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形容词与副词


内 容 提 要 形容词和副词在语法结构中主要用于比较级和最高级。 形容词和副词的构成形式基本上 一样,它们的形式与单音节、双音节和多音节有关,当然还有其特殊形式。形容词和副词比 较级的基本用法分为同级比较、 比较级和最高级三种形式。 但这三种形式都有它们特殊的表 达方式以及它们的惯用法。对以下要点大家须一一掌握。 形容词比较级和最高级的形式 一、形容词比较级和最高级的构成 形容词

的比较级和最高级变化形式规则如下 构 成 法 原 级 比 较 级 最 高 级

① 一般单音节词末尾加? er 和 ? est strong stronger strongest

② 单音节词如果以? e 结尾,只加? r 和? st strange stranger strangest

③ 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有 一个辅音字母, 须先双写这个辅音字母,再加? er 和? est big hot bigger hotter biggest hottest ④ 少数以? y,? er(或? ure),? ow,? ble 结尾的双音节词, 末尾加? er 和? est(以? y 结尾的词,如? y 前是辅音字母, 把 y 变成 i,再加? er 和? est,以? e 结尾的词仍 只加? r 和? st) angry saddest sadder sad

clever narrow noble cleverer narrower nobler cleverest narrowest noblest ⑤ 其他双音节和多音节词都在前面加单词 more 和 most different most more angrest angrier

different different

二、形容词比较级或最高级的特殊形式: 1. 三个或三个以上音节的形容词只能加 more 和 most 只能说 more beautiful 而不能说 beautifuller; 只能说 the most beautiful 而不能 说 beautifullest。 但是,以形容前缀? un 结尾的三音节形容词不适合上述情况,如 unhappy,untidy,我 们可以说:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest 2. 由? ING 分词和? ED 分词演变过来的形容词(包括不规则动词如 know→known)只能 加 more 或 most 来表示它们的比较级和最高级 more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more(most)worn 等。 3. 英语里有些形容词由于其词义而不可能有比较级形式 absolute fatal main right universal

chief entire

final foremost

naked perfect

simultaneous

utter vital

eternal excellent

inevitable infinite

possible primary

sufficient supreme

whole wooden

三、不规则形容词的比较级和最高级形式 good well bad ill many much little few far less farther further least farthest furthest more most worse worst better best

副词比较级和最高级的形式 副词比较级和最高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样 一般 副词 hard→harder →hardest fast→faster →fastest late→later →latest early→earlier →earliest

特殊 副词 well →better →best much →more →most badly →worse →worst little →less →least 但是,开放类副词即以后缀? ly 结尾的副词不能像形容词那 样加? er 或? est,如 quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly [注]: early 中的? ly 不是后缀,故可以把? y 变? i 再加? er 和? est 内 容 提 要--形容词与副词比较级和最高级的基本用法 一、原级比较的基本用法 1. 原级比较由"as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语)+as "构成"原级相同"比较句, 表示两者比较;其否定式,即"程度不及"比较句型为"not so(as) +形容词或副词+as", 而且 as…as 结构前可用 just, almost, nearly, quite 等表示程度的词修饰 2. "as (so)+名词+as+名词"进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的比 较词,但如果第一名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用 so 而不用 as 二、比较级 1. 比较级由"形容词(副词)比较级+than+…,"构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方" 更加…"。连词 than 后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词不 定式、? ING 结构和? ED 结构,有时也可省去 than。 2. 注意 than 前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致 三、最高级 1. 最高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是"定冠词+形容词最高级+名词+ 表示范围的短语或从句"(如 all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place 等) 2. 副词的最高级与形容词最高级的区别在于最高级前没有定冠词 the 四、同步练习 1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .

[A] to run for fifteen minutes [B] running for fifteen minutes [C] you run for fifteen minutes [D] fifteen ? minute walking 解析 :B 为正确答案。 2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while [A] not quite as curious than [B] the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence [C] and memory retention(记忆力) in solving [D] a problem. 解析:B 错。改为 as ,和前面的 as 和形容词原形 curious 一起构成同程度比较。 3) Alaska is twice [A] as larger [B] as [C] the next largest [D] state, Texas. 解析:B 错。 改为 as large。 4) Thomas Jefferson's achievements as an architect rival his contributions politician. [A] such [B] more [C] as [D] than 解析:C 对。动词 rival(胜过、匹敌)前后是两个相比较的成分 achievements(成果)和 contributions(贡献),由于前面的名词后出现了短语 as an architect,故空白处也应用 as,使前后对比成分一致。 5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter. [A] that [B] so [C] this [D] as a

解析:B 为正确答案。 6) Natural mica(云母) of [A] a superior [B] quality is cheapest [C] to obtain than synthetic [D] mica. 解析:C 错。应改为比较级 cheaper。比较级后并不一定跟接连词 than,有时在其间有 名词或名词短语(被形容词所修饰),介词短语,不定式或其他成分隔开。 7) She is older than .

[A] any other girl in the group [B] any girl in the group [C] all girls in the group [D] you and me as well as the group

解析:A 为正确答案。"She"作为单个不能跟全组比(C 和 D 不对),也不能跟全组所有相 比,因为"她"也是其中一员,自然"她"不能跟自己相比。这里"She"比较的是"这组中的任何 一个",所以 A 对。 8) Josephine McCrackin joined [A] the "Santa Cruz Sentinel" in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late [B] , remained [C] active in journalistic [D] work. 解析:B 错。应改为比较级 later,因此处实为与 1905 年相比晚 15 年,故应使用比较 级。 9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than [A] ours [B] with us [C] for ours it had [D] it did for us .

解析:D 为正确答案。 10) Sound travels air.

[A] faster through water than through [B] faster than through water and [C] through water faster and[D] where it is faster through water than through 解析:A 为正确答案。 11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand's pupils, followed [A] the style of his teacher so implicitly that [B] his paintings [C] are sometimes confused with his master [D] . 解析:D 错。 改为 his master's。 12) The more [A] fearsome of all the [B] animals in [C] the Western [D] Hemisphere is the grizzly bear. 解析:A 错。 改为 most。 13) Of all economic [A] problems, inflation continues to be [B] a [C] most significant in its daily impact on [D] people and business.

解析:C 错。改为 the, significant 是多音节形容词,在此处应用最高级形式(在前 面加 the most),注意句中的"of all… "。 14) ,the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.

[A] All the activities [B] The activities [C] Of all the activities [D] It is the activities

解析:C 为正确答案。本句空白处缺状语,A 和 B 全为名词短语,不符合条件;D 为句 子,和空白后面的句子没有任何联系,故亦应排除。只有 C 正确,和后面的最高级 the most familiar 前后呼应。 形容词和副词的特殊表达法 一、形容词与副词的同级比较: 由"as(so)…as"引出,其否定式为"not so…"或"not as…as",此外还应注意下列含有"as"结构或短语的句子 1. as such:表示上文所指明的事或人 He is a child,and must be treated as such. 他是个孩子,必须被当作孩子对待。 2. as much:表示"与…同量" Take as much as you like. 拿多少都行。 I would gladly have paid twice as much for it. 就是价格再贵一倍,我也会愿意 把它买下的。 He as much as admitted the whole story. 他几乎全部承认了。 3. as many:表示"与…一样多" I found six mistakes in as many lines. 我在六行中发现了六个错。 二、表示"几倍于"的比较级:用 twice (两倍),four times (四倍),ten times (十 倍)加上 as … as 结构 This one is four times as big as that one. 这个是那个的四倍大。(这个比那个大 三倍。) Our campus is three times as large as yours. 我们的校园比你们的大两倍。 He has books twice as many as she does. 他的书比她多一倍。 三、"the same +名词+as"表示同等比较

