一、学前热身 The woman often called the First Lady of New York died on August. Brooke Astor was one hundred and five years old. The extremely wealthy and famous New Yorker spent
much of her life __1__(help)the needy in her beloved city. She was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. She was the only child of a high level military officer. After two earlier __2__(marry) ，she married Vincent Astor in 1953 again. He came from a family __3__ had been rich for least on hundred years. Among other things, he owned many buildings in New York City. Brooke Astor became one of the __4__(rich)women in the world when Vincent Astor died. She also became head of a huge charity organization_ _5__(found) by her husband. He repeatedly had told her she would have fun giving __6__ his money. And apparently she did. Missus Astor gave tens of millions of dollars __7__(main)to places and people in New York City. She said it was the sensible choice because that was __8__ the money had been made. She gave financial support to the city?s cultural centers，its poor and disabled as __9__ as to many other smaller charities. When she died, the mayor of New York said the city would not be what it is today __10__ her support. 二、题型介绍
(1)短文来源：都来自网上。 (2)短文长度：170-200 词。 (3)短文难度：没有超出课标的生词，但有课标单词的派生词。 (4)短文题材：或体现文化内涵，或给人心灵以启迪等。 (5)考点设置： ①纯空格题：设 6-7 个小题。 ②用括号中所给词填空：设 3-4 个小题。 (6)答案特点： ①纯空格题：试题要求中已明文规定死了“在空格处填入一个适当的词”，即一个小题或者一个 空格只能填一个单词。两年高考题的答案印证了这一点。 ②用括号中所给词填空：试题中要求“使用括号中词语的正确形式填空”，这个词的正确形式究 竟由几个单词组成？两年高考题的答案填一个或两个单词。 ③所填词(答案)都是一些拼写简单的单词。 ④两年都有所填词位于句首，此时第一个字母要注意大写。
（一）通读全文，把握大意。 既然是通过语篇在语境中考语法，那么，我们在解题前，应快速浏览短文，把握全文大意，这一 步非常重要。 （二）结合语境，试填空格。
读懂短文之后， 要结合短文所提供的特定的语言环境， 从句子结构的完整性去分析思考空格所缺 单词的词性， 再根据句子的结构和意义， 以及句子之间的逻辑关系来确定具体要填的单词和所给 词的正确形式。具体来说，可按设题类型分为三类情况： 1、纯空格试题的解题技巧。 首先，分析句子结构，确定填哪类词。然后，再根据句子的意思，确定具体填什么词；或根据两 句间的逻辑关系确定具体用哪个连词。确定填哪类词有以下 7 个技巧： 技巧 1：缺主语或宾语，一定是填代词或名词(多考代词)。如： [例 1]I can send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and ___38___ gets there almost in a second. (2007 年茂名一模) 技巧 2：名词前面，若没有限定词(冠词、形容词性物主代词、不定代词)，很可能是填限定词。 如：[例 2]It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960 —1279) was very anxious to help ___33___rice crop grow up quickly. (2008 年广东高考) 例 3]?the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to ___35___ small town some 20 kilometers away where there was a garage. (2007 年广东高考) 技巧 3：句子不缺主语、表语、动词后不缺宾语的情况下，名词或代词前面，一定是填介词。 [例 4]? who should have the honour of receiving me ___33___ a guest in their house. (2007 年广东高考） 技巧 4：若两个或几个单词或短语之间没有连词，可能是填连词。 [例 5]?two world-famous artists, Pablo Picasso ___34___ Candido Portinari, which are worth millions of dollars. [例 6]?all I saw was this beautiful girl, whose smile just melted me ___36___almost instantly gave me a completely new sense of what life is all about. (2008 年深圳一模) 技巧 5：若两句(一个主谓关系算一个句子)之间没有连词，也没有分号或句号，一定是填并列连 词或从属连词。 [例 7] I wanted to see as much of the city as possible in the two days ___32___I was to return to Guangzhou. (2008 年广州一模) [例 8] He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, ___37___he felt very happy ? (2008 年广东高考) 技巧 6： 若结构较完整， 空格后的谓语动词是原形， 特别是与上下文时态不一致或主谓不一致时， 很可能是填情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词(do, does, did 等)。 [例 9]What is acceptable in one country ___31___be considered extremely rude in another. 例 10] He had no time or energy to play with his children or talk with his wife, but he ______ bring home a regular salary. 技巧 7：由特殊的句式结构来判断空格应填的词。 (1)由 it is?that?强调结构形式，判断填 it 还是 that。如：
[例 11] ?and ___40___was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn ’ t eat MSG (味精)! (2)由倒装句式判断，是填构成倒装的条件的 only, so, neither, nor, never, hardly, seldom, not, until, had 等，还是填 do, does, did 等。如： [例 12] ______with hard work can you expect to get pay rise. (3)由 it 作形式主语或形式宾语的句式判断，空格处是否填 it。如： [例 13] ?as ___32___took them just three minutes to steal paintings by two world-famous artists? (2008 年佛山二模) [例 14]Dating sites also make ___36___easy to avoid someone whom you are not interested in. (2008 年惠州二模) (4)so /such?that?句型。如： [例 15] This made the goat so jealous ___34___it began plotting against ( 谋划对付) the donkey. (2007 年惠州二模) (5)more?than? (与其说??不如说??，比??更??)句型。如： [例 16]Cynthia’s story shows vividly that people remember more how much a manager cares ___40___ how much he pays. (2007 深圳宝安期末） 2、给出了动词的试题的解题技巧 首先，判断要填的动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。