Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER S
HEET. (10 points) Though not biologically related, friends are as ? related? as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_. The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_. While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, ? Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.? The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_? functional Kinship?of being friends with_(14)_! One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor. The findings do not simply explain people? s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population. 1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what 2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised 3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by 4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected 5. [A] tests [B] s [C]samples [D] examples 6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible
7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know 8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass 9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus 10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps 11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like 12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit 13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with 14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits 15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier 16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express 17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive 18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency 19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic 20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points) Text 1 King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted ? kings don? t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.? But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?
The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above ? mere? politics and ? embody? a spirit of national unity. It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs? continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure. Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history? and sometimes the way they behave today ? embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image. While Europe? s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example. It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy? s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service ?as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy? s worst enemies. 21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain [A] used turn enjoy high public support [B] was unpopular among European royals [C] cased his relationship with his rivals [D]ended his reign in embarrassment 22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status
[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality [C] to give voter more public figures to look up to [D]due to their everlasting political embodiment 23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4? [A] Aristocrats? excessive reliance on inherited wealth [B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies [C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families [D]The nobility? s adherence to their privileges 24. The British royals ? have most to fear? because Charles [A] takes a rough line on political issues [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised [C] takes republicans as his potential allies [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role 25. Which of the following is the best title of the text? [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined [B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne [C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs [D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats TEXT 2 Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Cpurt will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest. California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.
The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California? s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants. They should start by discarding California? s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect? s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or porcketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one? s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee? s reading history ,financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of ? cloud computing.?meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier. But the justices should not swallow California? s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution? s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now. 26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to [A] search for suspects? mobile phones without a warrant. [B] check suspects? phone contents without being authorized. [C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents. [D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones. 27. The author? s attitude toward California? s argument is one of [A] tolerance. [B] indifference. [C] disapproval. [D] cautiousness. 28. The author believes that exploring one? s phone content is comparable to [A] getting into one? s residence. [B] handing one? s historical records.
[C] scanning one? s correspondences. [D] going through one? s wallet. 29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed. [B] the court is giving police less room for action. [C] phones are used to store sensitive information. [D] citizens? privacy is not effective protected. 30.Orin Kerr? s comparison is quoted to indicate that (A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly. (B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution. (C)California? s argument violates principles of the Constitution. (D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered. Text 3 The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings. ? Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,? writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manu will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal? s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manus. Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: ? The creation of the ? statistics board? was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science? s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.? Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to ? play primarily an advisory role.? He agreed to join because he ? found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be
through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science.? 31、It can be learned from Paragraph I that [A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process. [B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks. [C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis. [D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects. 32、The phrase ? flagged up ? (Para.2)is the closest in meaning to [A]found. [B]revised. [C]marked [D]stored 33、Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may [A]pose a threat to all its peers [B]meet with strong opposition [C]increase Science? s circulation. [D]set an example for other journals 34、David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now A. adds to researchers? worklosd. B. diminishes the role of reviewers. C. has room for further improvement. D. is to fail in the foreseeable future. 35. Which of the following is the best title of the text? A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers
B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors? Desks D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science Text 4 Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch? s daughter ,Elisabeth ,spoke of the ? unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions? Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only ? sorting mechanism ? in society should be profit and the market .But ? it? s us ,human beings ,we the people who create the society we want ,not profit ? . Driving her point home, she continued: ? It? s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous foals for capitalism and freedom.? This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International ,shield thought ,making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking . As the hacking trial concludes ? finding guilty ones-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones ,and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge ? the winder issue of dearth of integrity still standstill, Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people .This is hacking on an industrial scale ,as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This long story still unfolds. In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place .One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, wow little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired wow the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing. In today? s world, title has become normal that well? paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business? friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability. The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had
suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions? nor received traceable, recorded answers. 36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by [A] the consequences of the current sorting mechanism [B] companies? financial loss due to immoral practices. [C] governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues. [D]the wide misuse of integrity among institutions. 37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that [A] Glem Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime [B] more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking. [C] Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge. [D] phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions. 38. The author believes the Rebekah Books? s deference [A] revealed a cunning personality [B] centered on trivial issues [C] was hardly convincing [D] was part of a conspiracy 39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows [A] generally distorted values [B] unfair wealth distribution [C] a marginalized lifestyle [D] a rigid moral cote 40. Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph? [A] The quality of writing is of primary importance.
[B] Common humanity is central news reporting. [C] Moral awareness matters in exciting a newspaper. [D] Journalists need stricter industrial regulations. Part B Directions In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks .Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) How does your reading proceed? Clearly you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them drawing on your?implicit knowledge of English grammar.(41)________You begin to infer a context for the text, for instance, by making decisions about?what kind of speech event is involved. Who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where. The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of comprehension. But they show comprehension to consist not just of passive assimilation but of active engagement in?inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and clues.(42)_________ Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or "true" meaning that can be read off and checked for accuracy, or some timeless relation of text to the world.(43)_________ Such background material inevitably reflects who we are.(44)_______ This doesn`t, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods, places and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page--including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns--debates about texts can play an important role in social discussion of beliefs and values. How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it,(45)________Such dimensions of reading suggest-as others introduced later in the book will also do-that we bring an implicit(often unacknowledged)agenda to any act of reading. It doesn`t then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different minds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they
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make up the reading component of your overall literacy, or relationship to your surrounding textual environment. [A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfills the requirement of a given course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room. [B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading ,our gender, ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretations but at the same time obscure or even close off others. [C] If you unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the context. On the assumption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them. [D] In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones the author intended. [E] You make further inferences that form the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible. Section III Translation Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration? one of the great folk wanderings of history? swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent. 47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But, the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and
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at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American. 49) The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th- and 16th-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on barely enough food allotted to them. Many of the ship were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes storms blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought unbearably long delay. ? To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief.? said one recorder of events, ? The air at twelve leagues? distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden.? The colonists? first glimpse of the new land was a sight of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a veritable real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores. Section IV Writing Part A 51. Directions: You are going to host a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members. You should state reasons for your recommendation. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead. Do not write the address. (10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should 1) describe the drawing briefly
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2) explain its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
一.Close test 1、What 2、Concluded 3、On 4、Compared 5、Samples 6、Insignificant 7、Know 8、Resemble 9、Also 10、Perhaps 11、To 12、Drive
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13、Ratherthan 14、Benefits 15、Faster 16、understand 17、Contributory 18、Tendency 19、Ethnic 20、see II Reading comprehension Part A Text 1 21. C ended his regin in embarrassment 22. A owing to their undoubted and respectable status 23. C the role of the nobility in modern democracy 24. D fails to adapt himsself to his future role 25. B Carlos, a lesson for all European Monarchies Text 2 26. B check suspect's phone contents without being authorized. 27.C disapproval 28.A getting into one's residence 29. D citizens' privacy is not effectively protected 30.B new technology requires reinterpretation of the constitution Text 3 31.B journals are strengthening their statistical checks
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32.C marked 33. D set an example for other journals 34. C has room for further improvement 35.A science joins Push to screen statistics in papers Text 4 36. A the consequences of the current sorting mechanism 37. B more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking 38. C was hardly convincing 39. A generally distorted values 40. C moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper Part B 41.C if you are unfamiliar... 42.E you make further inferences... 43.D Rather ,we ascribe meanings to... 44.B factors such as... 45.A are we studying that ... Part C 46)在多种强大的动机驱动下，这次运动在一片荒野上建起了一个国家，其本身塑造 了一个未知大陆的性格和命运。 47)美国是两种主要力量的产物?? 即思想习俗、民族特色各异的欧洲移民和修改这些 特征的新国家的影响的产物。 48)但由于美国特有的地理条件,不同民族的相互作用,以及维护原始老式方式的纯粹困 难,新大陆引起了重大变化。 49)在 15? 16 世纪北美探索的一百多年之后，运往该领土? 即当今的美国? 的第一船移 民横渡了大西洋。
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50)拥有丰富多样树种的原始森林是一个真正的宝库，它从缅因州一直延伸到乔治亚 州。 III Writing Part A Dear Members, i am writing this letter to recommend you a fantastic book, Pride and Prejudice, that I have already read several times as I am planning to organize a club reading session. The primary factors for my recommendation are as follows. For one thing, this book is very moving. It tells a wonderful love story between an arrogant man and a prejudiced lady. For another, it also features brilliant language of English, thanks to the talented author, Jane Austen. I sincerely hope that you will love the book and look forward to discussing more with you later. Sincerely yours, Li Ming Part B Here is a picture, interesting but with deep implication. As is vividly depicted in the photo, four persons are having dinner, which successfully captures our eyes. If we give it a closer watch, it is not difficult to find that they all focus on their phone and do not have communicate. Obviously, what the drawing has subtly conveyed should be given more concern. What might account for this problem? Theoretically, several reasons may trigger the problem conveyed in the picture, but for my part, the following two are of utmost importance. On the top of the list is that people are dependent too much on their mobile to communicate and ignore the face-to-face communication. There is the other point that no one can ignore. It is widely admitted that the young men have been get used to this kind of ? invisible communication? , which may make them feel safe. On other case can better illustrate what I have analyzed than the picture above. According to the analysis above, it is advisable for us to take steps to reverse this evil trend. Of all the steps, to appeal to the media may be the most effective one, which can lead to the public to treat mobile phones in a reasonable way. Only in this way can we resolve this problem and embrace a bright future.
