连词与状语从句讲义： 连词：用来连接词、短语、从句与句子的词。连词分为并列连词和从属连词两种。如果句子 包含两个或更多的互不依从的主谓结构，则该句就是并列句。含表递进，表选择，表转折， 表因果等四种主要句型。 并列句中和分句通常用一个并列连词来连接， 其中句分句意义同等 重要，联系密切，无从属关系。连接各种从句的连词为从属连词。 并列连词归纳： 属性 并列关系 连接词 and,
not only...but also, neither...nor..., and... as well, both... and... or, either...or..., otherwise, or else, not... but... but, yet, while, whereas, however, on the contrary, on the other side for, so, thus, therefore, because, and then 例句 Their car broke down half-way and they had to stay in a small inn for the night. Either you are mad, or I am. Mary was a nice girl, but she had one shortcoming. Someone is coming, for the dog is barking.
状语从句： “状语从句指句子用作状语时，起副词作用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、 状语或整个句子。根据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和 比较等从句。状语从句一般由连词(从属连词)引导，也可以由词组引起。从句位于句首或句 中时通常用逗号与主句隔开，位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。 一、时间状语从句 1. 时间状语的用法 （1） 由 when, whenever, as, while, after, before, until, till, since, once, as soon as 等引导时间 状语。如： When the bell rang, the guard was waiting in his seat. After the students were all in the chemistry lab, the professor brought out three bottles. Once you remind me of the old man, I will certainly remember him （2） 由 the minute, the moment, the instant, the day, the first time, next time, from the time, by the time, immediately, instantly, directly 等引导的时间状语从句。如： The machine starts the moment the button is pressed. He called on me the day he arrived 2. 时间状语从句中应注意的问题 （1） when, while 和 as 的区别 ① when 引导的时间状语从句表示某个具体时间，有“当......时候”的意思，即可以引导 一个持续动作，也可以引导一个短暂动作，可用于主句和从句动作同时发生或先后发 生，如： When I lived there, I used to go to the seashore on Sundays. When the film ended, the people went back. ② While 引导的时间状语从句只表示一段时间，有“在......的同时”的意思，引导的动作 必须是持续性的，侧重主句动作和从句动作相对比，如： Please don’t talk so loud while other others are working
While I was wondering at this, our schoolmaster took his place. ③ as 引导一个持续性动作，多用于主句与从句动作同时发生或交替进行，如： He hurried home, looking behind as he went. As we were dancing, a stranger came in. 注意：1、由 when 引导的时间状语从句，主句用过去进行时，从句应用一般过去时；如果 从句和主句的动作同时发生，两句都用过去进行时，多用 while 引导。 When the teacher came in, we were talking. They are singing while we were dancing. 2、when 和 while 还可以作并列连词。when 表示“在那时，此时突然” ；while 表示 “然而，却”表对比或转折关系。 The children were running to move the bag of rice when they heard the sound of a motorbike. He is strong while his brother is weak. （2） before 用法的注意点 ① before 引导的从句，不再用否定的谓语，如： “他们（还没）到达火车站前，火车已经开走了。”应译为 Before they reached the station, the train had gone. “我想不到她到得那么早。”应译为 She arrived before I expected ② 当 before 引导的从句位于主句之后时，有时候译成“就、才”更好。如 Einstein almost knocked me down before he saw me. 注意：before 引导时间状语从句常用句型： 1. It was/will be +时间段+before... 过了多久......才... It was three years before he finished the work 2. It won’t be/take long before... 不久就会.....（这里 long 可以用一段时间来替代） It won’t be long before he finishes the work. (3) till , until 和 not until 的用法注意点 ① 肯定句：主句谓语动词必须是延续性动词，主句、从句都为肯定式，意为“某动作一直延 续到某时间点才停止”如： He remained there until she arrived ③ 否定句：主句谓语动词必须是非延续性动词，从句为肯定式，意为“某动作直到某时间 才开始”如: He won’t go to bed untill she returns. ④ 可互换，如： I waited until (till) he phoned back ⑤ 句首多用 until,如： Until you told me I had no idea of it. ⑥ 在强调句结构中或与 not 连用时，多用 until,如： It was not until the old worker came that we began the experiment (4) hardly …when.. 和 no sooner… than 相当于 as soon as 之意， 也可引导时间状语从句， 主句用过去完成时，从句用一般过去时，且有自然语序和倒装语序两种表达形式。如： I had no sooner come home than it began to rain= No sooner had I come than it began to rain. (5) since 用法注意点 ① since 从句的谓语动词一般是非延续性的，如： I have written home only once since I came here
