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不定式的用法:不定式的否定形式是在所有的不定式 to 前加 not (1) 作主语 不定式短语作主语时,往往放在谓语之后,用 it 作形式主语。 To see is to believe. 眼见为实。 It is right to give up smoking. 戒烟是对的。 It is kind of you to come to see me. (2) 作

宾语 不定式短语作宾语时, 如果还带有宾语补足语, 往往把不定式宾语放在宾语补足语之后, 而用 it 作形式宾语。 e.g. He wanted to go. 他想走。 I find it interesting to work with him. 我发现和他一起工作有趣。 有作形式宾语, 主要有两类动词: ● 谓语动词是 make; find; believe; think; feel 等时, 常用 it 作形式宾语 ● 谓语动词是表好恶的词, 如: like; dislike; hate; appreciate 常用 it 作形式宾语 They made it possible to finish the task in two days. I find it difficult to study English well. I hate it when a person speak with his mouth full. We will appreciate it if you help us. (3) 作宾语补足语 He asked me to do the work with him. 他叫我跟他一起做这个工作。 注意: 1) 在 feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, watch, have, 1et, make 等词后的补足 语中, 不定式不带 to。 + 不定式强调动作的全过程; + 现在分词强调动作与宾语之间存在主动关系, 及动作正在进行; + 过去分词强调动作与宾语之间存在被动关系, 及动作已经完成. 如: I must see my child cross the street. I saw the thief stealing her money. You will see many problems settled in this way. 2) 但是这些句中如果变成被动结构时,就必须带 to。 The boss made Miss White type the letter again. 注意: 当这些动词转成被动语态时 必须补充出来. 如 Miss White was made to type the letter again. 如果对这些动词后的宾语提问, 则照抄 Who (Whom) did the boss make type the letter again? Who (Whom) would you rather have go with ? (4) 作定语

I have some books for you to read. 我有几本书供给你读。 注①:作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动 作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。 e.g. He is looking for a room to live in . 他在找一个房间住。 There is nothing to worry about. 无什么可担心的。 Please give me a knife to cut with. 请给我把刀子来切东西。 ②: 不定式是否用被动, 不定式作定语与所修饰词之间形成动宾关系, 若句中有不定 式的逻辑主语, 不定式用主动; 反之用被动. Do you have anything to send ? 你有东西要去寄吗? (寄的动作是 you 发出的) Do you have anything to be sent ? 你有东西要寄吗? (寄的动作不是 you 发出的, 是别人 帮寄的) I have something to say. (5) 作状语,表示目的、原因、结果或条件。 e.g. I came here to see you.(目的) We were very excited to hear the news. (原因) He hurried to the school to find nobody there . (结果) To look at him,you would like。 (条件) 目的状语还可以用 in order to 或 so as to 来表示。 e.g. In order to pass the exam,he worked very hard. 为了考试及格,他学习很刻苦。 We ran all the way so as not to be late. 为了别迟到我们一路上跑来的。 注意: 不定式经常和 only; never 连用, 强调出乎意料的结果或失望的情绪. After that day they were separated, never to see each other again. I hurried to get there , only to find him out. (6) 不定式在句中用主动式还是被动式,多数情况下是容易判别的,但有时的确比较复杂, 请注意以下几点: A) 不定式修饰的名词或代词和不定式逻辑上构成主谓关系时,不定式往往用主动形 式。 Have you got a key to unlock the door? B) 不定式和它前面被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,又和该句主语构成 逻辑上的主谓关系时,不定式常用主动形式。 I have got a letter to write. He needs a room to live in. C) 不定式作表语形容词的状语,和句中的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,不定式多 用主动形式,这是因为人们往往认为形容词后省去了 for one 或 for people. e.g. He is hard to talk to.