四、比较级前可用 a little, a bit, slightly, a great deal, a lot,many, much 等词语表示不定量,far, completely,still 表示程度或更进一步 五、与比较级有关的特殊词用法 1. no more than …表示"只不过","并不比…"(等于 not any more than) Man cannot live without food any more than plants can grow without sunshine. 人没有食物不能生存,植物没有阳光也不能生长。 There is no difficulty with this task any more than with that one. 这项任务没有困难,那项任务也没有困难。 2. no less than 表示"不亚于" There are no less than five hundred people present at the New Year party. 出席新年晚会的有五百人之多。(出席的人较多) 3. not less than 表示"不少于" There are not less than five hundred people present at the New Year party. 出席新年晚会的只有五百人。(出席的人较不多) 4. more often than not 表示"多数情况下" On Friday mornings, he comes late more often than not. 多数情况下,他星期五来得晚。 5. all the more 因而更加 We really admired him all the more for his frankness. 我们更加钦佩他的坦率。 6. (be) better off 较富裕,环境较好 7. had better 最好…… Come, you had much better have the thing out at once. 来,你最好把这东西弄出 去。 8. less than 不到

The first steam locomotive could have a top speed of only thirteen mph(miles per hour) and the great sailing ships of the time labored along at less than half that speed.第一列蒸汽火车最快每小时只有 13 英里,那时的大船还不到这个速度的一半。 9. little more than 差不多 The grain in their barn is little more than that of ours. 他们仓的粮食跟我们仓的粮食差不多。 10. more than 超过,不止 I have waited for your for more than two hours. 我等了你两个多小时。 11. more or less 大体上,或多或少 The work is more or less finished. 工作大体算完成了。 Most of them came here to near money, more or less Mr.Wang worked for his cause. 他们大都来挣钱的,但王先生有点像为事业而工作。 12. other than 除了 They imposed no pre conditions other than that the meeting should be held in their capital. 除了会议要在他们的首都开之外,他们没有提出任何先决条件。 13. rather than 而不是,与其…宁愿(rather than 表示"与其…宁愿"时,如果位于 句首引导句子,有虚拟的成分,相当于"… would rathe than,"所以 rather than 后面跟 动词原形) Read what interests you; read what you have time for magazines and newspapers rather than novels. 读你感兴趣的东西,读你有时间读的东西,如杂志和报纸而不是小说。 Rather than allow the potatoes to go bad, she sold them at half price. 她以半价把土豆给卖了,而没有让它们烂掉。 Rather than cause trouble, he left. 为了不惹事,他还是走了。 14. so much the better 就更好了

If she will help us, so much the better. 如果他能帮我们,那就更好了。 15. so much the worse 就更糟了 So much the worse for you if you still are absent from class. 如果你继续逃课的话,就对你更不利了。 16. the more…the more(less)"越是……,就越……" 六、比较中的省略 1. 在 as…as 中,as 从句可省略整个谓语部分,保留主语 She sings as well as her sister. 她跟她的姐姐唱得一样好(省去了 does)。 2. 可以省去谓语部分,保留主语和 be、have 等助动词 Susan has done as much housework as you have. (省去了 done。) 3. 可以省去主语和谓语,只剩下状语 It is not as cold in Beijing as in Datong. 北京的天气没有大同冷。 4. than 从句也可以省去整个谓语部分,保留主语 They say that blood is thicker than water, that our relatives are more important to us than others. 他们说血浓于水,亲属对我们来说比其他人更重要。 5. than 从句省去部分谓语,保留主语和 be,have 或助动词 The white collar workers earn more than the blue workers do. 白领工人比蓝领工人挣得多。 这时 我们可以进行倒装,即将 than 后从句中的 be,have 或助动词移到该从句的前边 After all, big changes are relatively easier to make than are small ones. 相对来说,大变动比小变动毕竟容易些。 The fact is that some drug addicts are much better able to cure addiction in each other than are psychiatrists; some convicts can run better rehabilitation