② 从句的谓语动词如是延续性的，或是状态动词，如其时态是一般过去时，则时间的起点应 从动作的完成或状态的结束时算起。如： I haven’t heard form him since he lived here. 如其时态是现在完成时，则时间的起点应从动词的发生或状态开始时算起，试比较： I’ve written her 20 letters since I have been here. I have written her 20 letters since I was here. ③ It is +时间+since 从句句型中， 时间的计算一律从 since 从句的动作完成或状态结束时算起。 (注意：since 后用延续性动词还是非延续性动词）如： It is three years since the war broke out. It is three years since I smoked a cigar It is three years since I began to smoke. 二、地点状语从句 1． 地点状语从句的用法 地点状语从句是由 where 和 wherever 引导的，如： Where I live, there is plenty of rain. Make a mark where you have any questions 2． 地点状语从句中应注意的问题 注意区别地点状语从句和定语从句，试比较： Go back where you came from Go back to the village where you came from 三、原因状语从句 1. 原因状语从句的用法 ① 由 because, as, since, now that 引导的原因状语从句，如： Because he was Aristotle, the great thinker, no one questioned his idea for 2,000 years. Now that all the guests have arrived, let’s have dinner 但 because, as 可位于主句前或后；而 since, now that 只能位于主句前。 ② 形容词 glad, sorry, afraid, pleased, satisfied, delighted 等也可接一个由 that 引导的原因状 语从句，且 that 可省，如： I’m glad that you told me about it. 2. 原因状语从句中应该注意的问题 ① because 语气最重，在强调句型中，如强调原因状语从句，要用 because 引导这个从句。 如：Why was Bashi crying in the street? Because he has lost his way ② for 作连词也有“因为”的意思，如： Give the child to her, for she is the mother ③ 其它表示原因的方式 除了状语从句外，一些介词短语同样可以表示原因，如：because of, thanks to, due to, owing to 等。 四、目的状语从句 1. 目的状语从句的用法 目的状语从句由 so that, in order that, for fear that, in case, lest 等从属连词引导。如： Let’s take the front seats in order that we may see more clearly. The Englishman took medicine on time so that he might get well again 2. 目的状语从句中应该注意的问题 ① in order that 和 so that
两个连词意为“以便…….;为了……”，引导的状语从句中需用情态动词，in order that 比 so that 正式，引导的状语从句可置于主句之前或之后，而 so that 引导的从句只能置于 主句之后，如： I’ll speak slowly so that you can understand me. In order that we might see the sunrise, we started for the peak early. ② for fear that, in case 与 lest 这些从属连词引导的目的状语从句中谓语动词要用（should +）动词原形，它本身带有 否定意义，相当于 so that …not …或 in order that…not…。如： The boy hid himself behind the tree in case/ for fear that his father should see him. Take your raincoat in case/ lest it should rain 五、结果状语从句结果状语从句的用法 1. 结果状语从句由 so that, so …that…, such…that…从属连词所引导，如： The engineer didn’t plan his time well so that he didn’t finish the work in time. He made such an excellent speech that everyone admired him 2. 结果状语从句中中应该注意的问题 结果状语从句中常用的结构形式： so +形容词/副词+that 从句 so +形容词+a/ an +可数名词单数形式+that 从句 so +many/ much/ few/ little(少)+名词+that 从句 such+a/an +形容词+可数名词单数形式+that 从句 such +形容词+可数名词复数形式/不可数名词+that 从句 such + a lot of /lots of +名词+that 从句 如：Mike is such an honest worker that we all believe him Mike is so honest a worker that we all believe him 六、条件状语从句 1. 条 件 状 语 从 句 由 if, unless, so/as long as, in case, on condition that, suppose/supposing,provided that 等从属连词引导。如： You’ll fail the exam unless you study hard As long as you don’t lose heart, you will succeed. 2. 条件状语从句中应该注意的问题 ① 条件状语从句中的条件，如为假设，且几乎难以实现的，一般要用虚拟语气。如： If I were to do it, I should first of all get the comrades to discuss the plan. ② if only 也可引导条件状语从句。如： If only it clears up, we’ll go. 七、方式状语从句 方式状语从句由 as, as if, as though 等从属连词引导。方式状语从句应放在主句之后。其 中 as if 或 as though 引导的从句一般用虚拟语气， 但如果从句中所陈述的情况很可能实 现，也可以用陈述语气。如： The old lady treats the boy as if he were her own son. I feel as if I have a fever. 八、让步状语从句 1.让步状语从句由 though, although, as, even if, even though, 疑问词+ever 与 no matter +疑 问词，whether, while 等从属连词引导。如： Although it was raining hard, yet they went on playing football.
Whether you believe it or not, it is true. Whoever you are( No matter who you are),you must obey the rules. 2 让步状语从句中应该注意的问题 ① although/though 两者意思相同， 一般可互换，都可以与 yet.still 或 nevertheless 连用， 但不能与 but 连用。 ② as 或 though 引导让步状语从句倒装的情况 as 或 though 从句一般放在主句之前，常用倒装语序。从句中的表语、状语或动词原 形置于句首。若表语是单数名词，前置时要省略冠词。如： Child as he is, he knows a lot. Smart though she is, she doesn't study hard. 九、比较状语从句 比较状语从句用 than 和 as 引导，如： The project was completed earlier than we had expected The technician worked as fast as a skilled worker.