阅读理解能力提高技巧（ 阅读理解能力提高技巧（二） Improving your reading ability（2） （ ）
命题者大多就段落/短文的主题（ 命题者大多就段落 短文的主题（theme/topic）、主 短文的主题 ） 题思想（main idea）、标题（titl
e）等进行拟题。 题思想（ ） 标题（ ）等进行拟题。 例如： 例如： 1.The subject/topic of the paragrap（ passage/article） （ ） is . 2.The paragraph（text／passage）deals with . （ ／ ） 3.What topic is treated in this text ( passage）？ ） 4.The main idea of the paragraph（passage）is . （ ） 5.From the paragraph（text）we know that . （ ） 6.The paragraph（passage）could be entitled . （ ）
7.Which of the following is the best title for the paragraph（text )？ （ ？ . 8.The best title for this text ( passage) could be 9.The paragraph（text／passage）is mainly （ ／ ） about . 10.Which of the following statements is best supported by the last paragraph？ ？ 11.What topic is the paragrap（text) discussed？ （ ？ 12.The purpose of the paragraph（passage）is . （ ） 13. What does the passage/author mainly discuss? 14. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
这类题目要求对文章的整体或局部（如段落） 这类题目要求对文章的整体或局部（如段落） 进行分析、概括， 进行分析、概括，归纳相关部分的中心大意 idea)，选择标题（title）， ），判断作者的 (main idea)，选择标题（title），判断作者的 写作目的（purpose） 写作目的（purpose）等，主旨大意题经常是 用记叙文、 用记叙文、议论文 。要作好主旨大意题首先要 能迅速找到文章的主题句。 能迅速找到文章的主题句。记叙文和议论文的 主题句常出现在文章的开头， 主题句常出现在文章的开头，但有时也出现在 结尾，甚至出现在段中。 结尾，甚至出现在段中。要准确找到主题句更 重要的是从全文去把握。 重要的是从全文去把握。
做此类题目时， 做此类题目时，首先要搞清是问某一段还是 全文的大意，可利用文中主要信息来把握文脉， 全文的大意，可利用文中主要信息来把握文脉， 进行综合归纳，概括文章的主题。如有标题， 进行综合归纳，概括文章的主题。如有标题， 标题中的蕴含的信息往往是关键信息。另外， 标题中的蕴含的信息往往是关键信息。另外， 任何一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的，因此， 任何一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的，因此， 许多文章中最明显的特点之一是有一个反复出 现的中心词，即高频词，也叫做主题词。 现的中心词，即高频词，也叫做主题词。抓住 了它，便容易抓住文章的中心。 了它，便容易抓住文章的中心。
主旨大意题考查对一个段落或一篇文章的 主旨大意题考查对一个段落或一篇文章的 主题思想的理解。 主题思想的理解。一个段落或一篇文章通常是 围绕一个主题展开的。 围绕一个主题展开的。 理解一个段落的主题思想首先要学会寻找 主题句。一般说来，在英语篇章中， 主题句。一般说来，在英语篇章中，主题句在 段落中的位置是有规律可循的。 段落中的位置是有规律可循的。
1. 在阅读中，尽量运用有关信息词确定主题句的位置， 在阅读中，尽量运用有关信息词确定主题句的位置， 如：在for example, first, second,to begin with等之前 等之前 的句子或在all in all, above all，in a word，in short , 的句子或在 ， ， sum up, therefore,thus,clearly等之后的句子中寻找并 等之后的句子中寻找并 确定。 确定。 2. Given all these points above, I would support
the idea that… /For all the reasons mentioned above, I would prefer…等句子后。 prefer…等句子后 等句子后。
3. 对于主题隐含的段落，要先弄清句子的意思， 对于主题隐含的段落，要先弄清句子的意思，
然后快速通读文章，逐项排除， 然后快速通读文章，逐项排除，最终确定答 案。
Sample 1 People have different tastes in food. Some feel that they haven't eaten a meal unless they have had steak or other red meat. Some prefer chicken or fish and eat one or the other at every meal. Others prefer vegetables and fruits or grains and would enjoy a meal of spaghetti, eggplant, and fresh fruit. Others could live on what were called fast-foods: a hamburger or hot dog, French fries and a soft drink.