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2014 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语一真题及答案 Directions:
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points) As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can? t remember ___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance? s name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain ___2___, we refer to these occurrences as ? senior moments.? ___3___ seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n) ___4___ impact on our professional, social, and personal ___5___. Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there? s actually a lot that can be done. It ___6___ out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental ___7___ can significantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___. Thinking is essentially a ___9___ of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to ___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited. ___11___, because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate ___12___ mental effort. Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first ? brain training program?designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental ___14___. The Web-based program ___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailed feedback ___17___ your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it ___18___modifies and enhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengths you are developing? much like a(n)
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___20___exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use. 1. [A]where [B]when [C]that [D]why 2. [A]improves [B]fades [C]recovers [D]collapses 3. [A]If [B]Unless [C]Once [D]While 4. [A]uneven [B]limited [C]damaging [D]obscure 5. [A]wellbeing [B]environment [C]relationship [D]outlook 6. [A]turns [B]finds [C]points [D]figures 7. [A]roundabouts [B]responses [C]workouts [D]associations 8. [A]genre [B]functions [C]circumstances [D]criterion 9. [A]channel [B]condition [C]sequence [D]process 10. [A]persist [B]believe [C]excel [D]feature 11. [A] Therefore [B] Moreover [C] Otherwise [D] However 12. [A]according to [B]regardless of [C]apart from [D]instead of 13. [A]back [B]further [C]aside [D]around 14. [A]sharpness [B]stability [C]framework [D]flexibility 15. [A]forces [B]reminds [C]hurries [D]allows 16. [A]hold [B]track [C]order [D]pace 17. [A]to [B]with [C]for [D]on 18. [A]irregularly [B]habitually [C]constantly [D]unusually 19. [A]carry [B]put [C]build [D]take 20. [A]risky [B]effective [C]idle [D]familiar Section ? Reading Comprehension
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Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosi ng A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points) Text 1 In order to ? change lives for the better? and reduce ? dependency? George Os borne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the ? upfront work search? scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a CV, register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit and then they should r eport weekly rather than fortnightly. What could be more reasonable? More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait fo r the jobseeker? s allowance. ? Those first few days should be spent looking for wor k, not looking to sign on.? he claimed. ? We? re doing these things because we kno w they help people stay off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faste r.? Help? Really? On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with ? reforms? to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsidises laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for ? fundamental fairness?? protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits. Losing a job is hurting: you don? t skip down to the jobcentre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous st
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ate. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that supp ort is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you supp ort is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you are n ow excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job. But in Osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency ? permanent dependency if you can get it ? supported by a state only too ready to indulge you r falsehood. It is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened. The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and recei ve unconditional payments if the disaster happens. Even the very phrase ? jobseeker ? s allowance? ? invented in 1996 ? is about redefining the unemployed as a ? job seeker? who had no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through m aking national insurance contributions. Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited ? allowance,? conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at ?71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the EU. 21. George Osborne? s scheme was intended to [A]provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits. [B]encourage jobseekers? active engagement in job seeking. [C]motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.
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[D]guarantee jobseekers? legitimate right to benefits. 22. The phrase, ? to sign on? (Line 3, Para. 2) most probably means [A]to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre. [B]to accept the government? s restrictions on the allowance. [C]to register for an allowance from the government. [D]to attend a governmental job-training program. 23. What prompted the chancellor to develop his scheme? [A]A desire to secure a better life for all. [B]An eagerness to protect the unemployed. [C]An urge to be generous to the claimants. [D]A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers. 24. According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one feel [A]uneasy [B]enraged. [C]insulted. [D]guilty. 25. To which of the following would the author most probably agree?
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[A]The British welfare system indulges jobseekers? laziness. [B]Osborne? s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment. [C]The jobseekers? allowance has met their actual needs. [D]Unemployment benefits should not be made conditional. Text 2 All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of an y other profession? with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few pla ces where clients have more grounds for complaint than America. During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in Am erica grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of mo ney, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsu it filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare. There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal educatio n. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year underg raduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 2 00 law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive prepa ration for the bar exam. This leaves today? s average law-school graduate with $10 0,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that many ca nnot afford to go into government or non-profit work, and that they have to work fearsomely hard.
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Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible i deas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow peo ple to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough te st for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to do so. Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mount ain by a third. The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is p ressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from th e pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically. In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs a nd improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms? efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow. 26.a lot of students take up law as their profession due to [A]the growing demand from clients. [B]the increasing pressure of inflation.
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[C]the prospect of working in big firms. [D]the attraction of financial rewards. 27.Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most America n states? [A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies. [B]Admissions approval from the bar association. [C]Pursuing a bachelor? s degree in another major. [D]Receiving training by professional associations. 28.Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from [A]lawyers? and clients? strong resistance. [B]the rigid bodies governing the profession. [C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers. [D]non-professionals? sharp criticism. 29.The guild-like ownership structure is considered ? restrictive? partly because i t [A]bans outsiders? involvement in the profession. [B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares. [C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.
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[D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits. 30.In this text, the author mainly discusses [A]flawed ownership of America? s law firms and its causes. [B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America. [C]a problem in America? s legal profession and solutions to it. [D]the role of undergraduate studies in America? s legal education. Text 3 The US$3-million Fundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting experiment, as Alexander Polyakov said when he accepted this year? s award in March. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature article in Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joined the Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, are funded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs. These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and they want to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded in science. What? s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientists quoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, and these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels, The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, say scientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-led research. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They do not fund peer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone genius. The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism. Some want to shock, others to draw people into science, or to better reward those who have made their careers in research. As Nature has pointed out before, there are some legitimate concerns about how science prizes? both new and old? are distributed. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes an unrepresentative view of what the life sciences include. But the Nobel Foundation? s limit of three recipients per prize, each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborative nature of modern research? as will be demonstrated by the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course, themselves set up by a very rich individual
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who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money. Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy. As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, two things seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such a prize if they were offered one. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism? that is the culture of research, after all? but it is the prize-givers?money to do with as they please. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude and grace. 31. The Fundamental Physics Prize is seen as [A]a symbol of the entrepreneurs?wealth. [B]a possible replacement of the Nobel Prizes. [C]an example of bankers?investments. [D]a handsome reward for researchers. 32. The critics think that the new awards will most benefit [A]the profit-oriented scientists. [B]the founders of the new awards. [C]the achievement-based system. [D]peer-review-led research. 33. The discovery of the Higgs boson is a typical case which involves [A]controversies over the recipients?status. [B]the joint effort of modern researchers. [C]legitimate concerns over the new prizes. [D]the demonstration of research findings. 34. According to Paragraph 4,which of the following is true of the Nobels? [A]Their endurance has done justice to them. [B]Their legitimacy has long been in dispute.
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[C]They are the most representative honor. [D]History has never cast doubt on them. 35.The author believes that the now awards are [A]acceptable despite the criticism. [B]harmful to the culture of research. [C]subject to undesirable changes. [D]unworthy of public attention. Text 4 ? The Heart of the Matter,?the just-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report? s failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good. In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the AAAS asking that it identify actions that could be taken by ? federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others? to ? maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education.? In response, the American Academy formed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Among the commission? s 51 members are top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well as prominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism. The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Because representative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital technologies. To encourage innovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment in research, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students? ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs. Unfortunately, despite 2? years in the making, "The Heart of the Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature of liberal education at our leading colleges and
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universities. The commission ignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities have produced graduates who don? t know the content and character of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities and social sciences as vehicles for publicizing ? progressive,?or left-liberal propaganda. Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas? such as free markets and self-reliance? as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation. The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it to illuminate. 36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author? s attitude toward the AAAS? s report? [A] Critical [B] Appreciative [C] Contemptuous [D] Tolerant 37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to [A] retain people? s interest in liberal education [B] define the government? s role in education [C] keep a leading position in liberal education [D] safeguard individuals?rights to education 38. According to Paragraph 3, the report suggests [A] an exclusive study of American history [B] a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects [C] the application of emerging technologies [D] funding for the study of foreign languages
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39. The author implies in Paragraph 5 that professors are [A] supportive of free markets [B] cautious about intellectual investigation [C] conservative about public policy [D] biased against classical liberal ideas 40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? [A] Ways to Grasp ? The Heart of the Matter? [B] Illiberal Education and ? The Heart of the Matter? [C] The AAAS? s Contribution to Liberal Education [D] Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education Part B Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, yo u are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing fro m the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs A and E have been correctly placed Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET (10 points) [A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable? for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece, the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sites are exceptions to the norm. Mo st archaeological sites have been located by means of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterfly hunter who literally fell into its deep valley in
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1911. Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s. [B]In another case, American archaeologists Rene Million and George Cowgill sp ent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Me xico near what is now Mexico City. At its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the world. The researchers mapped not only th e city? s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived. [C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey and s ample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain to determine where excavat ion will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also become impor tant for understanding the larger landscapes that contain archaeological sites. [D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes. In one ca se, many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copan, Honduras, ha ve located hundreds of small rural villages and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how the distribution and density of the rural population around the city changed d ramatically between AD 500 and 850, when Copan collapsed. [E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airborne technologi es, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplane s or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground w
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ithout digging. Aerial surveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried featu res, such as ancient buildings or fields. [F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists who ha ve set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British archaeologist Ho ward Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun existed fro m information found in other sites. Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of th e Kings for seven years before he located the tomb in 1922. In the late 1800s Brit ish archaeologist Sir Arthur Evan combed antique dealers? stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for tiny engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean cult ure that dominated Greece from the 1400s to 1200s BC. Evans? s interpretations of these engravings eventually led him to find the Minoan palace at Knossos (Knoss? s) on the island of Crete, in 1900. [G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for surface cl ues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain amount of dig ging to test for buried materials at selected points across a landscape. Archaeologis ts also may locate buried remains by using such technologies as ground radar, mag netic-field recording, and metal detectors. Archaeologists commonly use computers t o map sites and the landscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research. 41 --- A --- 42. --- F ---43---G --- 44---D --- 45---B Part C
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Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments in to Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) Music means different things to different people and sometimes even different t hings to the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philo sophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have somet hing to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the me ans of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physical means that is the strength of music. (46)It is also the reason why when we try to describe mus ic with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself. 【句型分析】 本句主句主干为 it is the reason， why 引导定语从句， 修饰 the reason。 定语从句的主干是 all we can do is articulate our reactions and not grasp music itsel f，其表语是不定式短语，由于主语中含有 do，不定式符号 to 省略：articulate our reacti ons and not grasp music itself。our reactions 之后 to it 为其定语，it 指代 music。定语 从句中还包含 when 引导的时间状语从句。 【翻译要点】?本句主干的主句是主系表结构，reason 后 why 引导的定语从句较长，翻译 时可以与主干部分结合，调整表达为：这也就是为什么? .。 ?定语从句中，when 引导时间状语从句，其中 with words 做状语，翻译时需调整语 序到其修饰的 to describe 之前， 可以表达为? 当我们尝试用语言来描述音乐时? 。 定语从句 的主干顺译即可， 其中 reaction 根据语境， 可以翻译为? 感受? ， 其定语 to it 在表达时前置， it 指代还原为? 音乐? ，则可以翻译为? 所有我们能做的，就是明确表达我们对于音乐的感
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受? ，或者调整表达为? 我们只能明确表达我们对于音乐的感受? 。and 之后，grasp 依据语 境，需要翻译为? 理解? 。 【译文总结】这也是为什么当我们试图用语言来描述音乐时，我们只能明确表达我们 对于音乐的感受，而不能完全理解音乐本身。
Beethoven? s importance in music has been principally defined by the revolution ary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break all s igns of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the last p iano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by the weight of con vention. (47)By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, a nd I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performa nce, of his works.