programs for convicts than do correctional officers; some patients in mental hospitals are better for each other than is the staff. 事实上, 有些吸毒成瘾者与吸毒成瘾者之间戒瘾比精神病医生的作用还好; 有些罪犯在 改造其他罪犯方面比教改人员强; 医院里的病人与病人之间的沟通比医务人员与病人间的沟 通还强。 6. than 从句可以省去主语和部分谓语,保留宾语 Grandma gives more candies to her grandson than her granddaughter. 奶奶给孙 子的糖比给孙女的多。(省去了 she gives candies to) 7. than 从句可以省去主语和谓语,保留状语 There are more books in this library than in that library. 这个图书馆的书比 那个多。(省去了 there are many books) She is much better than yesterday. 她比昨天好多了。(省去了 she was) Signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past. 近些年来在学校、商业和政府中欺诈的迹象比以前更 多。 8. than 从句可以省去主语,保留谓语部分 His speed of doing the work was much faster than had expected. 他干此事的速 度远比想象的快。(省去了 he 或 we) 9. 有时可以省去整个 than 从句 He is much healthier and happier. 她比以往任何时侯都健康幸福。(省去了 than he was ever before) 10. 为了避免重复,我们经常用 that 代替不可数名词, those 代替复数名词,one 代替 可数名词单数 七、隐含比较级 有时比较级并不一定出现 than,这时通过上下文可喑示出,如:-Of the two oranges, which do you choose? -I like the larger one.这里的 larger one 是指前边提到的两个 当中的较大的一个。而且有些形容词在表示比较的时候,跟"to"而不用"than" 1. prior to 较早的,较重要的

The task is prior to all others. 这项任务比其他所有的任务都重要。 I called on him prior to my departure. 动身前我去看了他一趟。 2. superior to 优越,高于 In math he felt superior to John. 他觉得自己数学比约翰强。 They were resolved to rise superior to every obstacle. 他们决心战胜一切困难。 3. inferior to 下等的,次的 These apples are inferior in flavour to those. 这些苹果的味道不如那些。 4. senior to 年长的,地位高的;junior 年幼的,地位低的,迟的 He is two years senior to me. 他比我大两岁。 Her appointment is junior to mine by six weeks. 她的任命比我迟六星期。 5. preferable to 更好的 Health without riches is preferable to riches without health. 贫穷但健康要比富有却多病更可取。 6. prefer…to 更倾向于… I prefer this to that. 我喜欢这个而不喜欢那个。 八、最高级在特殊短语中的使用:在有下列短语的句子中,往往使用最高级 1. one of… 3. in the world(或群体名词) 九、其他有关比较的习惯表达法 1. "as +形容词(副词)+as possible"结构,表示"最…,尽可能…":"as quickly as possible"(尽量快) 2. " sooner or later"是成语,表示"迟早、早晚" 3. "would rather +动词原形+than …"是惯用句型,表示"宁愿…而不愿…",由于 连词 than 要求前后所比较的成分要一致