一个主题句常常是一个段落的开头， 一个主题句常常是一个段落的开头，其后的句子则是论 证性细节。在议论文， 证性细节。在议论文，科技文献和新闻报道中多采用这 种格式。 种格式。
Today the problem of environment has become more and more serious. The world population is rising, so quickly that the world has become too crowded. We are using up our natural resources too quickly and at the same time we are polluting our environment with dangerous chemicals. If we continue to do this, human life on earth will not survive. Man has made great progress in environment protection. Governments of many countries have established laws to protect the forests and sea resources and waste water and poisonous gases have been also dealt with. Still more measures should be taken to solve the problems. People should be further educated to realize the importance of the problem, to use modern methods of birth control and learn to recycle our natural resources. We are sure that we shall have a better and cleaned planet in the future.
Nowadays the problem of environment has become more and more serious. The world population is rising so quickly that the world has become too crowded. We are using up our natural resources too quickly and at the same time we are polluting our environment with dangerous chemicals. If we continue to do this, human life on earth will not survive. 开门见山 提出主题, 随之用细节来解释, 支撑或发展主
分清main idea 和supporting sentences 分清
Insects come in many sizes．Some are big and some ． are small．The smallest ones are so smal1 that it takes ． one hundred of them to form one inch．The biggest ． insects are not big，but they are one thousand times as ， big as the smallest．They are about ten inches in length！ smallest． length！ 第一句即为主题句，概述本段的主题思想“ 第一句即为主题句，概述本段的主题思想“昆虫的大 小不同” 接着，在主题句后面的句子里， 小不同”。接着，在主题句后面的句子里，作者为阐述 这个主题，指出昆虫有大有小， 这个主题，指出昆虫有大有小，并对最小的昆虫和最大 的昆虫分别加以陈述。 的昆虫分别加以陈述。
Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease(illness), cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it? 主题句在句首的文章结构是先点出主题， 主题句在句首的文章结构是先点出主题，然后围 绕这一主题进行分析用演绎法阐述观点， 绕这一主题进行分析用演绎法阐述观点，呈现出一 个正三角形的模式。 个正三角形的模式。据统计英语议论文和说明文大 约有80%是这样写的。 是这样写的。 约有 是这样写的
Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time. 主题句也会出现在段尾。 （2）主题句也会出现在段尾。作者先摆出事实 依据, 层层推理论证, 最后自然得出结论, 依据, 层层推理论证, 最后自然得出结论, 即段落 的主题。本段的中心思想在结尾句得到体现, 的主题。本段的中心思想在结尾句得到体现,它 是此段内容的结论。 是此段内容的结论。
Sample 6 先陈述细节,后归纳要点, 印象, 结论,建议或结果, 先陈述细节,后归纳要点, 印象, 结论,建议或结果, 以概括主题. 以概括主题. 这是最常见的归纳法写作方式 。
A human body appears to be rather soft and delicate, compared with that of a wild animal, but it is actually surprisingly strong. In deed, its very softness and looseness is an advantage; it makes man good at moving about movement of all living things of his own size, because he can do so many different things with his limbs. Man’s games show how he can control his own body. No other land creature can swim as skillfully as man; more has such varied grace; very few lives as long as he; none is so strong in its natural resistance to disease. Therefore， man has a great advantage in his battle against the risks of damage and death that threaten him.
One of the most important uses of gold is for money ． Gold can be used to make rings ， earrings，and other things，Gold is also used to ， ， make a gold leaf, a very flat ribbon of gold that is often used on picture frames．Cups and dishes ． can also be made from gold. Gold has many uses. 本段共有五句。 本段共有五句 。 前四句主要列举了金子的一 些用途。根据上述细节， 些用途。根据上述细节，段落的最后一句给出结 即金子有多种用途。这种带结论性的句子应 论，即金子有多种用途。这种带结论性的句子应 视为主题句。 视为主题句。
Sample 8 Often no one looks more guilty than t he innocent. On the other hand, nobody may look more innocent than a professi-onal criminal. And the man who knows “everything” may really only be trying to hide his own weakness. So, it is foolish to try to judge a person only by his appearance 这种以先陈述细节,后归纳要点 印象, 结论, 这种以先陈述细节 后归纳要点, 印象 结论 后归纳要点 建议或结果, 以概括主题. 建议或结果 以概括主题 这是最常见的归纳 这种写作模式呈倒三角形。 法写作方式 。这种写作模式呈倒三角形。
Sample 9 Nothing is as useful as a flashlight on a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand . A camper also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out.