【句型分析】本句为并列句。第一个分句 he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one， 句首 by all accounts 为固定搭配， 意思是? 根据各方面说? 。 第二个分句的主干为 I find courage an essential quality，其中宾语为 courage，而 an essential quality 是宾语补足语。 quality 后介词短语 for the understanding of his work 为其定语，其中还包含一个插入结构 let alone the performance。 【翻译要点】? 第一个分句结构比较简单，句首固定搭配 by all accounts，可以调整 表达，翻译为? 据大家所说? 。主干顺译即可，其中 he 指代? 贝多芬? ，one 指代 person。 这一部分可以翻译为? 贝多芬是个思想自由、充满勇气的人? 。 ?第二个分句，主干为? 我发现勇气是一个关键品质? ，quality 后为其定语 for the understanding of his work， 其中 the understanding of his work 意思为? 对于其作品的理解 ? ，做词性转化后，可以表达为? 理解其作品? ，这个介词短语需要调整语序前置于 quality， 可以翻译为? 理解他作品的关键品质? ，则第二个分句可以表达为? 我发现勇气，是理解他 作品的关键品质? 。还可以调整表达为? 我发现勇气这一品质，是理解他作品的关键? 。
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?在定语 for the understanding of his work 中的插入成分，在逻辑上 let alone 并列 the understanding 和 the performance，二者共用定语 of his works，顺译句末即可：更不必说 是演出其作品的关键品质。 【译文总结】人们普遍认为，他(贝多芬)是个思想自由、充满勇气的人，我发现勇气 这一品质，是理解他作品的关键，更不必说是演出其作品的关键。
This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of B eethoven? s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, for ex ample in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven? s habit of increasing the volume with an intense crescendo and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage w as only rarely used by composers before him. 【句型分析】 本句主干为 Beethoven? s habit was used by composers before him。 本句的谓 语为被动语态，主语 habit 后介词短语 of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage 为其定语，是由介词 of 与 and 并 列的两个动名词短语 increasing the volume with an extreme intensity 和 then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage 构成。 【翻译要点】?本句主干较为简单，但是主语 habit 后有很长的后置定语：Habit of increasing the volume? ，其中? habit? 可以词性转换为动词? 习惯? ，而中文常常先表达次 要信息，则这一部分可以翻译一句话? 贝多芬习惯增加?? ，置于句首。第一个动名词短语 中， with an extreme intensity 为状语， 表达时需调整语序到其修饰的 increasing the volume 前，根据语境，volume 意思为? 音量? ，则 increasing 可以翻译为? 增高? 。这一部分可以 翻译为? 最大限度来逐渐增高音量? 。第二个动名词短语 then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage，状语 with a sudden soft passage 需调整到 following it 前表达，其中 passage 根据语境，意思为? 乐段? 。则这一部分可以表达为? 然后突然跟上轻柔的乐段? 。 整合本句主语与其定语，可以翻译为? 贝多芬习惯最大限度来逐渐增高音量，然后突然跟 上轻柔的乐段? 。
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?本句主干意思为? 在他之前，作曲家很少使用贝多芬的习惯? 。中文语义重心在后， 将本部分翻译在句末即可。由于前句译文已经提到这种习惯，则这部分可以表达为? 在他 之前，作曲家很少使用这种习惯? ，结合语境还可以表达为? 在他之前，作曲家很少使用这 种方式? ，或者? 在他之前，只有极个别作曲家会使用这种方式? 。 【译文总结】贝多芬习惯最大限度来逐渐增高音量，然后突然跟上轻柔的乐段，在他 之前，作曲家很少使用这种方式。
Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He w as not interested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especia lly significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rig hts and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.
【句型分析】本句为完全倒装，主句的主干是 his view of freedom was Especially significant。 his view of freedom 后为 which 引导的非限定性定语从句，修饰 freedom，关系代词 which 在定语从句中作主语。of the individual 修饰 the rights and responsibilities，冒号后 进行解释说明。 【翻译要点】 ? 本句主干为完全倒装，但是在翻译时，顺译即可，其中 his 指代? 贝多芬的? ，主干 可以表达为：尤为重要的是，他(贝多芬)对于自由的看法? .。 ? which 引导英语从句，修饰 freedom，表达时翻译成另一句话? 对于他而言，这种自 由是与个人的权利和责任联系起来的? ，其中 for him 还可以调整表达为? 他认为? 。 ?冒号后进行解释，可以翻译为：他倡导思想自由和个人言论自由。 【译文总结】尤为重要的是贝多芬对于自由的看法，他认为，这种自由是与个人的权 利和责任联系起来的：他倡导思想自由和个人言论自由。
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Beethoven? s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an im perative of human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or igno ring the disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by ch ance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. (50)One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the cour age to fight it renders life worth living. 【句型分析】 本句主句主干为 One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven， 之后 by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living 为状 语，修饰 interpret。其中 that 引导宾语从句 suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living，为 saying 的宾语，宾语从句中 it 指代 suffering。 【翻译要点】?本句主语 one，可以翻译为? 人们? 或者? 我们? 。主干可以翻译为? 我们 可以解释贝多芬的大部分作品? 。 ?主干之后的状语，可以翻译为? 通过说痛苦是无法避免的，但是与之相抗争的勇气使 得生命值得继续。? ?整合主干， 可以表达为? 我们可以这样解释贝多芬的大部分作品： 苦难是不可避免的， 但是与痛苦抗争的勇气使得生命值得继续。? 【译文总结】我们可以这样解释贝多芬的大部分作品：苦难是不可避免的，但是与痛 苦抗争的勇气使得生命值得继续。
Section ? Writing Part A 51. Directions: Write a letter of about 100 words to the president of your university, suggesting
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how to improve students?physical condition. You should include the details you think necessary. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use ? Li Ming?instead. Do not write the address. (10 points) 正文 第一段：写作内容需涵盖两点：写信目的，表明建议;赞扬在前，建议在后。文章开头 开门见山的表明了写信目的，用到了这样的表达 It is my great honor to write to you. 第二 句赞扬在前，建议在后。文中用到了这样的表达 As far as I am concerned, we have enough extraordinary lectures and what we need now is physical exercise. 第二段： 写作内容为建议细节。首先，希望学校能够安排更多的体育课程;其次，希 望学校能够制定固定的时间表来保证课外活动的时间。 再次， 希望全体教员也能参与其中。 第三段：写作内容为寄予期待，表示感谢。注意语气真挚礼貌。 落款： Yours sincerely, 特别提醒 sincerely 后面逗号不能丢; 签名： Li Ming 特别注意 Ming 后面一定不能出现句点。 参考范文如下： Dear Mr. President, It is my great honor to write to you. As far as I am concerned, we have enough extraordinary lectures and what we need now is physical exercise. Since most of the time is spent in watching TV and playing computer games, our physical conditions are not good enough. i still have some suggestions for you. To begin with, our university should arrange more PE classes. To continue, we should have a fixed schedule for a certain time of outdoor activity. What is more, teaching faculty should be involved in the same kind of physical exercise. I hope that our university could take the responsibility for our students?physical health. I will be highly grateful if you could take my suggestions into account. Yours sincerely, Li Ming
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Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should 1) describe the drawing briefly, 2) interpret its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET(20 points)
第一段图画描述段的写作内容主要是表述图画，需包括两点：三十年前是个什么样子， 现在是什么样子。三十年前? 我? 还是个孩子，母亲大手拉小手陪伴着我成长;现在，母亲上 年纪了，我快乐地陪伴在母亲的身旁。其实第一段还有两个需要注意的地方，一是题目要 求是一幅图， 大家在写作时尽量按照一幅图画去处理;二是图画下面的汉字? 相携? 比较难翻 译，不过大家可以意译为陪伴。这两个地方不是大问题，因为它相对于作文要考查考生书 面表达的要求来说是微不足道的。 第二段是图画涵义阐释段。 本段可分两个方面来具体写。 一方面具体写明要照顾老人， 因为他们为我们付出了自己的青春;另一方面，我们要关爱儿童的成长，因为他们是我们的 未来，祖国的希望。 第三段评论段的写作内容为给出自己的评论和建议。可以指出年轻人应该把尊重和照 顾 年迈的父母视为一种道义责任。另外，父母也要关注孩子的成长。只有这样，我们的 家庭才能和睦，社会才能更加和谐! 参考例文：
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As is vividly described in the left part of the drawing, thirty years ago, there stood a delicate mother, holding the tiny hand of a lovely girl, who wore a red scarf. On the contrary, the right part of the picture illustrates that with time flying quickly, the little girl, who has already grown up as a gorgeous lady, is supporting her old mother. We are informed: accompanying. It is without saying that the old and the young are two indispensable parts in society. On the one hand, what we have and enjoy now was created by our parents in the early days, as the old Chinese saying goes, "One generation plants tress under whose shade another generation rests". On the other hand, all of us are supposed to take good care of the youngsters, too. It is children who make us see the future of our state, for they are the future builders of our country. The young should consider it a moral obligation respecting and taking care of old parents. Meanwhile, it is also the duty of the parents to protect, educate and look after the youths. Let's bear this in mind and cultivate that virtue together, because only by doing so, can we feel as if we were living in a happy and harmonious family.
