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高中英语必修一Unit2 知识点讲解及答案


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高考英语课本回归早读晚练 2
早读: Ⅰ.词汇短语过关

1.native adj.

本地的,出生地的;天赋的 n. 本地人;出生于某国的人

be native to... 原产于某地 one’s native c

ountry/land 本国,祖国 native place 出生地 one’s native language 本国语,本族语,母语 a native of 当地人/产于??的动/植物 [即学即练 1] (1)China is our ____________, and Chinese is our ____________.中国是我们的祖国,汉语是 我们的母语。 (2)The tiger __________________ India.这种虎产于印度。 (3)He is __________________ Beijing.他是北京人。 答案:native country;native language;is native to;a native of

2.base vt.以??为根据

n.基部;基地;基础

base sth. on/upon sth.以??为基础(或根据) base sb./sth./oneself in 以??为据点(或总部等),把(总部等)设在 the base of a column/glass/pyramid 柱基/玻璃杯底/金字塔底座 a military/naval base 军事/海军基地 [即学即练 2] (1)What are you ______ this theory ______?你这种理论的根据是什么? (2)They decided to ______ the new company ______ New York.他们决定将新成立的公司总部 设在纽约。 (3)The town is an ideal ______ for touring the area.这个镇子是在这一地区旅游观光的理想地 点。 答案:basing on; base in; base

3.command n.[C]命令;指令[U]掌握

vt. & vi.命令;指挥;支配

at one’s command 随心所欲地 at/by one’s command 奉某人之命 in command of 指挥;统帅 under one’s command 由??指挥 take command of 担任??的指挥 have a good command of 很好地掌握 command sb. to do sth.命令某人做某事 command that...(should) do...命令?? [即学即练 3] (1)The army is __________________ ____________.军队由国王直接统率。 (2)She ______________________________ the German language.她精通德语。 (3)He commanded us ____________ immediately. = He commanded that we ____________
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immediately. 他命令我们马上离开。 答案:under the king’s;command;has a good command of;to leave;should leave

4.request n. & vt.

请求,要求

request sth. of/from sb.向某人请求某物 request sb. to do sth.请求某人做某事 request that sb. (should) do sth.请求?? It’s requested that...据要求?? at one’s request at the request of sb.应某人之请求 be in request 有需要,受欢迎 make a request for sth.请求,要求?? [即学即练 4] (1) These materials are ____________ ________.急需这些材料。 (2)She ________________________ some water.她请求给点水。 (3)May I ______ your attention?请你们注意一下好吗? (4)I request (of him) that he ____________.我要求他离开。 (5)Visitors are requested __________________ the paintings.游客不许动油画。 答案:in great;request;Made a request for;request;should leave;not to touch

5.recognize vt.

辨认出;承认

recognition n.认出,识别 recognizable adj.可认出的 recognized adj.公认的 recognize sb. /sth. by /from...根据??认出某人/事(物) recognize sb./sth. as/to be...承认某人(物)是?? It’s recognized that...人们公认?? out of/beyond recognition 认不出来 [即学即练 5] (1)I ____________ Mary ______ her voice on the phone.我在电话中根据声音辨认出是玛丽。 (2)Lawrence’s novel ______ eventually _____________ ______/______ ______ a work of genius.劳伦斯的小说最后被认为是天才的作品。 (3)________________________ environment pollution has become one of the most serious problems.人们一致认为环境污染已经成了最严重的问题之一。 答案:recognized by; was recognized as/to be ;It is recognized that

6.because of 因为,由于
because of 是介词短语,后跟名词、代词或动名词。 because 是连词,后跟从句。 [即学即练 6] (1)He was absent not ____________ his illness, but _____________ his father died.他缺席不是 因为他生病,而是因为他父亲去世了。 (2)It was __________________ that he had gone abroad.就是为了她,他才出国的。
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答案:because of because;because of her (3)He realized that she was crying because of________________________.他意识到她哭是因为 他说的那些话的缘故。 (4)Because of ________________________, I said nothing about her mistake.因为她丈夫在场, 对她的错误我就没说什么。 答案:what he had said;her husband’s being there

