度而变的剖面形状(与设计中所用的疲劳范畴一 致)时,必须遵守 2.36.6.7 节的准则。因较厚截面的需要而可选择的剖面的形状如图3.9 所示。如无特殊的疲劳要 求, 这些剖面形状适用于支管厚度超过 5/8 in. [16mm] 的情况。 Improved weld profiles meeting the requirements of 2.36.6.6 and 2.36.6.7 are described in Figure 3.10. In the absence of
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AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002

Structural Welding Code — Steel

special fatigue requirements, these profiles shall be applicable to branch thicknesses exceeding 1-1/2 in. [38 mm]. (not required for static compression loading). 符合 2.36.6.6 和 2.36.6.7 要求的改善的焊缝剖面形状如图 3.10 所示。如无特殊的疲劳要求,这些剖面形状适用 于支管厚度超过 1-1/2 in. [38mm] 的情况(静态受压荷载 不作要求)。 Prequalified details for CJP groove welds in tubular T-, Y-, and K-connections, utilizing box sections, are further described in Figure 3.6. The foregoing details are subject to the limitation of 3.13.3. 图 3.6 进一步描述了方截面管材的 T,Y 和 K 形节点完全熔透(CJP)坡口焊缝的免除评定的详细要求。上述要 求受 3.13.3 节的限制。 The joint dimensions and groove angles shall not vary from the ranges detailed in Table 3.6 and shown in Figure 3.6 and Figures 3.8 through 3.10. The root face of joints shall be zero unless dimensioned otherwise. It may be detailed to exceed zero or the specified dimension by not more than 1/16 in. [2 mm]. It may not be detailed less than the specified dimensions. 接头尺寸和坡口角度严禁超出表 3.6 所列以及图 3.6、图 3.8 ~ 图 3.10 所示的规定范围。除非另标尺寸,接头钝 边应为零。作为详图可以标注其超过零或规定尺寸,但不大于 1/16 in. [2mm]。当小于规定尺寸时可不标注。 3.13.4.1 Joint Details. 接头细节 Details for CJP groove welds in tubular T-, Y-, and K-connections are described in 3.13.4. 3.13.4. These details are prequalified for SMAW and FCAW. These details may also be used for GMAW-S qualified in conformance with 4.12.4.3. 描述了管材 T, Y 和 K 形节点的接头完全熔透(CJP)坡口焊缝的细节。这些细节对于药皮焊条手工电弧焊和 药芯焊丝电弧焊是免除评定的。这些细节也可用于按4.12.4.3 评定的 GMAW-S。

3.14 Postweld Heat Treatment焊后热处理
Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) shall be prequalified provided that it shall be approved by the Engineer and the following conditions shall be met. 焊后热处理(PWHT)必须免除评定的条件是, 必须经工程师同意且必须符合下述条件: (1) The specified minimum yield strength of the base metal shall not exceed 50 ksi [345 MPa]. 母材的规定最低屈服强度严禁超过50 ksi [345MPa]。 (2) The base metal shall not be manufactured by quenching and tempering (Q&T), quenching and selftempering (Q&ST), thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) or where cold working is used to achieve higher mechanical properties (e.g., certain grades of ASTM A 500 tubing). 母材严禁经淬火和回火(Q&T)、淬火和自回火(Q&ST)、热-机控制过程(TMCP)或使用冷作来达到更高的力学性 能(例如, ASTM A500 某级别的管材)。 (3) There shall be no requirements for notch toughness testing of the base metal, HAZ, or weld metal. 没有对母材,热影响区(HAZ)或焊缝金属的缺口韧性试验的要求。 (4) There shall be data available demonstrating that the weld metal shall have adequate strength and ductility in the PWHT condition (e.g., as can be found in the relevant AWS A5.X filler metal specification and classification or from the filler metal manufacturer). 必须有数据证实在焊后热处理条件下焊缝金属必须有足够的强度和塑性(例如,能从AWS A5.X 填充金属技术 条件和等级、或从填充金属制造商处得到相关资料)。 (5) PWHT shall be conducted in conformance with 5.8. 焊后热处理的实施必须符合5.8 的规定。