然后按以下两点进行思考。 技巧 8：若句中没有别的谓语动词，或者虽然已有谓语动词，但需填的动词与之是并列关系时， 所给动词就是谓语动词；若是谓语动词，就要考虑时态语态。 [例 17]His fear of failure ___36___ (keep) him from classroom games that other children played with joyous abandon. (2008 年深圳一模) [例 18] That was definitely not an attractive idea so I politely declined her Invitation, ___40___ (close) my book and walked away. (2008 年广州一模) [例 19] In Logan, three people ___38___ (take)to a hospital, while others were treated at a local clinic. (2007 梅州二模) 技巧 9：若句中已有谓语动词，又不是并列谓语时，所给动词就是非谓语动词。若是非谓语动词 就要确定用—ing 形式、—ed 形式，还是用不定式形式，确定的方法主要有： (1)作主语或宾语，通常用—ing 形式表示习惯或一般情况，用不定式表示具体的情况。如： [例 20] ?but it is not enough only ___35___(memorize) rules from a grammar book. (2007 年佛山一模) [例 21] ______ (speak) out your inner feeling won’t make you feel ashamed, on the contrary?
[例 22] _______ (complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. [例 23] Some people say that oldest children, who are smart and strong-willed, are very likely ___33___ (succeed). (2008 年佛山一模) (3)作伴随状语，常用分词，与逻辑主语是主动关系，用现在分词，是被动关系，用过去分词。 如：[例 24] He saw the stone, ___37___ (say) to himself: “The night will be very dark.” (2008 年东莞一模) [例 25] The headmaster went into the lab, ________(follow) by the foreign guests. (4)不论非谓语动词在句中作何种成分，若判断需要用分词，与逻辑主语是主动关系用—ing 形 式，是被动关系用—ed 形式。如： [例 26] There will be a meeting, ___40___ (start) later this year to review the film. (2008 年广州二模) [例 27] Lessons ___39___ (learn) in sports can help us in our dealing with other people. (广东考试说明) 3、词类转换题的解题技巧 根据该词在句子所作句子成分确定用哪种形式。具体方法有： 技巧 10：作表语、定语或补语，通常用形容词形式。如： [例 28] The youngster immediately felt ________ (silence) as tears flew down from his big blue eyes. [例 29] In a ________ (danger) part of the sea off the coast of New Zealand, they learnt to? [例 30] Teachers must try their best to make most of their students ________ (interest) in the subject 技巧 11：作主语、在及物动词或介词后作宾语，用名词形式。如： [ 例 31] When China ’ s ancient scientific and technological ________ (achieve) are mentioned, the nation will generally refer to the Four Great Inventions. [例 32] These people have made great ___39___ (contribute) to China with their work. (2007 年茂名二模) [ 例 33] ? instructors expect students to be familiar with ___32___ (inform) in the reading? (2008 年三校联考) 技巧 12：在形容词性物主代词后，或者在“冠词(+形容词)”后，用名词形式。如： [例 34] ?the remains date from this period because of their ___38___ (similar) to those found elsewhere. (2008 年广州二模) [例 35] With the large numbers of students, the ________ (operate) of the system does involve a certain amount of activity. 技巧 13：修饰动词、形容词、副词，或整个句子，作状语，用副词形式。如： [例 36] As I looked ___32___ (close) at this girl, I fount that ? (2008 年深圳一模)
[例 37] There must be something ___40___ (serious) wrong with our society. (2008 潮州 期末) [例 38]Singles are flocking(涌向) to the Internet ___33___ (main) because their busy lifestyles leave them little time ? (2008 年惠州三模) 技巧 14：括号中所给词有可能是要求词义转换，词类不一定要变，主要是考查具有与词根意义 相反的派生词， 需根据句子意思及前后逻辑关系， 在词根前加 un—, im—等， 在词根后加—less 等。如： [例 39] People certainly have a variety of reasons for going back to school but one important thing to know is, no knowledge is ________ (use). [例 40] Your mistake caused a lot of ________ (necessary) work in the office. 解析：在名词前作定语，仍用形容词形式；但根据句意可知，错误是引起不必要的麻烦事，故填 unnecessary。 技巧 15：括号中所给动词也不一定是考动词的时态语态或非谓语动词，而是考词类转换；若是 形容词或副词，有可能是考查其比较等级。如： [例 41]?there was a lot of information about the city ’s well-known tourist ___34___ (attract)? (2008 年广州一模) [例 42]The other frog went on jumping as hard as he could ?He jumped even ___36___ (hard) and finally made himself out. (2008 年期末) [例 43]Storms which produced at least 13 tornadoes swept along New Mexico ’s border with Texas on Friday, destroying homes and other buildings and injuring at least 16 people, several critically, authorities said. The ___33___ (bad) damage was reported in the towns of Logan and Clovis, which are about 80 miles apart, police said. (2007 梅州二模) （三）、重读全文，解决难题。 在解题过程中要先易后难，难题在大部分空格填好后，再经过仔细推敲，难题也就不会再难了。 所有空格填好后，把整篇文章从头至尾复读一遍。