十、most 表示"非常": 有时 most 并不表示"最……",而是作副词表示"非常"之意。 其实它是 much 的最高级,作形容词用是"大多数"之意,前边不加 the。另外 much 与 to 构 成介词词组,表示"在很大程度上使……"that 也可以作副词用,表示"如此,那么"相当于 so 十一、形容词与副词的修饰关系: 一般来说,形容词用来作表语(与系动词连用,注意 taste, feel, become 等词作系动词用时,它们后的表示应该是形容词,包括? ed 分词)或 作定语修饰名词, 而形容词不能修饰形容词包括? ED 分词; 但副词可以修饰形容词(包括? ED 分词),副词还可以修饰副词、动词或短语 十二、形容词与副词的位置 1. 当几个形容词共同修饰同一名词时,它们的先后顺序是:限定词→数词→描述性形 容词→大小、长短、形状的形容词→色彩形容词→类属形容词→表材料形容词+被修饰的名 词;或只记住限定词像 a, the, my, their 等词在最前边,其他词根据它们与被修饰名词关 系的远近进行安排 2. 一般来说,单个副词修饰形容词时,副词放在形容词前;但 enough 修饰形容词时要 放在形容词之后 good enough, mysterious enough 3. so 修饰的是副词,而 such 修饰的是名词 4. 形容词修饰名词时放在前边,但修饰复合不定代词(something, someone, somebody; anything, anyone, anybody; nothing, no ? one, nobody)时,则放在这些词之后 something important, anything possible 十三、关于 hardly, rarely, scarcely 与 seldom 的用法 hardly"刚刚,不完全",表示程度:I hardly know him. "我几乎认不出他了",表示 还是能认出或者说"我刚刚能认出他";hardly 与 any 连用表示"几乎没有",与 ever 连用表 示"几乎从来不"; scarcely 的意思与 hardly 更接近。rarely"不经常",表示事物发生的 频率: rarely goes there. 他很少(不经常)去那里。 He seldom"很少, 不经常", 它与 rarely 更接近。 同步练习 1) The five ? year deal obligates [A] the country to buy nine million tons [B] of grain a year [C] , three million more as [D] the old pact's minimum. 解析:D 错。 改为 than。

2) The lens of a camera performs

the lens of the eye.

[A] in the same function [B] the same function as [C] the function is the same as [D] and has the same function 解析:B 对。本句的汉语意思是"照相机的镜头和眼睛的水晶体所起的作用相同"。 3) The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would have as the amount of money borrowed. [A] as the same value [B] the same value [C] value as the same [D] the value is the same 解析:B 对。本句的汉语意思是"消除通货膨涨会保证还的钱与借时的钱同值"。 4) There are now were. [A] more sophisticated than [B] much more sophisticated [C] much sophisticated [D] sophisticated 解析:B 为正确答案。 5) The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are than those taken from the Earth. [A] clearest [B] the clearest [C] much clearer [D] more clearer 解析:C 为正确答案。 methods for studying color vision in infants than there once

6) Common porpoises(海豚) are usually not considered [A] migratory, although [B] some do move [C] to more warmer [D] waters in winter. 解析:D 错。 改为 warmer。 7) During observations made over a fifty ? year period, the power output of the Sun has than a few tenths of one percent.

[A] varied by no more [B] varied no more by [C] not varied more by [D] more varied by not 解析:A 为正确答案。 8) Few of the people who live on the cooperatives than they were as laborers. [A] is well off financial [B] financially well off [C] are better off finanically [D] financial better off 解析:C 为正确答案。 9) He came all the way to China for promoting friendship for making money. [A] other than [B] better than [C] more than [D] rather than 解析:D 为正确答案。 10) He preferred to write the letter by hand . [A] to typing it [B] than type it [C] to type it [D] rather than type it 解析: D 为正确答案。

11) The harder he tried, [A] the worst [B] he danced [C] before the large [D] audience. 解析:B 错。 改为 worse。 12) The quicker a loan [A] is repaid [B] , the least [C] it will [D] cost. 解析: C 错。 改为 less。 13) Hot objects emit do cold objects.

[A] rays more than infrared(红外线) [B] rays are more infrared than [C] more than infrared rays [D] more infrared rays than 解析: 对。 D 本句中的比较级为形容词 more (much 的比较级), 被比较的两个事物为"hot objects"和"cold objects",在所释放(emit)的红外线(infrared rays)的量上,前者多于 后者。其中 more 修饰 infrared rays,它们不能被分开,故只有 D 在词序上正确。空白后 面为倒装语序, 其中的 do 代替动词 emit, 本句空白后也可用正常语序, 即"cold objects do"。 14) Last year the country had [A] fewer imports as [B] did the year before last [C] due to [D] the energy crisis. 解析: B 错。 改为 than。 15) Long Island, an [A] island that forms the [B] southeastern part of New York, has a [C] greater population than which [D] of forty ? two of thefifty states. 解析: D 错。 改为 that,代替 population。 16) The grain of rye is longer [A] and slenderer [B] than [C] those of [D] wheat. 解析:D 错。 改为 that。这里比较的"The grain"不是复数,不能用复数代词 those。 17) The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than . [A] the domestic marketer has [B] the domestic marketer does [C] those of the domestic marketer [D] that which has the domestic marketer