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Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that 1 the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by 2 factors. But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big 3 was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with. 4 , he theorised that a judge 5 of appearing too soft 6 crime might be more likely to send someone to prison 7 he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day. To 8 this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process. In theory, the 9 of an applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr. Simonsohn suspected the truth was 11 . He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews 12 by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale 14 numerous factors into consideration. The scores were 15 used in conjunction with an applicant? s score on the Graduate Management Admission Test, or GMAT, a standardized exam which is 16 out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her. Dr. Simonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would 18 by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to 19 the effects of such a decrease a candidate could need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been 20 . 1. [A]grants [B]submits [C]transmits [D]delivers 2. [A]minor [B]objective [C]crucial [D] external 3. [A]issue [B]vision [C]picture [D]external 4. [A] For example [B] On average [C]In principle [D]Above all 5. [A]fond [B]fearful [C]capable [D] thoughtless 6. [A] in [B] on [C]to [D] for 7. [A] if [B] until [C] though [D] unless 8. [A] promote [B] emphasize [C]share [D]test 9. [A] decision [B] quality [C] status [D] success 10. [A] chosen [B] studied [C] found [D] identified 11. [A] exceptional [B] defensible [C] replaceable [D] otherwise 12. [A] inspired [B] expressed [C] conducted [D] secured 13. [A] assigned [B] rated [C] matched [D] arranged 14. [A] put [B] got [C] gave [D] took 15. [A] instead [B] then [C] ever [D] rather
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16. [A] selected [B] passed [C] marked [D] introduced 17. [A] before [B] after [C] above [D] below 18. [A] jump [B] float [C] drop [D] fluctuate 19. [A] achieve [B] undo [C] maintain [D] disregard 20. [A] promising [B] possible [C] necessary [D] helpful Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn? t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant? s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment. This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn? t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would be described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline? s three-year indictment of ? fast fashion? . In the last decade or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two, although they don? t advertise that ? and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace. The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals. Overdressed is the fashion world? s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan? s The Omnivore? s Dilemma. ? Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,?Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year ?about 64 items per person ?and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste. Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes ?and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can? t be knocked off.
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Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment ?including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line ? Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can? t afford not to. 21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her [A] poor bargaining skill. [B] insensitivity to fashion. [C] obsession with high fashion. [D] lack of imagination. 22. According to Cline, mass-market labels urge consumers to [A] combat unnecessary waste. [B] shut out the feverish fashion world. [C] resist the influence of advertisements. [D] shop for their garments more frequently. 23. The word ? indictment?(Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to [A] accusation. [B] enthusiasm. [C] indifference. [D] tolerance. 24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph? [A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists. [B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability. [C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments. [D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing. 25. What is the subject of the text? [A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle. [B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth. [C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry. [D] Exposure of a mass-market secret. Text 2 An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced. By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim ? behavioural?ads at those most likely to buy. In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?
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In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests. On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10, the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default. It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft? s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway. Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, blogged: "we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple? 26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that ? behavioural?ads help advertisers to: [A] ease competition among themselves [B] lower their operational costs [C] avoid complaints from consumers [D] provide better online services 27. ? The industry?(Line 6,Para.3) refers to: [A] online advertisers [B] e-commerce conductors [C] digital information analysis [D] internet browser developers 28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default [A] many cut the number of junk ads [B] fails to affect the ad industry [C] will not benefit consumers [D] goes against human nature 29. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph.6? [A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose [B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT [C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers [D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads 30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of: [A] indulgence
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[B] understanding [C] appreciation [D] skepticism Text 3 Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely - though by no means uniformly - glowingly positive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all. Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu and to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to. But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years - so why shouldn't we? Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years. Look up Homo sapiens in the "Red List" of threatened species of the International Union for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN) ,and you will read: "Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline." So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organizations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation has its flagship project a medical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence. Perhaps willfully, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future. But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves. This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come. 31. Our vision of the future used to be inspired by [A] our desire for lives of fulfillment [B] our faith in science and technology [C] our awareness of potential risks [D] our belief in equal opportunity
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32. The IUCN? s? Red List?suggest that human being are [A] a sustained species [B] a threaten to the environment [C] the world? s dominant power [D] a misplaced race 33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5? [A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies. [B] Technology offers solutions to social problem. [C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise. [D] Our Immediate future is hard to conceive. 34. To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to [A] explore our planet? s abundant resources [B] adopt an optimistic view of the world [C] draw on our experience from the past [D] curb our ambition to reshape history 35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? [A] Uncertainty about Our Future [B] Evolution of the Human Species [C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind [D] Science, Technology and Humanity Text 4 On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona? s immigration law Monday-a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution, the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration? s effort to upset the balance of power between the federal government and the states. In Arizona v. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona? s controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to ? establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization ? and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial . Arizona had attempted to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones. Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court? s liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun. On the overturned provisions the majority held the congress had deliberately ? occupied the field?and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal? s privileged powers. However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement. That? s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.
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Two of the three objecting Justice-Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas-agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts. The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as ? a shocking assertion of federal executive power? . The White House argued that Arizona? s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter. In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with. Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status, it could. It never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn? t want to carry out Congress? s immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim. 36. Three provisions of Arizona? s plan were overturned because they [A] deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers. [B] disturbed the power balance between different states. [C] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law. [D] contradicted both the federal and state policies. 37. On which of the following did the Justices agree, according to Paragraph4? [A] Federal officers?duty to withhold immigrants ? information. [B] States?independence from federal immigration law. [C] States?legitimate role in immigration enforcement. [D] Congress? s intervention in immigration enforcement. 38. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts [A] violated the Constitution. [B] undermined the states?interests. [C] supported the federal statute. [D] stood in favor of the states. 39. The White House claims that its power of enforcement [A] outweighs that held by the states. [B] is dependent on the states?support. [C] is established by federal statutes. [D] rarely goes against state laws. 40. What can be learned from the last paragraph? [A] Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress. [B] Justices intended to check the power of the Administration. [C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress. [D] The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.
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Part B Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000. Yet this enormous resource in not contributing enough to today? s global challenges including climate change, security, sustainable development and health.(41)______Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger, from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers . Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity. (42)____This is a shame? the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction. Today, the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact. Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords ? environmental changed?or ? climate change?have increased rapidly since 2004,(43)____ When social scientists do tackle practical issues ,their scope is often local: Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium for example .And whether the community? s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful. The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding (44)____this is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today? s economic climate. The trick is to direct these funds better. The European Union Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists. This year, it was proposed that system be changed: Horizon 2020,a new program to be enacted in 2014,would not have such a category ,This has resulted in protests from social scientists. But the intention is not to neglect social science; rather, the complete opposite. (45)____That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems. [A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social scientists: one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly specialized journals, and one that is problem-oriented and publishing elsewhere, such as policy briefs.
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[B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010, about 1,600 of the 100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these Keywords. [C] the idea is to force social to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change food security, marine research and the bio-economy, clear, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies. [D] the solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones. [E] These issues all have root causes in human behavior. All require behavioral change and social innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy. [F] Despite these factors, many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems. And in Europe, some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development. [G]During the late 1990s , national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds-including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate -varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations , it is about 15%. Section III Translation 46. Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; (46) Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that , for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression. One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a ? still point of the turning world,?to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. (47)A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the former becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one? s relation to one? s environment. (48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn? t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they
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give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand. Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, (49) most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50)It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a ? liberated?sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see biophilia- a yearning for contact with nonhuman life－ assuming uncanny representational forms.
Section IV Writing Part A 51. Directions: Write an e-mail of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college, inviting him/her to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest. You should include the details you think necessary. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the e-mail, Use "Li Ming" instead. Do not write the address. (10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should 1) describe the drawing briefly 2) explain its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points) 参考答案 Section I Use of English 1. A. grants 2. D. external 3. C. picture 4. A. For example 5. B. fearful 6. B. on 7. A. if
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8. D. test 9. D. success 10. A. chosen 11. D. otherwise 12. C. conducted 13. B. rated 14. D. took 15. B. then 16. C. marked 17. A. before 18. C. drop 19. B. undo 20. C. necessary Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Text 1 (In the 2006) 21. B. insensitivity to fashion 22. D. shop for their garment more frequently 23. A. accusation 24. D. pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing 25. C. criticism of the fast-fashion industry Text 2 (An old saying) 26. B. lower their operational costs 27. D. internet browser developers 28. C. will not benefit consumers 29. A. DNT may not serve its intended purpose 30. D. skepticism Text 3 (Now utopia) 31. B. our faith in science and technology 32. A. sustained species 33. D. our immediate future is hard to conceive 34. C. draw on our experience from the past 35. C. the ever-bright prospects of mankind Text 4 (On a five to three) 36. C. overstepped the authority of federal immigration 37. C. states?legitimate role in immigration enforcement 38. D. stood in favor of the states 39. A. outweighs that held by the states 40. D. The Administration is dominant over immigration issues. Part B 41. E. These issues all have root causes in human behavior...
