I：What is a summary? A summary is a brief restatement of the essential thought of a longer composition. It reproduces the theme of the original with as few
words as possible. II：Tips on summary writing ? While reading 1. Is the passage a narration, exposition, argumentation or a description? 2. Are there any topic sentences or key words? If so, underline them and paraphrase them. While writing 1. Structure 1) Topic sentences 2) Main supporting points/evidence 3) About 60 words 2. Language 1) To use your own words* 2) To be concise (leave out the details; reduce the examples; simplify the descriptions; eliminate all repetitions. ) 3) To present the information fairly, do not give your own comments 4) To use the third person to retell 5) Tenses (narration often in the past tense) 文体类型一：议论文 议论文通常包括论点、论据和结论，因此写议论文的概要主要是找出主题句（the topic sentences)、支撑句 （supporting sentences）和结论句（conclusion sentences)。其中最主要的是找准主题句。 概要模板：论点＋论据（＋结论） Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt. In the early 16th century, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water could open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was, thought to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So did the king of England in 1546.Thus began a long time when the rich and the poor in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famously dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out. Though the belief in the merit(好处) of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18th century. Scientifically speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness have moved beyond science since World War II. Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea: clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has the hate for dirt, however, gone too far? Attitudes to dirt still differ hugely nowadays. Many first time parents nervously try to warn their children off touching dirt, which might be responsible for the spread of disease. On the contrary, Mary Ruebush, an American immunologist (免疫学家), encourages children to play in the dirt to build up a strong immune system(免疫系统). And the latter position is gaining some ground. (302 words)
Showering Helps Brain TAKING a shower is relaxing. You can hum a song, daydream or think about nothing, leaving the real world behind you. But did you know that showering can also benefit your mind? A piece of research by Scott Barry Kaufman, a psychologist from Yale University in the US interviewed over 3,000 people around the world. It turned out that nearly two-thirds of the interviewees said they had experienced new ideas in the shower and were more likely to have them in the shower than at work. So why does a simple shower have such magic power? Science can explain it. Showering can help to raise our level of dopamine (多巴胺), a hormone (荷尔蒙) closely related to our creativity. “People vary in terms of their level of creativity according to the activity of dopamine”, explained Alice Flaherty, a renowned American neuroscientist (神经系统科学家). “Taking a warm shower can make us feel relaxed and therefore make the dopamine level rise and bring the ?Aha!? moment to us.” Besides the chemical changes, showering may give you a break from what you feel you have been stuck with. Especially when you have thought hard all day about a problem, jumping into the shower can keep you from the outside world so that you can focus on your inner feelings and memories. In this way, according to American psychologist Shelley H. Carson, author of Your Creative Brain, “a showering hour may turn into an ?incubation (孵化) period? for your ideas”. Compared with sitting in front of a computer, taking a shower is something we do less frequently in our daily lives. When showering, we get a fresh experience with the change of location, temperature and humidity. “New and unexpected experiences can lead to positive changes in thinking,“ explained Kaufman. “Getting off the couch and jumping in the shower may create a distance and force you to think from a new point of view”. Showering allows us to enjoy the creative juices of our minds, which makes the bathroom an alternative where you get your inspiration. So next time you consider ways to free your mind, count it in. A brief outline: Para 1-2： Para 3： Para 4 Para 5 Para 6 Para 7: Summary： （40---80 words）(不得使用原句) （不得发表自己观点）
第二节：概要写作：25 分(先做选择，再概要写作（40---80 词） （不分段） （不得抄写原句） In the United States alone, over 100 million cell-phones are thrown away each year. Cell-phones are part of a growing mountain of electronic waste like computers and personal digital assistants. The electronic waste stream is increasing three times faster than traditional garbage as a whole. Electronic devices contain valuable metals such as gold and silver. A Swiss study reported that while the weight of electronic goods represented by precious metals was relatively small in comparison to total waste, the concentration (含量) of gold and other precious metals was higher in So-called e-waste than in naturally occurring minerals. Electronic wastes also contain many poisonous metals. Even when the machines are recycled and the harmful metals removed, the recycling process often is carried out in poor countries, in practically uncontrolled ways which allow many poisonous substances to escape into the environment. Creating products out of raw materials creates much more waste material, up to 100 times more, than the material contained in the finished products. Consider again the cell-phone, and imagine the mines that produced those metals, the factories needed to make the box and packaging(包装) it came in. Many wastes produced in the producing process are harmful as well. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency notes that most waste is dangerous in that “the production, distribution, and use of products — as well as management of the resulting waste — all result in greenhouse gas release.” Individuals can reduce their contribution by creating less waste at the start — for instance, buying reusable products and recycling. In many countries the concept of extended producer responsibility is being considered or has been put in place as an incentive (动机) for reducing waste. If producers are required to take back packaging they use to sell their products, would they reduce the packaging in the first place？ Governments? incentive to require producers to take responsibility for the packaging they produce is usually based on money. Why, they ask, should cities or towns be responsible for paying to deal with the bubble wrap ( 气泡垫) that encased your television From the governments’ point of view, a primary goal of laws requiring extended producer responsibility is to transfer both the costs and the physical responsibility of waste management from the government and tax-payers back to the producers. 58. By mentioning the Swiss study, the author intends to tell us that _________ . A. the weight of e-goods is rather small C. natural minerals contain more precious metals A. from producers to governments C. from individuals to distributors 60. What does the passage mainly talk about A. The increase in e-waste. B. The creation of e-waste. C. The seriousness of e-waste. D. The management of e-waste. B. E-waste deserves to be made good use of D. the percentage of precious metals is heavy in e-waste B. from governments to producers D. from distributors to governments
59. The responsibility of e-waste treatment should be extended _________ .
杭州学军中学高二英语新题型写作 summary 练习一：
People have mixed opinions towards dirt on our skin. For a long time in history, people of some European countries, such as France, believed that dirt protected people from getting ill. However, people began to change their attitudes to dirt about 200 years ago. People have been told that washing dirt off our body can keep us healthy. However, some scientists believe that exposure to some dirt may help our immune system.