解析:C 为正确答案。比较句中,连词 than 前后,即所比较的成分要一致,应该在同 种事物间进行比较。本句所比较的是两种 activities ,故 C 正确,代词 those 代替"the activities"。 18) The grape is cultivated plants.

[A] one of the oldest [B] the oldest one [C] one which the oldest [D] the one is the oldest of 解析:A 对。"one of the oldest…"表示"(历史)最长的栽种植物之一",C 和 D 均不合 语法,而 B 选项中的 one 多余。 19) , William Shakespeare is the most widely known.

[A] With all writers in English [B] All writers in English [C] All of the writers in English [D] Of all writers in English 解析:D 为正确答案。 20) The crane is of the wading birds. [A] the tallest [B] the tallest that is [C] which is the tallest [D] which the tallest is 解析:A 为正确答案。 21) The Appalachians Trail, extending [A] approximately 2,020 miles [B] from Maine to Georgia, is the longer [C] continuous [D] marked footpath in the world. 解析:C 错。只有在两者相比较时才使用比较级,而本句出现了状语 in the world,明 显表示不止两者相比,故应改用最高级 (the) longest 。

22) La Paz, Bolivia is the higher [A] capital city in [B] the western hemisphere and [C] the second ? highest [D] in the world. 解析:A 错。 改为 the highest。 23) The best way to control rats is by seeing that they have as . [A] possibly little nourishment [B] nourishment possibly little [C] little as possible nourishment [D] little nourishment as possible 解析:D 为正确答案,"as little nourishment as possible "意为"尽可能少的养料"。 24) Earlier [A] or later, all lakes are influenced [B] by eutrophication, a process in which lake sediment(沉积物) lowers the depth [C] of the water and drains(除去) oxygen from it [D] . 解析: A 错。改为 sooner。 25) Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf of the telephone.

[A] than inventing [B] than as the inventor [C] the invention [D] as the inventor 解析:B 为正确答案,两个短语"as a teacher of the deaf"和" as the inventor of the telephone"相比。 26) Wool is characteristic on which to classify breeds of sheep. [A] most obviously [B] obvious the most [C] the most obvious [D] the most obvious that is 解析:C 为正确答案。注意: 空档后的"characteristic"是名词而不是形容词,所以 不能填 A。 27) The Democratic party has controlled [A] the most [B] of the elected positions at [C] state and local levels in South Carolina since [D] the Reconstruction.

解析:B 错。 改为 most。 28) During [A] the seventeenth century the most [B] colonists were primarily concerned with [C] D)] economics [D] and defense. 解析:B 错。 改为 most。 29) Belgium, in the [A] 19th century, rapid [B] grew into [C] an industrial [D] country. 解析:A 错。改为 rapidly。 30) The Lost Colony in North Carolina mysterious [A] disappeared between [B] 1587 and 1590, when its [C] founder returned from a visit [D] to England. 解析:A 错。改为 mysteriously。 31) Many flatworms have of eyes. [A] more pairs than one [B] more than one pair [C] one more pair than [D] one pair more than 解析:B 为正确答案。 32) Of the two houses the family prefers . [A] the most isolated one [B] the one isolated more [C] the more isolated one [D] the isolated one more 解析:C 为正确答案。 33) Freezing is at present one of the of preserving meats and vegatables. [A] most methods are important

[B] methods most important [C] most important methods [D] most are important methods 解析:C 为正确答案。 34) The radio was of so [A] inferior quality that [B] I took it back [C] and asked for a better one [D] . 解析: A 错。 改为 such。


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