Profits of Praise 赞扬的好处
I. Word Study
1. profit (n.) advantage or good obtained from sth. ; money gained in business 益处；利润 益处；
e.g. Your mother did t
hat for your profit. What’s the profit of doing that thing? Unlike nonprofit organizations, we do everything for a profit. Jim makes profits by buying and selling stocks.
(vt.) be of advantage to 有益于， 有益于，有利于
e.g. The new bus route profits those who do not have cars. It will profit you to absorb as much knowledge as possible while at university.
(vi.) be benefited or helped 得益
e.g. I profited a lot by / from the trip abroad. The company profited from having designed the widely applicable computer software.
2. exhaust (v.) (1) tire out 使筋疲力尽
e.g. The baby soon exhausted itself by crawling all over the floor and fell asleep. We all felt exhausted by the stiff hike.
(2) use up 用尽，花光， 用尽，花光， 耗尽
e.g. The hero’s strength was exhausted after a long time in prison. You should not stay too long at your friend’s; otherwise you will exhaust your welcome.
(n.) outlet, in an engine or machine, for steam, vapor, etc. that has done its work 排气管， 排气管， 排气孔；废气， 排气孔；废气，废液 e.g. The young man committed suicide by breathing in car exhaust.
3. load (v.) put a full amount of things on or in sth. 装满， 装满， 装载
e.g. The father loaded the family into their old truck and drove west. The ship will set sailing once the workmen finished loading cargoes on to it.
(n.) that which is to be carried or supported装载， supported装载 装载， 装载量；负荷， 装载量；负荷，负担 e.g. The tractor has a full load of wheat. Your arrival took a load off my mind.
4. reluctant a. unwilling 不情愿的； 不情愿的；勉强的
e.g. When dinner was ready, he was reluctant to put down the detective story. The official made a reluctant promise under pressure that he would look into the matter.
5. pat (n.) tap with the open hand 轻拍 e.g. He gave the dog a pat. The little boy wiped the blackboard because he wanted a pat on the back from his teacher.
(v.) tap gently with the open hand or with sth. flat 轻拍 e.g. She patted the seat next to her for him to sit down. Johnny was patting a ball in the backyard.
6. convey (v.) (1) make (ideas, views, feelings, etc.) known to another person 转达,传达，表达 转达,传达，
e.g. I can hardly convey my gratitude in words. Please convey my best wished to your wife.
(2) take; carry 运送，运输， 运送，运输， 传送 e.g. A wire conveys an electric current.
7. routine (a.) not unusual or exciting; regular常规的，日 regular常规的， 常规的 常的， 常的，例行的 e.g. Relax. This is just a routine medical check. She is fed up with her routine office duties and plans to find a new job.
(n.) fixed and regular way of doing things 常规，惯例，惯常 常规，惯例， 的程序，例行公事， 的程序，例行公事，日常事务 e.g. His daily routine begins with checking E-mail messages. Each government agency has its own set of business routines and those who upset it are resented.
8. criticize vt. (1) find fault with 批评 e.g. Why are you always criticizing me?
The government was criticized for lack of consistency in policy.
9. drown v. (1) cover completely with water 淹没， 淹没， 浸湿； 某人） 浸湿；使（某人）淹死 e.g. At breakfast she drowned her cereal (谷类食物 in milk. 谷类食物) 谷类食物 Most part of the town was drowned by the floods.
(2) (cause to) die in water because unable to breathe 淹死， 淹死，溺死 e.g. Ophelia drowned in a river. The peasant drowned the newborn baby because he was too poor to raise it.
II. Language Points (Reference背景知识 背景知识) 背景知识
1. as, like
e.g. I worked as a slave. (= I was a slave.) I worked like a slave. (=I worked in the manner of a slave, but I was a free man.)
2. make out: write out 开出； 开出；填写
e.g. The shop assistant made out a receipt for the customer who bought a camera. The teacher was busy making out the students’ report cards at the end of the term.
3. quit v. stop (doing sth.) and leave （离）职，不干 e.g. George doesn’t like his present job as a writer. He is quitting. I’ve quit my job. I’m now making a living by freelancing.
4. only to: very 极，非常
e.g. If you invite him, he will be only too glad to attend. After such a long and exhausting journey, I shall be only too pleased to get home.