（3）在短文中间 当主题句被安排在段中间时, 通常前面只提出问题， 当主题句被安排在段中间时, 通常前面只提出问题， 文中的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文中 导出, 而后又作进一步的解释, 支撑或发展. 导出, 而后又作进一步的解释, 支撑或发展.
People who live in countries with many doctors and modern hospitals are world’s healthiest people -- right ？ Not necessarily. Some groups of people who have no doctors or hospitals at all are among the world’s healthiest. For example ， people who live on small, faraway islands get very few diseases because there are no outsiders to bring in germs or new illness.
本段的三个层次比较明显。 第一句以设问的方式提出该文段要讨论的主 题：生活在有许多医生和现代化医院的国家中 的人是世界上最健康的人吗？此句起到了引出 主题的作用。 第三句对前面的提问做出笼统的回答：许多 生活在没有大夫和医院环境中的人也是世界上 最健康的人。此句起到了陈述主题思想的作用， 应枧为主题句。 段落的最后则举例对主题做进一步的解释。
If you were planning to buy a television set, the following advertisement would certainly draw your attention: “Color TV. Only ＄79. Two days sale. Hurry.” However, when you go to the store ready to buy. You may discover that they are sold out. But the shop assistant is quick to tell you that he has another model. A much better set which is “just right for you” It costs ＄395. This sales trick is called “bait and switch”. (诱售 法 )Buyers are baited with a sales advertisement, and then they are switched to another more expensive one. Buying things on sale needs careful consideration of the goods and the reason for the sale. The paragraph could be entitled _________. A. Buyer Beware B. Closeout(出清存货 Sale 出清存货) 出清存货 C. Crime Pays D. Buying a TV Set
Good manners are important in all countries，but ways ， of expressing good manners are different from country to country. Americans eat with knives and forks；Japanese ； eat with chopsticks. Americans say “Hi” when they meet； ； Japanese bow. Many American men open doors for women； ； Japanese men do not. On the surface，it appears that ， good manners in America are not good manners in Japan， ， and in a way this is true. But in any country，the manners ， that are important are those involving one person’s behavior toward another person. In all countries it is good manners to behave considerately toward others and bad manners not to. It is only the way of behaving politely that differs from country to country.
本段主要说明“ 本段主要说明“礼貌在所有国家都很重 然而各国表达礼貌的方式却不同” 要，然而各国表达礼貌的方式却不同”。 文段的第一句明确陈述了这一看法 第一句明确陈述了这一看法。 文段的第一句明确陈述了这一看法。在段 尾作者再一次强调了这一看法。 尾作者再一次强调了这一看法。 首尾呼应 为突出主题, 作者先提出主题, 结尾时再次 为突出主题 作者先提出主题 点出主题, 这种首尾呼应的写作方式较为多见. 点出主题 这种首尾呼应的写作方式较为多见 但前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复, 但前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复 后面 的表述往往有进一步的引申或发展的意味。 的表述往往有进一步的引申或发展的意味。
An ant can pick up an object more than fifty times its own weight. A bee can pull a load more than one hundred and fifty times its weight. If we were as strong in proportion to our size，we could pull a five-ton truck？If ， ？ we had the jumping ability of a grasshopper，we could ， leap a third the length of a football field！ ！ 此段文章无主题句。所陈述的都是细节。 此段文章无主题句。所陈述的都是细节。一只蚂蚁可搬 起比自身重量重50倍的东西。 50倍的东西 起比自身重量重50倍的东西。一只蜜蜂可拉动比自身重量 150倍的重物 如果我们的力气与身材成比例的话， 倍的重物。 重150倍的重物。如果我们的力气与身材成比例的话，我 们可能拉动5吨的卡车。如果我们具有蚱蜢的弹跳力， 们可能拉动5吨的卡车。如果我们具有蚱蜢的弹跳力，我 们可能跃过三分之一的足球场。根据以上事实， 们可能跃过三分之一的足球场。根据以上事实，我们即可 概括出本段落的主题思想是: 动物的力量” 概括出本段落的主题思想是: 动物的力量”。
即主题句隐含在全文中, 没有明确的主题句. 即主题句隐含在全文中 没有明确的主题句 必须根据文篇中 所提供的事实细节，进行全面考虑，综合分析， 所提供的事实细节，进行全面考虑，综合分析，然后找出共同的 东西，归纳成一般概念。必须注意的是，既不能以偏概全， 东西，归纳成一般概念。必须注意的是，既不能以偏概全，也不 能在概括时过于宽泛，要恰如其分。 能在概括时过于宽泛，要恰如其分。
Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. Q: What is the main idea of the passage? ＿＿＿＿ A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer. B. Bingham is a diligent student. C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. D. A good lawyer needs good education.