The book is difficult to understand. (7)不定式省 to 的情况 ● 在使役动词和感官动词后省 to Don’t let me wait for long. ● 不定式动词在介词 but,except,besides 后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词 do 的各 种形式,那么,这些介词后的不定式不带 to,否则要带 to。 e.g. She could do nothing but cry. 她只会哭了。 What do you like to do besides swimming? 除游泳外你还喜欢什么? I have no choice but to go. 我不得不走。 ● 当不定式在系动词 be 后作表语时, 如果主语部分带实义动词 do 时, 就可以省去 to The only thing I can do is wait for help. What boys like to do most is become businessmen. All we have to do is clean or peel them. What I can do tomorrow is stay at home and sleep all day. (8) 不定式的时态 (1) 不定式的一般形式所表示的动作, 通常与谓语的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生, 或 是在它之后发生。 e.g. I saw him go out.我看见他出去了。 (2) 如果谓语表示的动作(情况)发生时,不定式表示的动作正在进行,这时不定式就要用进 行式。 e.g. I am very glad to be working with you. 很高兴和你一起工作。 He is said to be studying abroad, but I don’t know which country he is studying. (study 与 is said 同时发生) (3) 如果不定式的动作发生在谓语动词之前,要用完成式。 e.g. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. 对不起让你久等了。 He is said to have studied abroad, but I don’t know the country he studied in. (study 发生在 is said 之前) Do some exercises 1. Tom should love______________ to the cinema tonight. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 2. ---We usually travel by train ? ---Why not _____________ by boat for a change ? A. to try traveling B. trying to travel C. to try and travel D. try traveling 3. I warned my son _____________ after drinking.

A. never to drive B. to never drive C. never driving D. never drive 4. Wang Tao was made ________________ the dishes for a week as a punishment. A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing 5. The boy wanted to swim in the lake, but his mother told him ___________. A. not to B. not to do C. not to do it D. do not to 8. When I handed the report to John, he said that George was the person_____________ . A. to send B. for sending C. to send it to D. for sending it to 9. The headmaster wanted the new classroom building ____________ as soon as possible. A. to put up B. to be put up C. to have been put up D. being put up 10. She made a candle _____________ us light. A. give B. gave C. to give D. given 11. He felt a stone _______________ his back. A. hitting B. hit C. hitted D. to hit 12. In Australia, he made a lot of friends ______________ a very practical knowledge of the English language. A. get B. to get C. getting D. got 13. ---What did you mean by saying that ? ---I mean no harm. I only __________________ . A. meant helping B. want to help C. meant to help D. want helping 14. She searched the top of the hill and stopped _____________ on a big rock by the side of the path. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest 15. The Olympic Games, _____________ in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 16. The problem _______________ at the meeting tomorrow is very important to all of us. A. discussed B. to discuss C. being discussed D. to be discussed 17. “Do you have any clothes _______________ today ?” Father asked Mother. A. washing B. to wash C. washed D. to be washed 18. He raised his hand _____________ the taxi _______________. A. to have; to stop B. to have; stop C. having; stopping D. having; stop 19. He hurried to the station only ______________ the train had left. A. to be told B. to tell C. telling D. told 20. I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good______________ A. to be breathed B. to breathe C. breathing D. being breathed 21. ________________the project in time, the staff were working at weekends. A. Completing B. Having completed C. To have completed D. To complete

22. The message is very important, so it is supposed _____________ as soon as possible. A. to be sent B. to send C. being sent D. sending 23. ---The last one ______________ pays the meal. ---Agreed! A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving 24. ---Excuse me sir, where is Room 301? ---Just a minute. I’ll have Bob ______________ you to your room. A. show B. shows C. to show D. showing 25. It remains ______________ whether Jim’ll be fit enough to play in the finals. A. seen B. to be seen C. seeing D. to see 26. Robert is said ____________ abroad, but I don’t know in which country he . A. have been studying B. to have been studying C. have studied D. to have studied 27. I can’t stand _____________ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses __________talking while she works. A. working; stopping B. to work; stopping C. working; to stop D. to work; to stop


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