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42. F. Despite these factors... 43. B. However, the numbers are still small... 44. G. During the late 1990s... 45. C. The idea is to force social to integrate... Section III Translation 46. 然而，看着无家可归者绘制出的花园图片时，人们会突然意识到，尽管这些花园风格 多样，它们都显示了人类除了装饰和创造性表达之外的其他各种基本诉求 47. 一块神圣的 和平之地，不管它有多么粗糙，它都是一种人类本能的需求，和庇护所相反，那只是动物 的本能需求。 47. 无论地方多么简陋不堪，寻求一片静谧圣土是人类特有的需求，而动物需要的仅是仅 是避难栖息之地。 48. 无家可归者描绘的花园实质上是无所依附的，这些花园把一种形式引入城市环境中， 而这样的城市环境中，形式要么根本不存在， 要么就完全不是以这种明显的方式存在。 49. 我们大多数人会深陷于精神萎靡的状态，并常常将此归咎为一些心理原因，直到某天 我们发现自己置身花园中，感到如魔法般烦闷尽消。 50. 正是对自然的这种或隐晦含蓄或清晰直白的提及，充分证实了用? 花园? 一词来描述这 些虚拟建筑是合乎情理的，即使是从毫无拘泥的意义来讲的。 Section IV Writing 51.【参考范文】 Dear Prof. Smith, On behalf of Students?Union, I am writing this letter to invite you to be a judge for the speech contest which will be held in Students?Union Hall on Monday, January 21. As an internationally acclaimed scholar in English language and culture, your participation will bring us the pleasure. What? s more, since you have been teaching for a long time and you enjoy a great popularity among all teachers and students, we firmly believe that you can offer us valuable suggestions on improving our students?oral and writing abilities. It would be a great honor if you could accept this invitation. We are looking forward to your favorable early reply. Sincerely yours, Li Ming 52. 【参考范文】 As is shown above, this simple picture represents a vigorous situation that nearly every graduate student will face: hunting for a job, further studying, starting a business or going aboard. Which one should they choose? Without exception, everyone has to make choices in life, no matter concerning school, career, or love. While some choices are easy, one cannot avoid the task of making difficult decisions. There is sufficient evidence showing that choices are often directly related to one? s happiness. University students, face a hard and crucial decision upon graduating. Many students have difficulty in deciding whether to continue studying or begin a career. As is known to all, every individual is different, and one must take the factors of one? s personal life into consideration. In addition to an awareness of specific circumstances, however, making the right choice also depends on correct appraisal of oneself. It is without doubt that in order to choose correctly, therefore, one must be both realistic
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and self-aware. Furthermore, there is other aspect to be taken into consideration. Once having made a decision, one should seriously accept and pursue the path one has chosen, and strive towards the realization of one? s goal with spirit.
Section ? Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points) The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices became an important issue recently. The court cannot_____ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law______ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that_____ the court ? s reputation for being independent and impartial。 Justices Antonin Scalia and Samuel Alito Jr., for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court? s decisions will be____ as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not _____ by an ethics code. At the very least, the court should make itself_______ to the code of conduct that ______to the rest of the federal judiciary。 This and other cases ______the question of whether there is still a _____ between the court and politics。 The framers of the Constitution envisioned law____ having authority apart from politics. They gave justices permanent positions ____ they would be free to ____those in power and have no need to_____ political support. Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _____。 Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social ______like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the law it _____is inescapably political ?which is why decisions split along ideological lines are so
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easily _____ as unjust。 The justices must _____doubts about the court? s legitimacy by making themselves _____to the code of conduct. That would make their rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, _____, convincing as law。 1 A emphasizeB maintainC modifyD recognize 2 A whenB bestC beforeD unles 3 A renderedB weakenedC establishedD eliminated 4 A challengedB compromisedC suspectedD accepted 5. A advancedB caught C boundD founded 6. A resistantB subjectC immuneD prone 7. A resortsB sticksC leadsD applies 8. A evadeB raiseC denyD settle 9. A lineB barrier C similarity D conflict 10. A byB asC throughD towards 11. A soB sinceC providedD though 12. A serveB satisfyC upsetD replace 13. A confirm B express C cultivate D offer 14 A guardedB followedC studiedD tied 15. A concepts B theories C divisions D convenience16. A excludes B questions C shapes D controls17. A dismissed B released C ranked D distorted18. A suppress B exploitC addressD ignore 19. A accessibleB. amiableC agreeable D accountable20. A by all meansB at all costsC in a wordD as a result Section ? Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (40 points) Text 2 Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls?lives. It is not that pink intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fused girls?identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls?lives and interests。 Girls' attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it's not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What's more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children's marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem innately attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years。 I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children's behaviour: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing gimmick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s。
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Trade publications counselled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a "third stepping stone" between infant wear and older kids' clothes. It was only after "toddler" became common shoppers' term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences ?or invent them where they did not previously exist。 26 By saying "it is ... The rainbow"(line 3, Para 1)， the author means pink _______。 A should not be the sole representation of girlhood B should not be associated with girls' innocence C cannot explain girls' lack of imagination D cannot influence girls' lives and interests 27 According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours? A Colors are encoded in girls' DNA B Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls C Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders D White is preferred by babies 28 The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological devotement was much influenced by ________。 [A] the marketing of products for children[B] the observation of children's nature [C] researches into children's behavior[D] studies of childhood consumption 29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised ________。 A focuses on infant wear and older kids' clothes B attach equal importance to different genders C classify consumers into smaller groups D create some common shoppers' terms 30. it can be concluded that girl's attraction to pink seems to be _____。 A clearly explained by their inborn tendency B fully understood by clothing manufacturers C mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmenD well interpreted by psychological experts Part B Directions: For questions 41-45, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G and fill them into the numbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraph E has been correctly placed. There is one paragraph which does not fit in with the text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points) Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. ( 10 points) Section ? Writing Part A 51. Directions: You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the notice. Use "Postgraduates' Association" instead. ( 10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should describe the picture briefly,explain its intended meaning, and give your comments。
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You should write neatly on answer sheet 2. 2012 年全国硕士 研究生入学考试英语试题 National Entrance Test of English for MA/MSCandidates (NETEM) 跨考英语教研室? 杨凤芝 Section ? Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points) The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices became an important issue recently. The court cannot_____ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law______ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that_____ the court? s reputation for being independent and impartial。 Justices Antonin Scalia and Samuel Alito Jr., for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court? s decisions will be____ as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not _____ by an ethics code. At the very least, the court should make itself_______ to the code of conduct that ______to the rest of the federal judiciary。 This and other cases ______the question of whether there is still a _____ between the court and politics。 The framers of the Constitution envisioned law____ having authority apart from politics. They gave justices permanent positions ____ they would be free to ____those in power and have no need to_____ political support. Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _____。 Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social ______like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the law it ____is inescapably political ?which is why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily _____ as unjust。 The justices must _____doubts about the court? s legitimacy by making themselves _____to the code of conduct. That would make their rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, _____, convincing as law。 1 A emphasize B maintain C modify D recognize 2 A when B best C before D unless 3 A rendered B weakened C established D eliminated 4 A challenged B compromised C suspected D accepted 5. A advanced B caught C bound D founded 6. A resistant B subject C immune D prone 7. A resorts B sticks C leads D applies 8. A evade B raise C deny D settle 9. A line B barrier C similarity D conflict 10. A by B as C through D towards 11. A so B since C provided D though 12. A serve B satisfy C upset D replace 13. A confirm B express C cultivate D offer 14 A guarded B followed C studied D tied 15. A concepts B theories C divisions D convenience16. A excludes B questions C shapes D controls17. A dismissed B released C ranked D distorted18. A suppress B exploit C address D ignore 19. A accessible B. amiable C agreeable D accountable20. A by all means B at all costs C in a word D as a result Section ? Reading ComprehensionPart A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by
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choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (40 points) Text 2 Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls?lives. It is not that pink intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fused girls? identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence。 Looking around, despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls? lives and interests。 Girls' attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it's not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What's more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children's marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem innately attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years。 I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children's behaviour: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing gimmick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s。 Trade publications counselled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a "third stepping stone" between infant wear and older kids' clothes. It was only after "toddler" became common shoppers' term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences ? or invent them where they did not previously exist。 26 By saying "it is ... The rainbow"(line 3, Para 1)， the author means pink _______。 A should not be the sole representation of girlhood B should not be associated with girls' innocence C cannot explain girls' lack of imagination D cannot influence girls' lives and interests 27 According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours? A Colors are encoded in girls' DNA B Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls
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C Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders D White is preferred by babies 28 The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological devotement was much influenced by ________。 [A] the marketing of products for children [B] the observation of children's nature [C] researches into children's behavior[D] studies of childhood consumption 29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised ________。 A focuses on infant wear and older kids' clothes B attach equal importance to different genders C classify consumers into smaller groupsD create some common shoppers' terms 30. it can be concluded that girl's attraction to pink seems to be _____。 A clearly explained by their inborn tendencyB fully understood by clothing manufacturers C mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmenD well interpreted by psychological experts Part B Directions: For questions 41-45, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G and fill them into thenumbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraph E has been correctly placed. There is one paragraph which does not fit in with the text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points) Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. ( 10 points) Section ? Writing Part A 51. Directions: You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the notice. Use "Postgraduates' Association" instead. ( 10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay,you should 1) describe the picture briefly,2) explain its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments。You should write neatly on answer sheet 2. 1.B 2.A 3.B 4.D 5.C6.B 7.D 8.B 9.A 10.B 11.A 12.C 13.C 14.D 15.A16.C 17.A 18.C 19.D 20.D 21.D 22.D 23.A 24.C 25.D26.C 27.A 28.A 29.B 30.B 31.A 32.D 33.B 34.D 35.D36.C 37.D 38.B 39.A 40.A 41.C 42.D 43.A 44.F 45.G 46.在物理学上， 一种方法是将这种冲动完美发挥到极点并且导找到一种万能的理论---一条 我们都可以看的见，明白的普遍公式。 47.在这里，达尔文主义似乎提供了一个准则，如果所有的人类都有共同的起源，那么文化
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差异能够追寻到更早的可控的起源也是合理的。 48.从我们的共同特征中过滤独特性能够使我们明白文化行为的复杂性起源以及是什么在 进化方面和认知方面指导我们人类。 49、其实，由约书亚格林伯说，将更多的经验主义用在了普遍性上，验证许多语言所共有 的特点，这些特点被认为是代表了由认知限制造成的偏见。 50. 乔姆斯基的语法应该表现了语言更改的模式， 是通过独立的家谱或由它所跟踪的路径， 而通过性预测的特定类型间的合作关系。 Part A 47.Directions： Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day. Write and email to the customer service center to 1) make a complaint， and 2) demand a prompt solution. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use ? Zhang Wei?instead. 参考范文： Dear Mr./Miss： This letter is a complaint concerning the electronic dictionary I bought from your online store the other day. Two weeks ago I mailed the money that ordered and soon received the electronic dictionary. I followed the instructions attached with it. Instead I cannot get it started anyway. After changed the battery inside several times in vain， I totally gave it up. I wrote to your company expecting a prompt solution to this problem. I would hope that you could do something to give me a satisfactory feedback. And I will appreciate it very much if you put a strict test on these electronic dictionaries ， thus stop the continuing complaints and suffers of other comtomers. Sincerely Yours， Zhang Wei 2012 年考研英语真题：作文题目及范文 作文一些外国留学生将要来你的大学，以学生会的名义给他们写一封 email, 1. 表示你的欢迎 2. 为他们在这里的校园生活提供一些建议 请写 100 个字左右，请不要在信的末尾写你的名字，用笔名代替，不要写地址。 范文 亲爱的同学们， 首先请允许我代表我校的各位领导老师及同学们对你们的到来表示热烈的欢迎，欢迎 来到我校学习和生活。 不同国家的校园生活有所不同，为了使你们的生活更加舒适，下面我将介绍一些在我校生 活的一些建议。 首先，在中国不可以直呼老师的名字，因为中国是一个礼仪之邦，中国人用称呼表达 对老师的尊重。 其次，希望你们珍惜在中国学习的时间，主动增加与中国人交流的机会，这样既能提 高你们的汉语水平，也能了解中国的文化。
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最后，如果你们在生活和学习上遇到困难，及时与我们沟通。祝你们在中国的留学生 活愉快! 学生会 Dear students, First of all, allow me, on behalf of the leaders of our school teachers and stud ents are warmly welcome to come to you, welcome to our school and life. Campus life is different in different countries, in order to make your life more comfortable, the following I will describe some of the proposals in my school life. First of all, cannot call the teacher's name in China, because China is a ritual of ceremony, Chinese used to call the expression of respect for teachers. Secondly, I hope you cherish the time studying in China, take the initiative to increase opportunities for interaction with Chinese people, so that both can improve your Chinese language level, can understand Chinese culture. Finally, if you encounter difficulty in living and learning, to communicate with us in a timely manner.Wishes you to study abroad in China live in interesting times! Student Union 作文 2：
这幅漫画象征性的描述了一个倒在地上的瓶子，一些牛奶洒了出来。在这个瓶子的旁 边站着两个人，一个垂头丧气的说? 全完了!? ，而另一个则说? 幸好还剩点儿!? 。这幅画所 表达的内容既意义深远又发人深省。 这幅漫画的目的是告诉我们在生活、工作和学习中遇到挫折时，不同的人持有不同的 态度。积极乐观的人总是能够发掘事情好的一面，而消极悲观的人总是为他失去的东西伤 心抱怨。总之，一个人的态度能够决定他的成败。 在我看来，我们应该向那个积极乐观的人学习。在生活中无论遇到什么样的困难，我 们都应该用积极乐观的态度来面对。只有这样，我们才能取得成功。 This cartoon token describes a bottle that fell to the ground, some milk spilled out. The bottle stands next to two people, a dejected saying "is all over! "While another said" Fortunately have left! ? 。 The contents expressed in the painting is both meaningful and thought-provoking. This cartoon is designed to tell us to live, work and learning are down, you, different people hold different attitudes. Optimistic people can always discover what's good side, and negative and pessimistic people always losing things sad for him to complain. In short, a person's attitudes can make or break him. In my opinion, we should learn from the positive and optimistic man. No matter what difficulties she met in life, we should use a positive and optimistic attitude to face. Only in this way, we can be successful.
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2011 年考研英语一真题及答案 Section I Use of English Directions: Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as ? a bodily exercise precious to health.?But ???_____some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical filness Laughter does _____short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, ____ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to ____, a good laugh is unlikely to have _____ benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does. ____, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the ____, studies dating back to the 1930? s indicate that laughter. muscles, Such bodily reaction might conceivably help____the effects of psychological stress.Anyway,the act of laughing probably does produce other types of ______feedback,that improve an individual? s emotional state. ______one classical theory of emotion,our feelings are partially rooted _______ physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry ______they are sad but they become sad when te tears begin to flow. Although sadness also _______ tears,evidence suggests that emotions can flow _____ muscular responses.In an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz. 1．[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like 2．[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce 3．[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining 4．[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe 5．[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable 6．[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief 7．[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected 8．[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes 9．[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance 10．[A]physical [B]mentl [C]subconscious [D]internal 11．[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for 12．[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at 13．[A]unless [B]until C]if [D]because 14．[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses 15．[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond 16．[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold 17．[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent 18．[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted 19．[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing 20．[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement
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of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least. ? Hooray! At last!?wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic. One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert? s appointment in the Times, calls him ? an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.?As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise. For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes. Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today? s live performances; moreover, they can be ? consumed?at a time and place of the listener? s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert. One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert? s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into ? a markedly different, more vibrant organization.?But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra? s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America? s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract. 21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert? s appointment has [A]incurred criticism. [B]raised suspicion. [C]received acclaim. [D]aroused curiosity. 22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is [A]influential. [B]modest. [C]respectable. [D]talented. 23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers [A]ignore the expenses of live performances. [B]reject most kinds of recorded performances. [C]exaggerate the variety of live performances. [D]overestimate the value of live performances. 24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings? [A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality. [B]They are easily accessible to the general public. [C]They help improve the quality of music. [D]They have only covered masterpieces. 25. Regarding Gilbert? s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels [A]doubtful. [B]enthusiastic. [C]confident. [D]puzzled.
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Text 2 When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving ? to pursue my goal of running a company.? Broadcasting his ambition was ? very much my decision,?McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29. McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn? t alone. In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don? t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations. As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders. The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:? I can? t think of a single search I? ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.? Those who jumped without a job haven? t always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later. Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. ? The traditional rule was it? s safer to stay where you are, but that? s been fundamentally inverted,?says one headhunter. ? The people who? ve been hurt the worst are those who? ve stayed too long.? 26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being [A]arrogant. [B]frank. [C]self-centered. [D]impulsive. 27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives?quitting may be spurred by [A]their expectation of better financial status. [B]their need to reflect on their private life. [C]their strained relations with the boards. [D]their pursuit of new career goals. 28. The word ? poached?(Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means [A]approved of. [B]attended to. [C]hunted for. [D]guarded against. 29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that [A]top performers used to cling to their posts. [B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated. [C]top performers care more about reputations. [D]it? s safer to stick to the traditional rules. 30. Which of the following is the best title for the text? [A]CEOs: Where to Go? [B]CEOs: All the Way Up?
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[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net [D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers Text 3 The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional ? paid? media ? such as television commercials and print advertisements ?still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create ? owned?media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media. Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media , such marketers act as the initiator for users?responses. But in some cases, one marketer? s owned media become another marketer? s paid media ?for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives companies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies?marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned. The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them. If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company? s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg. 31.Consumers may create ? earned?media when they are [A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites. [B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them. [C] eager to help their friends promote quality products. [D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products. 32. According to Paragraph 2,sold media feature [A] a safe business environment. [B] random competition. [C] strong user traffic. [D] flexibility in organization. 33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media [A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers. [B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing.