7.come up 走近;(植物)长出地面;(太阳)升起;出现;被提及
(1)=come forward 走近;赶上;上来 (2)=rise; come to a higher place (esp. the sun, the moon)(太阳、月亮)升起 (3)=be brought up for discussion; be mentioned 被提出讨论,被谈到;引起注意 (4)=occur/happen(尤指意想不到地)发生 (5)=present oneself 出席,参加,到场 (6)=appear above the soil; begin to grow 露出地面,发芽 [即学即练 7] 写出下列各句中 come up 的意思。 (1)I’ll let you know if anything comes up.____________ (2)A child came up to me and showed me the way to the station.________________ (3)Your question came up at the meeting.________________ (4)The sky was dark blue and clear when the moon came up.___________ (5)The young trees have come up._________ (6)I came up for an interview but didn’t get the job.________ 答案:发生;走近/走上来;被提出讨论;升起;发芽;到场 拓展:come up with 想出;提出 come about 发生 come across 偶遇;偶然发现(=come upon) come along 一道来;一起去;进步;赶快 come back 回来;记起 come on(风、雨等)到来;演出;赶快;得了吧 come out 出版;出来,出现;结果是 come to 苏醒;总计;达到;谈到

8.make use of 利用;使用
make full use of 充分利用 make the best use of 尽量利用 make good use of 好好利用,合理利用 make little use of 没有很好地利用 [即学即练 8] (1) We should ____________________ every minute to learn well.我们应该充分利用每一分钟 好好学习。 (2)Our factory ______________________________ robots. 我们工厂正越来越多地使用机器 人。 答案:make good use of;is making increasing use of 拓展:be of great use 很有用
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go out of use 不被使用,废弃 come into use 开始被使用 be in use 在使用中 bring/put...to use 加以使用 【注意】在学习语言的过程中应注意语言的活用以及词的搭配。 How much do you know about the use that we have made_of the money?(句子中 use 做先行词, 关系代词 that 代替 use,在定语从句中做 make 的宾语。) 我们对钱的使用情况你了解多少?

9.play a role/part in 在??中担任角色;在??中起作用
play an important role/part in 在??方面起重要作用 play the role of sb.=play/act the part of sb.(在剧中)扮演某人的角色 play the leading role 起主要(带头)作用 [即学即练 9] (1)Science and technology ____________ __________________ developing agriculture.科技在 发展农业中起重要作用。 (2)He will ________________________ the doctor in my latest drama.他将在我最新的戏里出 演医生的角色。 答案:plays an;important role/part in;play/act the role/part of 【提示】play a role/part in 是“动词+名词+介词”构成的动词短语,这类短语有两个重要 考点: (1)用名词做主语,用于被动句; (2)用名词做先行词,用于定语从句。类似短语有:make use of, pay attention to 等 易 错 点 拨 自我完善?误区备考

1. recognize/realize/know
(1)recognize 指原来很熟悉,经过一段时间的间隔或别的原因后又重新认出来。 (2)realize 强调在经过一个过程后的了解。 (3)know 是延续性动词,指互相间十分熟悉、十分了解。 [应用 1] (1)Only after you lose your health will you ____________ the importance of health. (2)I've ________________ Tom for years. (3)I __________ him as soon as he came into the room. 答案:realize;known;recognized

2. such as/for example/that is/and so on
(1)such as 用于列举事物时常放在所列举事物与前面的名词之间,且其后不用逗号,直接跟 所列举的事物,可与 like 互换。它所列举的事物的数量不能等同于前面所提的事物的总和, 否则就用 that is 或 namely。 (2)for example 主要用于举例说明,其前后多用符号隔开。其位置比较灵活,可位于句首、 句中或句末(such as 只能位于所列举的事物之前)。 (3)that is 相当于 namely,它所列举的事物的总量等于前面所提到的事物的总和。 (4)and so on 对几个事物进行列举时,在说了其中的几个以后,用...and so on 进行概括,
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说明还有例子,但不一一列出了。 [应用 2] (1)My daughter studies four subjects in school, ____________, Chinese, maths, English and P.E. (2)Overcooking, ____________, destroys many nutrients. (3)He can speak some other languages, ____________ French and German. (4)There are some books, pens, erasers ____________ in my bag. 答案:that is;for example;such as;and so on