【解题思路】 此文没有主题句。全篇共四句，只 陈述了四个细节(detail)性的事实。因此就答案本身 看，个个都对。读者只能将所有的details综合起来， 进行逻辑推理，才能构成一个没有言明的主题思想 (unstated main idea)。由于文中主要涉及了 Joshua Bingham接受教育的情况，即作者想告诉 我们的是：Joshua Bingham接受过良好的教育， 所以答案是 Ｃ
Tom studied four years at the University of Paris and decided to leave before his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. The main idea of this paragraph is that ______. detail A. Tom, who had studied at Paris Universities for four years, moved to another university. detail B. Tom became a lawyer since his graduation from Harvard Law School and later from Boston College. C. Tom was an excellent student when he studied at Berlin university. detail D. Tom received an excellent education.
Types Of Paragraph Structures
type The position of the topic At the beginning At the end In the middle At the beginning and end No clear topic sentence
1). 含有抽象名词和概括性词语。 含有抽象名词和概括性词语。 2). 四个选项中, 含有approach, concept, chance, 四个选项中, 含有approach, opportunity, various, both, general, many, difficult, way, necessity, necessary, importance 等词的选项一般 是正确选项。 是正确选项。 3). 四个选项中, 内容相近或完全相反的两个选项中 四个选项中, 往往有一个是正确选项。 往往有一个是正确选项。 4). 那些概括全文, 内容全面, 含义深刻, 说明道理的 那些概括全文, 内容全面, 含义深刻, 选项一般是答案项, 而选项内容片面, 选项一般是答案项, 而选项内容片面, 单一的内容一般 是错误选项. 是错误选项.
2.错误选项的特点 2.错误选项的特点 1)以偏概全. 只是局部信息, 或是一句没 1)以偏概全 只是局部信息, 以偏概全. 有展开论述的话. 有展开论述的话. 2)过于笼统. 即归纳的主题太泛, 与细节 2)过于笼统 即归纳的主题太泛, 过于笼统. 脱节或是没有对细节加以充分论述. 脱节或是没有对细节加以充分论述. 3)把观点强加与作者 3)把观点强加与作者. 读者往往根据自己 把观点强加与作者. 的常识对文章进行判断而忽视了作者 的见解. 的见解. 4)无关信息, 既在文章中没有提到或找不 4)无关信息 无关信息, 到语言依据的信息
二. Finish the following in pairs
（NMET 2002） ） 1.Underground systems are already in place ． Many cities have underground car parks． In some cities， such as Tokyo， Seoul ． ， ， and Montreal, there are large underground shopping areas，The “Chunnel”，a tunnel（隧 ， ， （ 道 ） connecting England and France ； is now completed． ． 第一句为主题句. 第一句为主题句 本段中的其他句子都是用来 说明“地下设施”是以何种形式在地球上“已经 说明“地下设施”是以何种形式在地球上“ 存在”的具体实例。 存在”的具体实例。
2. The panda is a popular animal. Stories about the panda in the Washington Zoo are always front page news and important features on television newscasts. Stuffed pandas are among the most popular toys for children, and panda postcards are always in demand in zoo gift shops. 主题句在文首 开门见山,提出主题,随之用细节来解释, 开门见山,提出主题,随之用细节来解释, 支撑 或发展主题句所表达的主题思想. 或发展主题句所表达的主题思想. 最常见的演绎 法写作方式. 法写作方式.