阅读下面短文， 按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求， 在空格处填入一个适当的 词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空。 （2011 汕头一模） Just up the road from my home is a field, with two horses in it. From a distance, each horse looks like any other horse. But if you get a ___16____( close) look you will notice one of them is blind. Instead of abandoning him, his owner has made him a safe and comfortable barn to live in. And if you stand nearby and listen, you will hear the sound of a bell____17___( come) from ____18____ smaller horse. Attached to ___19___ (it) halter is a small, copper-coloredbell assisting the blind friend to follow him. ____20____you watch them, you'll find the horse with the bell always checking on the blind one, and that the blind horse will listen for the bell and then slowly walk to ____21____ the other one
is, trusting he will not _____22____( lead ) astray. When the horse with the bell returns to the barn each evening, he will stop ____23____( frequent ) to look back, making sure that the ____24___ isn't too far behind to hear the bell. Life does not throw us away just because we are not perfect or because we have problems or challenges. Sometimes we are the blind horse being guided by the little ringing bell of our acquaintances; __25____other times we are the guide horse, who helps others to find their way.
(2008 年佛山二模改编) Several men hit the Sao Paulo Museum of Art just before dawn on December 20 th , 2007，and __1__ shocked the authorities as it took the thieves just three minutes to steal paintings __2__ two world— famous artists, Pablo Picasso __3__ Candido Poninari， __4__ are worth millions of dollars. Images from the secret camera show that two men began their action at 5∶09 a. m. ，__5__ the guards in the museum were going through their shift change(换岗). They broke through two glass doors， __6__(run) to the museum?s top floor and grabbed the two paintings from different rooms，somehow __7__(avoid) nearby guards. The alarm never rang，and by 5∶12 a. m. ，they were making their escape. After __8__， the police were interviewing the 30 museum employees. “Everything indicates thieves were sent to do it by some wealthy art lover for __9__ own collection. He was not rich enough to buy the paintings，__10__ he was wealthy，” said the lead police officer，Marcos Gomes de Moura.
（2011 深圳一模） Several times each year the Queen gives afternoon tea parties. But she simply sits beside a big silver plate, pouring cups of tea for everyone and 16 (skill) avoiding the cakes and sandwiches. At cocktail parities the Queen moves from group to group, chatting informally, and manages to make one glass of drink last 17 entire evening. Tours abroad are difficult because hosts seem to have a 18 (believe) that the warmth of their welcome must be shown with wonderful state banquets (宴会). But the Queen has perfected the art of appearing to enjoy her meal without actually eating much. During one visit 19 the Pacific islands of Tonga, a specially – prepared dinner was arranged in her honor. The Queen looked uneasily at her plate 20 she discovered a whole roast pig was her serving. Then a turkey, some meat, an apple and bananas 21 (carry) in for each guest. But she depended 22 her old favorite trick of talking with her host, King Tupou IV, and carrying on a warm conversation. Sometimes the Queen will seem so carried away by foreign leader’s political chat 23 she simply never has time to finish a meal before it is time to get up and make her speech. She will lift her fork to swallow a mouthful, and then put 24 down again to make another point, leaving almost all of her meal 25 (touch).
(2010 年深圳一模) It was a very cold evening, an old man was waiting for a ride across the river. He saw several horsemen pass by but he didn?t ask for any help. The wait seemed __1__(end)．Then came another rider，the old man __2__(catch) his eye and said, “Sir, would you mind doing me a favor？” Stopping his horse，he replied, “Of course.” Almost __3__(freeze), the old man could not get __4__ the ground. The horseman helped him onto his horse. He took the old man not just across the river，__5__ to his home. “Sir, you didn?t even ask the other riders for help, why? What __6__ I had said ?no? and left you there？” the horseman asked. The old man looked at him straight in the eyes and said, “I l ooked into their eyes, I found they didn?t care，__7__ told me it would be useless, but when I looked into __8__， I saw kindness.” These words touched the rider deeply. “Thank you for __9__ you?ve said, I hope I will never be too busy to help others.” with that, Thomas Jefferson, the __10__(three) president of the US, turned his horse around and went away