3. with 的复合结构
[应用 3] (1)—Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work ______ my mind, I almost break down. A.filled B.filling C.to fill D.being filled 解析:with 复合结构中,work 和 fill 是主动关系,且表示正在进行,因此其后要用 doing 结 构。 答案:B (2)John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ______, he gladly accepted it. A.finished B.finishing C.having finished D.was finished 解析:根据 work 和 finish 是被动关系,可以判断出答案。 答案:A (3)______ two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend. A.With B.Besides C.As for D.Because of 解析:根据句意,此处应采用“with+宾语+不定式” 。 答案:A (4)It was cold outside, the boy ran into the room ______ his nose red. A.to B.on C.in D.with 解析:这个句子考查 with 的复合结构的用法,用“with+名词+形容词”做状语表示伴随 情况。而 to、on、in 作为介词则没有这种用法,故排除 A、B、C,答案为 D。句意是:外 面天气很冷,那个男孩跑进了屋子时,鼻子红红的。 答案:D 晚练: 自我测评?技能备考 Ⅰ.单词拼写 1.A lot of students p_______________ at the meeting took part in the discussion. 2.The tall tree was struck by l___________ and broke. 3.The robber was caught when he was filling his car with p__________ at the filling station. 4.Go up in an e_______________ to the fifth floor. 5.He looked calm, but a__________ he was very nervous. 答案:present;lightning;petrol;elevator;actually 6.In the word “happy” the _________(重音) is on the first syllable. 7.He has a poor _________________(词汇), so he can't express himself correctly. 8.The gentlemen disclosed their own __________(身份). 9. Anyone who wants to learn English well must remember the ___________(惯用法) of English.
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10. Though he is not a ___________(本国的) English speaker, he can speak English very fluently. accent 答案:vocabulary;identities;usage;native Ⅱ .单项选择 1.(2009?安徽卷)-Do you think it’s a good idea to make friends with your students? -______, I do. I think it’s a great idea. A.Really B.Obviously C.Actually D.Generally 答案:C 解析: 考查副词。 really 真正地; obviously 明显地; actually 实际上; generally 大体上。 actually 在句中起加强语气的作用,相当于 sure,certainly, of course。 2.His uncle made a film ______ his story in his childhood. A.based on B.was based on C.basing on D.to base on 答案:A 解析:based on 为过去分词短语,在句中做后置定语修饰 a film。 3. (2010?山东潍坊质量监测)It could be judged from her eyes ______ she was very satisfied with her performance. A.what B.which C.that D.where 答案:C 解析:考查名词性从句。语意为:她对她的表现很满意,这可以从她的眼睛里判断出来。It 是形式主语,that 引导的从句是真正的主句。 4.The money collected should be made good use ______ the people in Sichuan Province who suffered a lot in the earthquake. A.of helping B.to help C.to helping D.of to help 答案:D 解析:make (good) use of“(好好)利用” ,变为被动时态即 be made use of;句中 to help the people...为不定式做目的状语。 5.During the flight to the Moon, Chang’e I Satellite ______ adjusts her direction so that she can go into her programmed orbit and then circle around it at the most appropriate angle(角度). A.eventually B.gradually C.constantly D.continuously 答案:B 解析:考查副词词义辨析。句意为:在飞往月球的途中,嫦娥一号卫星逐渐调整她的方向以 便能进入预定的轨道并以合适的角度绕其运行。A.最终;B.逐渐地;C.不断地;D.继续地。 