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[C] may be responsible for fiercer competition. [D] deserve all the negative comments about them. 34. Toyota Motor? s experience is cited as an example of [A] responding effectively to hijacked media.[B] persuading customers into boycotting products. [C] cooperating with supportive consumers. [D] taking advantage of hijacked media. 35. Which of the following is the text mainly about ? [A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media. [C] Dominance of hijacked media. [D] Popularity of owned media. Text 4 It? s no surprise that Jennifer Senior? s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, ? I love My Children, I Hate My Life,?is arousing much chatter ?nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that ? the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.? The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive ?and newly single ?mom Sandra Bullock, as well as the usual ? Jennifer Aniston is pregnant?news. Practically every week features at least one celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the newsstands. In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equivalent to admitting you support kitten-killing ? It doesn? t seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn? t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives. Of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on; yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on their ? own?(read: with round-the-clock help) is a piece of cake. It? s hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it? s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren? t in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting ?the Rachel?might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston. 36.Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring
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[A]temporary delight [B]enjoyment in progress [C]happiness in retrospect [D]lasting reward 37.We learn from Paragraph 2 that [A]celebrity moms are a permanent source for gossip. [B]single mothers with babies deserve greater attention. [C]news about pregnant celebrities is entertaining. [D]having children is highly valued by the public. 38.It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folks [A]are constantly exposed to criticism. [B]are largely ignored by the media. [C]fail to fulfill their social responsibilities. [D]are less likely to be satisfied with their life. 39.According to Paragraph 4, the message conveyed by celebrity magazines is [A]soothing .[B]ambiguous. [C]compensatory. [D]misleading. 40.Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph? [A]Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity moms. [B]Celebrity moms have influenced our attitude towards child rearing. [C]Having children intensifies our dissatisfaction with life. [D]We sometimes neglect the happiness from child rearing. Part B Directions: The following paragraph are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs E and G have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) [A] No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm as the humanities. You can, Mr Menand points out, became a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degree in the humanities is nine years. Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees. [B] His concern is mainly with the humanities: Literature, languages, philosophy and so on. These are disciplines that are going out of style: 22% of American college graduates now major in business compared with only 2% in history and 4% in English. However, many leading American universities want their undergraduates to have a grounding in the basic canon of ideas that every educated person should posses. But most find it difficult to agree on what a ? general education?should look like. At Harvard, Mr Menand notes, ? the great books are read because they have been read? -they form a sort of social glue. [C] Equally unsurprisingly, only about half end up with professorships for which they entered graduate school. There are simply too few posts. This is partly because universities continue to produce ever more PhDs. But fewer students want to study humanities subjects: English departments awarded more bachelor? s degrees in 1970-71 than they did 20 years later. Fewer students requires fewer teachers. So, at the end of a decade of theses-writing, many humanities students leave the profession to do something for which they have not been trained. [D] One reason why it is hard to design and teach such courses is that they can cut across the insistence by top American universities that liberal-arts educations and
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professional education should be kept separate, taught in different schools. Many students experience both varieties. Although more than half of Harvard undergraduates end up in law, medicine or business, future doctors and lawyers must study a non-specialist liberal-arts degree before embarking on a professional qualification. [E] Besides professionalizing the professions by this separation, top American universities have professionalised the professor. The growth in public money for academic research has speeded the process: federal research grants rose fourfold between 1960and 1990, but faculty teaching hours fell by half as research took its toll. Professionalism has turned the acquisition of a doctoral degree into a prerequisite for a successful academic career: as late as 1969a third of American professors did not possess one. But the key idea behind professionalisation, argues Mr Menand, is that ? the knowledge and skills needed for a particular specialization are transmissible but not transferable.? So disciplines acquire a monopoly not just over the production of knowledge, but also over the production of the producers of knowledge. [F] The key to reforming higher education, concludes Mr Menand, is to alter the way in which ? the producers of knowledge are produced.? Otherwise, academics will continue to think dangerously alike, increasingly detached from the societies which they study, investigate and criticize.? Academic inquiry, at least in some fields, may need to become less exclusionary and more holistic.? Yet quite how that happens, Mr Menand dose not say. [G] The subtle and intelligent little book The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University should be read by every student thinking of applying to take a doctoral degree. They may then decide to go elsewhere. For something curious has been happening in American Universities, and Louis Menand, a professor of English at Harvard University, captured it skillfully. G ?41. ?42. ? E ?43. ?44. ? 45. Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) With its theme that ? Mind is the master weaver,?creating our inner character and outer circumstances, the book As a Man Thinking by James Allen is an in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing. (46) Allen? s contribution was to take an assumption we all share-that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts-and reveal its erroneous nature. Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and (47) while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: ? Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ? Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded : ?We do not attract what we want, but what we are.?Achievement happens because you as a person embody the external achievement; you don? t ? get? success but become it. There is no gap between mind and matter. Part of the fame of Allen? s book is its contention that ? Circumstances do not make a
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person, they reveal him.?(48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom. This ,however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad, offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. In fat, (49)circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us and if we feel that we have been ? wronged?then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation .Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person? s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual. The sobering aspect of Allen? s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition except ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible. Section ? Writing Part A 51. Directions: Write a letter to a friend of yours to 1) recommend one of your favorite movies and 2) give reasons for your recommendation Your should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2 Do not sign your own name at the end of the leter. User ? LI MING?instead. Do not writer the address.(10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160---200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should 1) describe the drawing briefly, 2) explain it? s intended meaning, and 3) give your comments. Your should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
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附阅读 Part A 翻译： 译文 1 2009 年纽约交响乐团突然宣布聘用艾伦? 吉尔伯特为下一位乐曲指挥，从那时起一直到现在， 这次任命都成为古典音乐界的话题。退一步说，从总体上看，反应还是不错的。如冷静的古典音乐 评论家安东尼? 托姆西尼就这样写：从长时间来看，这次委命是英明的。 然而，这次任命还是令人意外。原因之一在于吉乐伯特名声相对较小。就连那时主张雇用吉尔 伯特的托姆西尼，也称吉尔伯特其貌不扬，缺乏一位令人敬仰的指挥大师的气质。作为对这个很牛 的管弦乐队（牛的表现：到目前为止一直被牛人领导着）下一任指挥家的描述，这种描述跟虚浮的 赞扬一样，确实会令至少一部分泰晤士报的读者觉得愕然不解（让他们觉得不可思议） 。 就我的观点而言， 我不知道吉尔伯特是不是一位伟大的指挥家， 甚至连他是不是算好的指挥家 也不敢确定。可以确信的是，虽然他演出了很多令人印象深刻的有趣的乐曲。然而，我不需要访问 Avery Fisher Hall（可能是纽约交响乐团所在地，即吉尔伯特表演之所） ，或者其他地方才能听到有
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趣的管弦乐。 （作者意思是，不需要听吉尔伯特，到处可以听到有趣的管弦乐。 ）我所做的，只需要 到我的 CD 棚里去，随便打开我的电脑，从 ITUNES 上就可下载比那（当指吉尔伯特表演的）多得 多的类似的音乐。 对于唱片， 那些专门参加音乐会的人会说， 现场表演是不可替代的。 他们显然忽视了一个要点。 为了替音乐爱好者节省时间、精力、金钱考虑，古典乐曲表演表不仅要在各种表演场所进行竞争， 还要在记录这些行为的媒介上竞争。 记在唱片上的表演比现场表演更便宜， 更易得， 甚至质量更好。 而且它们的消费时间地点可以任由听者选择。因此，这种唱片的广泛应用，给传统音乐会带来了生 存危机。 一个可能的应对方式（解决办法）是古典音乐表演者发明有吸引力的从唱片上听不到的曲子。 吉尔伯特在新音乐方面投入了自己的兴趣， 这已广被人知： 如古典音乐评论家罗斯就把吉尔伯特描 述成一个可以扭转交响乐方向的人， 认为他把交响乐带进了一个明显不同的更有活力的天地。 但是， 这种? 不同? 的实质是什么呢？仅仅扩展交响乐的节目是不够的。吉尔伯特和交响乐要想取得成功， 必须首先改变美国旧的管弦乐和它们想吸引的新的听众之间的关系。 译文 2 当列姆? 麦克杰八月份从美国银行任上离职时，他的解释确实令人意外。与通常会用的模糊理 由不同的是，他直率地说，他离开是为了找一家公司当管理者，而那是他一向就有的追求。他说， 作出这一选择纯属个人原因。两周之内，他与哈佛财务服务集团的董事会实现了首次会谈，这一集 团在 9 月 29 日聘他担任 CEO。 麦克杰说，他离开时并没有确定的目标，这使他得以思考自己究竟想管理什么样的公司。这同 时也可以让他向外界展示自己的魄力。无独有偶（并不只有他才有这种雄心） 。最近几周，雅芳公 司和美国联邦快递公司的第二执行官都离开自己的公司，他们的解释都是想当 CEO。由于股东施 压，董事会需要审查继承人方案，还没有被准许离开的这几位执行官肯定希望事情早点出来结果。 商业环境复杂异常，这使得高级经理人员不愿用模糊的声明来损害自己的名声。 随着经济开始出现复苏的迹象，这些希望离任者可能在还没有找到下家时就跳槽。根据? 登记 册? 研究机构的报告，在第三季度，CEO 营业额从一年前开始下降了 23%，把那些紧跟在这些领导 人身后的董事会也弄得神经兮兮。由于经济复苏，那些有抱负的领导人将大有机会。 放弃高级职位去寻找更好的职位，这种决定是非同寻常的，过去可不常见。多年来，执行官和 猎头们都坚持认为，最好的 CEO 候选人需要去挖别人的墙角才能得到（而不是那些主动离开原岗 位的人） 。某某猎头说，当董事会还没有委托我先去找一个还在任上的 CEO 时，我不能去考虑那些 我在网上一搜就有的人。 那些没有工作去向就跳槽的人不会总是很快找到理想岗位。十年前爱伦? 马拉姆从 T 公司领导 人的位子上退下，也是为了当一个 CEO。一年前她才成为一家小型电子交易所的领导人。罗伯特 在 2005 年为了当 CEO 而离开，他最终在一家重要的财务机构找到这种工作是在三年之后。 许多招聘人表示，对于那些最好的演员来说，旧的耻辱正在淡忘。财务危机使得在两个工作机 会之间进行选择或者离开更坏的工作这样的行为变得可以接受。? 传统规则是，最好呆在你原来的 地方，但现在这种规则被从根本上颠覆了。? 一个猎头说，? 在一个地方呆得越久，就越容易受损。 ? 译文 3 在过去，销售成功的基本法则是：种瓜得瓜，一分耕耘一分收获。现在不同了。传统的付出方 式（媒介，指企业付钱给电视台做广告或者报社做报刊广告）?? 电视购物和印刷广告?? 虽然仍占 主要地位， 但是现在的企业可以开发出更多的替代这些媒介的形式。 对产品有热情的用户可能通过 给在自己网站上注册的顾客发关于产品和商品的电邮的提醒， 来建立自己的媒介。 这样用户现在接 近了广阔的媒介因素，这些因素超越了传统的付费媒介。 付费并占有的媒介， 是被想促销自己产品的商人控制的。 而对于白捡的媒介 （免费的媒介报道） 而言，这种商人的角色仅是作为响应用户需求的第一环（直接面对用户的不是他们） 。但是在一些 案例中，一个商人拥有的媒介成为另一个商人的付费媒介（但有时候，促销产品的商人也直接面对