5. somehow ad. in one way or another; for some reason that one does not understand or is not sure about 以某种方式；不 以某种方式； 知怎么地 e.g. Time is pressing, but I’ll finish this work somehow. Somehow, I have a feeling that an accident would happen.
6. not much of a: not a very good 不十分好的 e.g. He is not much of an artist. The food was so-so; it wasn’t much of a dinner.
7. earn vt. bring to or get as deserved; win 挣得，赢得 挣得， e.g. His achievements earned him admiration. Her hard work earned her the respect of her fellow workers.
8. embarrass vt. make awkward or ashamed 使尴尬 e.g. The young teacher felt embarrassed to speak to a roomful of students. The spiteful wife embarrassed her husband by getting drunk at the party.
9. shrug off: dismiss sth. as not deserving one’s attention one’ or as unimportant 耸肩表示对… 耸肩表示对… 不屑理睬 e.g. James cut his hand, but he shrugged off his injury and went on with his work. She can shrug off her troubles and keep smiling.
10. pass on: convey to another 传递 e.g. I received your message, and have passed it on to all those whom it concerns.
11. flatter vt. praise insincerely (in order to please) 过奖；奉承， 过奖；奉承， 谄媚 e.g. He was flattered into believing that he was really exceptional. George was flattering Mary when he said she was a brilliant artist; he didn’t really mean it.
12. comment (n.) opinion, explanation or judgment written or spoken about an event, book, person, state of affairs, etc. 评论，意见；闲话， 评论，意见；闲话， 议论
e.g. Any comments on this topic are welcome. Her dresses caused a great deal of comment.
(v.) give opinion, explanation or judgment 评论
e.g. A retired coach will be invited to comment on today’s football match. The State Department spokesman refused to comment on the recent political situation in East Europe.
13. appreciate vt. understand and enjoy; be thankful for 欣赏， 欣赏， 鉴赏；感激， 鉴赏；感激，感谢
e.g. It was such a wonderful play I really appreciated it. You have done so much for me; I really appreciate your kindness.
14. scold vt. blame with angry words 申斥，怒骂,责骂 申斥，怒骂, e.g. He scolded his daughter for coming back after the midnight. The husband was scolded by doctors for paying to little attention to the wife.
15. constructive a. helping 建设性的
e.g. The Advisory Group offered some constructive advice. Students are urged to make constructive use of their summer vacation time.
16. favorably ad. with approval 赞成地，称赞地 赞成地，
e.g. The judges at the speech contest were favorably impressed by her speech. The president spoke favorably of the plan to clean up the country. favorably ad. 有利地 顺利地 好意地 有利地,顺利地 顺利地,好意
17. above prep. higher or more than; greater than 高于；多于； 高于；多于； 之上；大于； 在… 之上；大于；超过
e.g. Our club has above (over) thirty members – thirty-five, to be exact. They are brought up to value freedom far above their lives. He is not a brilliant student. He is just above average.
18. ignore vt. not to take notice of; pay no attention to 不理；忽视 不理； e.g. She ignored the phone rings and went on writing. Those who ignore traffic signs will be fined.
ignore 表示不重视，故意地置之不 表示不重视， 忽略； 理，忽略； neglect 强调疏忽，忽略，玩忽，不 强调疏忽，忽略，玩忽， 留心，遗漏， 留心，遗漏，如neglect one’s duties 玩忽职责； 玩忽职责； overlook 指看漏，忽略，表示由于 指看漏，忽略， 粗心、匆忙、没看出、没注意而忽 粗心、匆忙、没看出、 还有“放任，宽容” 眺望， 视，还有“放任，宽容”，“眺望， 俯瞰” 检查，监督”的意思。 俯瞰”，“检查，监督”的意思。
19. react vi. (1) respond 反应， 反应，作出反应 e.g. The company reacted to criticism and improved its image shortly. The statesman reacted to cheers from followers by waving his greetings.
(2) respond to sth. with a feeling or take action (against) (against) 反对，反动， 反对，反动，反其道而行 e.g. People start to react against her pretentiousness. Peasants uprose in arms to react against the first Emperor. Note: react on / upon: 影响，起 影响， 作用于… 作用于
At one time people believed punishment was the way to make a child learn. Through experiment it has been learned that rewarding good behavior is a much better way to help a child learn than punishing undesirable behavior.
For example, a child who gives back to his mother all the change after a trip to the store and is praised for it is likely to return all the change the next time. A child who keeps a dime for himself and is punished for it may repeat his behavior.