6. I’ m Chinese and I do feel ______ Chinese language is ______ most beautiful language. What’ s your opinion? A.the; a B./; the C.the; / D./; a 答案:A 解析:第一空需填 the,指“汉语” ;第二空填 a, a most beautiful language 是泛指,其中 most 相当于 very。 7.______ as a serious problem at present, it has drawn a lot of people’s attention. A.Recognize B.Recognized C.Being recognized D.Having recognized 答案:B 解析:be recognized as“被认为是??” ;句中 recognized 为过去分词做状语。 8.The army received a command that they ______ to the front immediately. A.would march B.must march C.should march D.were marching
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答案:C 解析:command“命令” ,其 that 从句中用“(should)+动词原形” 。 9.The newly-founded chess club formally ______ us to attend the opening ceremony. A.requested B.required C.demanded D.commanded 答案:A 解析:表示正式委婉的请求用 request。 10. (2009?江西一模)Films, ______ the one you told me about yesterday or the one that will be on, ______ not worth seeing. A.including; is B.as well as; are C.besides; is D.such as; are 答案:D 解析:such as 用于列举事物。又因为主语为复数,第二空格用 are,故选 D。本句译为: 像你昨天告诉我的电影,以及即将上映的,都不值得看。 11.The part that China ______in the international affairs ______ in the international society. A.plays; is widely praised B.plays; is wide praised C.takes; widely praised D.takes; wide praised 答案:A 解析:第一空考查短语 play a part in; 第二空考查被动语态。 12.______, a sleepy driver killed twenty-two students and teachers in a traffic accident in Shanxi Province. A.What's more B.After all C.Believe it or not D.More or less 答案:C 解析:考查固定短语。 13.Many students make great progress in listening ______ the large amount of time devoted to it. A.because of B.instead of C.in case of D.in spite of 答案:A 解析:考查介词短语。because of“因为” 。 14.—Oh, it's you! I ______ you. —I've just had my hair cut, and I'm wearing new glasses. A.didn't recognize B.didn't know C.haven't recognized D.haven't known 答案:A 解析:句中表示“刚刚没有认出某人”用 didn't recognize。 15.He won't change his mind ______ you go and try to persuade him yourself. A.since B.until C.as if D.even if 答案:D 解析:考查 even if 引导让步状语从句。 III.完形填空: 语气判定法。人们在对话时,话语中会透露出不同的语气,如褒扬、批评、高兴、生气、满 意、怨恨、关心、冷漠、友好、挑衅、懊恼、幽默等等。 “语气”是表达意义的特殊语法资 源,分析“语气”是分析说话者之间人际关系的重要手段。完形填空题中有时会出现一些对 话,考生要根据上下文的语境分析话语中的语气,正确理解文章的确切含义。 On a warm Monday,Jenny Neilson bought a sandwich and parked her car under some trees.Rolling down the windows to __41__ 摇下车窗当然是让新鲜空气进来。 in fresh air,she settled back to enjoy her lunch.Suddenly she __42__ 突然看到一个人跑过来。不知道 notice 与 watch 的区别,可能会选错答案。 a big bald (秃顶的) man running through the parking lot
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①.Before she came to __43__ 她还没意识到怎么回事。 what would happen,the man was there,shouting through her window, “Get out! ”注意他说话的语气。 Neilson __44__.一个陌生人凶巴巴地叫她下车,她当然会拒绝。 Pulling open her door, the man seized her __45__ 惯用法。 seize sb. by the... “抓住某人的??” 。 the neck and hair,and threw her out of the car onto the ground.She screamed,__46__ 慌乱中没 忘记抓住自己的钱包和车钥匙。下文有暗示。 her purse and the keys. Two reporters of the local newspaper,Robert Bruce and Jeff Jackson,just outside their office building on a __47__,当地两名记者在办公楼外休息。