3. Joe is happy about being on a bowling team that bowls once a week. He also enjoys playing basketball twice a month. During the summer，he ， tries to play baseball on weekends. Joe really does enjoy all sports activities. He goes swimming as often as he can. Whenever he can’t participate directly，he loves to watch a football game or a ， golf or tennis match. 本段的主题句为第四句 主题句为第四句Joe really does enjoy all 本段的主题句为第四句 sports activities. 前三句引述了他喜欢的几种体育 活动， 活动，主题句后面的两句对中心思想做了进一步 的解释和支撑。段落结构包括三个层次： 的解释和支撑。段落结构包括三个层次：引出主 呈现主题---解释主题 题---呈现主题 解释主题。 呈现主题 解释主题。
（NMET 1998） ） 4. On the night of the party Merlin rolled into the room playing his violin. Everyone was astonished to see him. There was just one problem. Merlin had no way to stop his roller-skates. He rolled on and on. Suddenly，he ran into a huge mirror that was ， hanging on the wall. Down fell the mirror, breaking to pieces. Nobody forgot Merlin’s grand entrance for a long time! 此段落也无明确的主题句。本段说Merlin按计划拉着小 此段落也无明确的主题句。本段说Merlin按计划拉着小 Merlin 提琴，穿着自制的旱冰鞋，滑进化装舞会， 提琴，穿着自制的旱冰鞋，滑进化装舞会，令在场的人 大吃一惊，由于停不住竟然将墙上的巨大镜子撞碎， 大吃一惊，由于停不住竟然将墙上的巨大镜子撞碎，则 更使人久久不能忘怀。根据上文及本段的描述， 更使人久久不能忘怀。根据上文及本段的描述，可概括 出本段的主题思想是“Merlin的闪亮登场取得意料之外 出本段的主题思想是“Merlin的闪亮登场取得意料之外 的成功” 的成功”。
三. 专项训练 阅读下面短文，从各题所给的四个选项（ 、 、 阅读下面短文，从各题所给的四个选项（A、B、 C和D）中，选出最佳选项。 选出最佳选项。 和 ） A Wouldn’t it be terrible if we didn’t have grass？ ？ We would have to walk on bare soil. Can you guess what our playgrounds would look like？On a rainy ？ day, we would get all muddy. On a dry day we would breathe clouds of dust. The short text mainly deals with C . A. why we need rain B. how grass is kept green C. how grass helps us D. why we breathe dust
The word Waterloo has become a synonym for defeat---total defeat and complete disaster. Waterloo, a town in Belgium, was the scene of a battle in 1851 that brought overwhelming defeat to Napoleon Bonaparte’s French Army. At stake were the whole continent of Europe and Napoleon’s dream of an empire. In a few days, over forty thousand French soldiers died. With their deaths a new word for disaster was born --Waterloo. The subject of the text is D . A. where Waterloo is B. who named Waterloo C. why Napoleon was defeated D. how Waterloo came to mean defeat
C Rats are still almost as big a danger to people as they were long ago. They still spread disease and eat crops. Much of the hunger we have today is caused by rats. They eat half of the grain harvested in the world. This paragraph mainly tells us . A. that we are short of grain because of rats B. why rats are still an enemy of people C. how rats destroy our food D. why rats cause disease B
D “Even when a man is said to be a best friend,” Rubin writes, “ the two share little about their innermost feelings. Whereas a woman’s closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage. It wasn’t unusual to hear a man say he didn’t know his friend’s marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa” Which of the following statements is best supported by the last paragraph? A A. Men keep their innermost feelings to themselves. B. Women are more serious than men about marriage. C. Men often take sudden action to end their marriage. D. Women depend on others in making decisions.
E We think of a f1ood or an earthquake as a natural disaster. To many of nature’s animals, however, the greatest disaster is the coming of large numbers of humans. When settlers came from the East to America’s great western plains, they killed millions of bison, poisoned the prairie dogs, and shot the coyotes. All this upset the area’s balance of nature. For the animals, it was worse than a flood or earthquake. Which of the following is the best title for the text? A. Floods and Earthquake B B. Humans -- Disaster to Nature C. American Settlers D. Nature Balance Itself