C3.14 Postweld Heat Treatment. 焊后热处理
Historically, the D1.1 requirements for PWHT have been largely based on experience with ASME Code fabrication of plain carbon-manganese steels. The structural steel industry is increasingly moving away from carbon manganese steels to newer steels which are metallurgically more complex such as low alloy and microalloyed [e.g., Cb (Nb) and V additions] steels. The newer steels can be furnished in the asrolled condition or with heat treatments such as quenching and tempering (Q&T), quenching and self-tempering (QST), or thermo-mechanically controlled processing (TMCP) to obtain higher yield strength. In general, Cb (Nb) and V additions are not used in pressure vessel steels, and when included, they are usually restricted to low values. The exception in pressure vessel steels is SA-737 which has additions of Cb (Nb) or V depending upon the grade. There have been a least seven Welding Research Council (WRC) Bulletins on topics relevant to the subjects of PWHT and microalloyed steels. A summary of the overall conclusions indicates that: 历史上,,D1.1关于焊后热处理(PWHT)的要求很大程度上根据ASME规范中关于普通碳一锰钢的制作经验而定。 结构钢工业已从碳锰钢向更新的钢种发展,这些钢在冶金上更为复杂,譬如低合金钢和微合金化 [例如添加(Nb) 和钒(V)]钢。这些更新的钢可以轧制状态或热处理状态供货,例如淬火和回火(Q&T),淬火和自回(QST) 或热-机械控制加工(TMCP),以获得更高的屈服强度。通常,添加铌(Nb)和钒(V)钢不用于压力容器,并 且,当有夹杂物时,含量往往被限制于低值。压力容器钢中的例外是SA-737,它按钢的级别添加Nb或V。至少已 有7个焊接研究协会(WRC)的公报刊载了关于PWHT和微合金化钢材的题目。以下为这些结论的简要概括:
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AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002

Structural Welding Code — Steel

(1) PWHT (at 1150° [620° for a few hours) of asrolled or normalized carbon-manganese and low alloy steels (having F C] a 50 ksi [345 MPa] or lower yield strength) does not adversely affect strength. PWHT, regardless of temperature or duration, degrades the notch toughness of Cb (Nb) or V microalloyed base metals and HAZs. Degradation varies in severity and may or may not affect the suitability for service. 轧制态或正火态的碳锰钢和低合金钢(屈服强度≤50 ksi [345MPa])的PWHT(在1150°F[620°C]几小时)无 害于强度。不管温度或持续时间如何,PWHT降低Nb或V微合金化母材及热影响区的缺口韧性。韧性的降低变化严 重,可能影响或可能不影响工作的适用性。 (2) Steels manufactured by Q&T, QST, or TMCP processing need to have the development of their PWHT based on the specific material and processing. PWHT may reduce strength and notch toughness properties. The response to PWHT is very dependent on composition. Some Japanese data indicate that 1025° [550° may be a more appropriate PWHT F F] temperature for certain TMCP steels. The optimum PWHT temperature is dependent on specific composition, strength, and notch toughness requirements. 用Q&T,QST或TMCP等工艺制造的钢材需要根据专门的材料和工艺开发PWHT。PWHT可能降低强度和缺口韧 性。PWHT的灵敏性很大程度地依赖于化学成分。一些日本数据表明,对于某些TMCP钢来说,1025°F[550°C] 也许是较为合适的PWHT温度。最佳的PWHT温度系根据特定的化学成分、强度和缺口韧性要求而定。 (3) ASTM A 710 Grade A, age hardening Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo, Cb (Nb) steel is susceptible to cracking in the HAZ during PWHT. Grades B and C have not been studied. Some grades of ASTM A 514/A 517 are marginal for PWHT due to low ductility and possible HAZ cracking during PWHT as well as loss of strength and toughness. Some specifications place specific limits on PWHT such as ASTM A 913 or “High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Shapes of Structural Quality, Produced by the Quenching and Self-Tempering Process (QST)” which requires that “shapes shall not be formed and postweld heat treated at temperatures exceeding 1100°F [600°F].” The API offshore structures specifications 2W for TMCP steels and 2Y for Q&T steels have similar warnings regarding “Post Manufacturing Heating” which need to be considered when PWHT is contemplated. ASTM A 710 A级、时效硬化的Ni、Cu、Cr、Mo、Nb钢,在PWHT时对HAZ部位的开裂是敏感的。对于B级和C 级钢还未作研究。ASTM A 514/A 517钢的某些级别对于PWHT是勉强的,因为它们塑性低,以及PWHT过程中可 能HAZ开裂,还因为损失强度和韧性。某些技术条件对一些钢材的PWHT作了专门限制,诸如ASTM A 913钢,或 者用淬火和自回火工艺(QST)生产的高强度低合金钢型材,这种QST钢型材严禁在超过1100°F [600°C] 温度条 件下成形和进行焊后热处理。关于TMCP钢的API海洋平台结构技术条件2W钢和关于Q&T钢的该技术条件2Y都有 类似的对“制作后加热”的预警,要仔细考虑PWHT。

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