heard the screams and began running.为 48 题做铺垫。 When they __48__ 两名记者来到时。 Neilson’s car,the attacker had jumped into the driver’ s seat and was __49__ 发疯般地找车钥匙, 想尽快逃离! searching for the keys.车钥匙已被拿 走了。为 46 题提供暗示。Bruce opened the door,and he and Jackson dragged the man out.The attacker __50__ back.劫匪反抗。 But even in his cornered panic, 做困兽斗。 he was no __51__ 习语。be no match for...“根本不是??的对手” 。 for the two athletic men.两位记者可是有运 动员般强健的体魄啊。哼,跟我斗! Reggie Miller,a worker of the local newspaper,heard the screams,too.He rushed back to the office to __52__ 报警。 the police,and then ran back with some plastic ropes 为 53 题做铺垫。 -used to tie up newspapers. With his arms __53__ 劫匪被绑了起来。 tightly behind him,the prisoner looked up and said __54__,冷冷地说。体会他说话的语气。 “I hope you guys② feel good 反话。在威胁两名记 者。穷凶极恶的家伙! about yourselves—you just caught one of the most wanted men.” 我可 是头号通缉犯!我是恶人我怕谁!小心着吧小子! They __55__ him 对劫匪的威胁不予理 睬。and waited for the police. Later,Bruce and Jackson were shocked to learn the man was the __56__ 惯匪,职业杀手。 carjacker (劫车者) and suspected murderer,whose __57__ 照片。 —but with a full head of hair 为 57 题提供暗示。 —had been recently printed in their own newspaper. 文章概述 一个男人企图用暴力抢劫 Neilson 女士的汽车。听到她的尖叫后两位当地报纸的记者跑过来 制服了罪犯,在另一位工人的帮助下,把罪犯捆绑起来等待警察的到来。罪犯很嚣张,语气 凶狠,试图威胁。但他们却不予理睬。 难点剖析 ①parking lot“停车场” 。 ②you guys 此处是骂人的话,可译为“你们几个小子” 。 长句注解 I hope you guys feel good about yourselves—you just caught one of the most wanted men.小子 啊,别得意太早,你们抓住的可是警察局的头号通缉犯! Neilson considers herself lucky __58__ 虽受伤,仍感幸运。 she suffered injuries.She believes the story might have had a __59__ 没有好心人的帮助, 结局可能就不一样了。 ending if those good people had not come to her aid.“Unfortunately, ” 她在感叹:好心人太少了!she says, “many people would __60__ 很多人可能从没做过这样的事。 have done what they they 指代那三位为她挺身而出的人。 did,and that is the real truth.” (2008·高考湖北卷) 41.A.bring B.let C.gather D.send 42.A.recognized B.watched C.noticed D.met
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43.A.realize B.understand C.imagine D.conclude 44.A.escaped B.struggled C.refused D.obeyed 45.A.by B.around C.with D.on 46.A.burying B.forgetting C.offering D.grabbing 47.A.trip B.visit C.break D.holiday 48.A.started B.stopped C.entered D.reached 49.A.carefully B.madly C.disappointedly D.patiently 50.A.fought B.turned C.jumped D.shouted 51.A.match B.target C.equal D.companion 52.A.remind B.phone C.invite D.beg 53.A.rolled B.folded C.bent D.tied 54.A.angrily B.kindly C.coldly D.warmly 55.A.caught B.thanked C.comforted D.ignored 56.A.ordinary B.professional C.honest D.outstanding 57.A.picture B.background C.character D.story 58.A.and B.but C.though D.when 59.A.ridiculous B.similar C.strange D.different 60.A.sometimes B.never C.often D.forever 答案:41.B 42.C 43.A 44.C 45.A 46.D 47.C 48.D 49.B 50.A 51.A 52.B 53.D 54.C 55.D 56.B 57.A 58.C 59.D 60.B 错因分析: 47,51,55 题最容易做错。 47 题考查的是习语 on a break “在休息” ; 51 题也是习语 be no match for sb.“不是某人的对手” ;55 题则考查对上文罪犯说话语气的理解,那可是“威胁、挑衅” 啊,但小伙子们对此不予理睬。

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