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用户，即把别人占有的媒介暂时变成自己占有的媒介） 。例如，当一个电子商务零售商在自己的网 站上出售广告空间时， 就是如此。 我们把这种出售的媒介定义为拥有的媒介。 这种 （出售空间式的） 拥有的媒介是如此强大普遍，以致于其他团体把他们的希望（满意；内容；电子商务发动机）寄托 在这种环境中。这种（寄托）趋势虽然依然在婴儿期，但我们相信这种从零售商和旅行提供商（如 航空公司、旅馆）有效起步的趋势会越来越强劲。例如强生建立了一个婴儿中心，这是一种杰出的 媒介资产，可用于推销提升配套产品，包括那些有竞争力的产品。除了带来利润，除了由于其他商 人的到场可以使这个地方显得客观可信， 以及给各个公司有机会了解有关其他公司需求的有价值的 信息，还能有利于拓展所有公司都关心的用户交易。 这类戏剧性的技术革新给商人带来数量越来越多（种类也越来越多）的通信机会的同时，也同 样会提高风险。因为热情的用户会更快、更形象、更有破坏力地表达自己的反对，这种被绑架的媒 介，与上述的免费利用的媒介背道而驰（不是商人所希望出现的） 。此时，媒介就像人质一样，成 为敌人可用的财产或者发起的一次行动（敌人有用户、其他竞争对手、对某商标或产品向来没有好 话的社会活动家） 。例如，社会网络中的成员正在意识到他们可以绑架媒介，来对建立媒介的那些 商人施加压力。 如果这种事情发生了， 热情的用户就会努力劝说其他人抵制产品， 使得目标公司声名处于危险 之中。此时，公司的反应往往不会足够快，也不会足够理性，学习曲线将会变得很陡（学习曲线是 表示单位产品生产时间与所生产的产品总数量之间的关系的一条曲线。 一般情况下， 产品总量越大， 单个产品生产时间越短。 也可以表示工人一定时间所犯错误数量与练习时间的关系， 一般练习时间 越长，单位时间内错误越少。这里的曲线陡时大约表示相同产量规模下，现在比原来单个产品所消 耗的资源更多，或者说相同练习程度下，一定时间错误更多。总之，是比原来更糟糕了） 。例如丰 田汽车， 今年早些时候通过相对来说较快和精心策划的行动从车辆召回危机中把损尽量降下来， 丰 田的行动包括努力请用户进土威特这样的地方，挖掘社会新闻的利用等等。 译文 4 毫无疑问，作为有煸动性的杂志封面故事，詹尼弗西尼尔的深刻见解??? 我爱我的孩子们，我 讨厌我目前的生活状况??? 可以唤起人们的谈兴。可是，人们不会想到，养孩子可不是一件完全令 人愉悦、生活充实的事情。西尼尔并没有简单地说，孩子使得父母既快乐又痛苦。她建议，我们需 要重新定义幸福： 幸福不应该像过去那样被定义为由一个个瞬间的快乐组合而成的东西； 我们应该 把幸福视为一种过去的状态。尽管抚养孩子的日子漫长难熬，令人筋疲力尽，但是西尼尔认为，正 是那些心绪沉重的时刻，日后却给我们带来由衷的欣喜。 杂志封面上一位有魅力的母亲抱着一个可爱的婴儿， 这种圣母与圣子的图画这周在报摊上可不 止西尼尔这一起。例如杂志上讲到最近刚收养孩子的母亲?? 有时是刚变成单身母亲的人?? 桑德拉 布鲁克，以及那种很常见的? 詹尼弗阿尼斯顿怀孕了? 的新闻。实际上，每周都有至少一位名流母 亲、或者准母亲在杂志上笑迎读者。 在一个坚持不懈地倡导生育的社会中， 承认自己后悔生育孩子就相当于承认自己赞同谋杀宠物 猫， 这难道不值得反思吗？把父母亲的后悔与孩子的后悔相提并论 （可能指把作为孩子家长的那种 辛苦产生的悔恨理解为根源出在孩子身上，从而产生关于生下孩子的后悔） ，这显然并不合理。 （因 此） 不情愿养孩子的父母很少会反思自己是否应该养育孩子。 但是那不幸福的无孩子的人却为类似 ? 孩子是世上唯一最可珍惜的东西? 这样的信息所烦恼。显然，他们的不幸必须通过生儿育女才能 得以消除。 当然，在美国周刊与人这样的杂志上所提供的? 社会名流父母亲? 现象是不切实际的。特别是 当? 父母亲? 是布鲁克这样的单身母亲时更是如此。多项研究表明，有孩子的父母很少比没有孩子 的夫妇更快乐， 而单亲家庭中的家长烦愁尤甚。 这并不奇怪， 因为一个人养一个孩子实在太麻烦了。 然而，你看看桑德拉和布列尼说的话：自己? 一个人? 养孩子，其实非常简单。 （她们当然觉得简单 了，因为她们是在周围人全天候的帮助下养着孩子的。 ） 当然， 要说很多人傻头傻脑地生育孩子， 只是因为里斯和安格丽娜这种名流使这种行为看上去 显得诱人，这也是不可能的?? 多数成年人其实理解：养孩子可不是像做个发型那么简单。但是这
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确实是一件很有趣的值得反思的事情：我们每周看的 ? 轻松快乐做父母? 的杂志封面，并不是通过 潜意识的方式里让我们对（没有孩子的）现实经历不满，而是这些图片在潜意识中让我们有那种想 成为雷切尔的心理，但实际上却使得我们看上去有点像詹尼弗亚尼斯顿。 （大约指雷切尔养孩子显 得潇洒，而詹尼弗生养孩子显得狼狈。 ） 2010 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题 Section I Directions: In 1924 America's National Research Council sent two engineers to supervise a series of industrial experiments at a large telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lighting 大1家 workers' productivity. Instead, the studies ended 大2家 giving their name to the "Hawthorne effect", the extremely influential idea that the Use of English
very 大3家 to being experimented upon changed subjects' behavior. The idea arose because of the 大4家 behavior of the women in the Hawthorne plant. According to 大5家 of the experiments, their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not 大6家 what was done in the experiment; 大7家 something was changed, productivity rose. A(n) 大8家 that they were being experimented upon seemed to be 大9家 to alter workers' behavior 大10家 itself. After several decades, the same data were 大11家 to econometric the analysis. Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store 大12家 the descriptions on record, no systematic 大13家 was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting. It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to 大14家 interpretation of what happed. 大15家 , lighting was always changed on a Sunday. When work started again on Monday, output 大16家 rose compared with the previous Saturday and 17 to
rise for the next couple of days. 大18家 , a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers 大19家 to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case, before 大20家 a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged "Hawthorne effect" is hard to pin down. 1. [A] affected [B] achieved [C] extracted [D] restored
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2. [A] at
[B] up [C] with [D] off [B] sight [C] act [D] proof [C] mischievous [D] ambiguous [B] perplexing
3. [A] truth
4. [A] controversial 5. [A] requirements
[B] explanations [C] accounts [D] assessments
6. [A] conclude [B] matter [C] indicate [D] work 7. [A] as far as [B] for fear that [C] in case that [D] so long as 8. [A] awareness [B] expectation [C] sentiment 9. [A] suitable [B] excessive 10. [A] about 11. [A] compared [B] for [C] on [D] by [B] shown [C] subjected [D] conveyed [D] illusion [C] enough [D] abundant
12. [A] contrary to [B] consistent with [C] parallel with [D] peculiar to 13. [A] evidence [B] guidance 14. [A] disputable [C] implication [D] source [B] enlightening [C] reliable [D] misleading [D] suddenly
15. [A] In contrast [B] For example [C] In consequence [D] As usual 16. [A] duly [B] accidentally [C] unpredictably 17. [A] failed 20. [A] breaking Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage. It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies. We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. ? So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,? Newman wrote, ? that I am tempted to define
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[B] ceased [C] started [D] continued [B] climbing [C] surpassing [D] hitting
Section IIReading Comprehension
? journalism?as ? a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are.?? Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England? s foremost classical-music critics, a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists. Is there any chance that Cardus? s criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote. Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat. 21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that [A] arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers. [B] English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews. [C] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers. [D] young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies. 22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War II were characterized by [A] free themes. [B] casual style. [C] elaborate layout. [D] radical viewpoints. 23. Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on? [A] It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals.[B] It is contemptible for writers to be journalists. [C] Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism. [D] Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing. 24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs? [A] His music criticism may not appeal to readers today. [B] His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute. [C] His style caters largely to modern specialists.[D] His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition. 25. What would be the best title for the text? [A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days [C] Mournful Decline of Journalism Text 2 Over the past decade, thousands of patents have been granted for what are called business methods. Amazon.com received one for its "one-click" online payment system. Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy. One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box. Now the nation's top patent court appears completely ready to scale back on business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago. In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.S. court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it would use a particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known , is "a very big deal", says Dennis D. Crouch of the University of Missouri School of law.
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[B] The Lost Horizon in Newspapers [D] Prominent Critics in Memory
It "has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents." Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice. The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court's judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should "reconsider" its state street Bank ruling. The Federal Circuit's action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for "inventions" that are obvious. The judges on the Federal circuit are "reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court", says Harold C. Wegner, a patent attorney and professor at George Washington University Law School. 26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of [A] their limited value to business [C] the possible restriction on their granting [A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit [A] loss of good will [C] change of attitude [B] their connection with asset allocation [D] the controversy over authorization [B] It involves a very big business transaction [D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S.
27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?
28. The word "about-face" (Line 1, Para 3) most probably means [B] increase of hostility [D] enhancement of dignity [B] are often unnecessarily issued [D] increase the incidence of risks
29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents [A] are immune to legal challenges [C] lower the esteem for patent holders
30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text? [A] A looming threat to business-method patents[B] Protection for business-method patent holders [C] A legal case regarding business-method patents [D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents Text 3 In his book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell argues that social epidemics are driven in large part by the acting of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials, who are unusually informed, persuasive, or well-connected. The idea is intuitively compelling, but it doesn't explain how
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ideas actually spread. The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible sounding but largely untested theory called the "two step flow of communication": Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those selected people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a cursory search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can drive trends In their recent work, however, some researchers have come up with the finding that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact, they don't seem to be required of all. The researchers' argument stems from a simple observing about social influence, with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey? whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal, influence? even the most influential members of a population simply don't interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrity influentials who, according to the two-step-flow theory, are supposed to drive social epidemics by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected, must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example from the initial influential prove resistant, for example the cascade of change won't propagate very far or affect many people. Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers studied the dynamics of populations manipulating a number of variables relating of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people's ability to influence others and their tendency to be influenced. Our work shows that the principal requirement for what we call "global cascades"? the widespread propagation of influence through networks ?is the presence not of a few influentials but, rather, of a critical mass of easily influenced people, each of whom adopts, say, a look or a brand after being exposed to a single adopting neighbor. Regardless of how influential an individual is locally, he or she can exert global influence only if this critical mass is available to propagate a chain reaction. 31. By citing the book The Tipping Point, the author intends to [A] analyze the consequences of social epidemics[B] discuss influentials' function in spreading ideas [C] exemplify people's intuitive response to social epidemics [D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials. 32. The author suggests that the "two-step-flow theory" [A] serves as a solution to marketing problems[B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends [C] has won support from influentials[D] requires solid evidence for its validity 33. What the researchers have observed recently shows that [A] the power of influence goes with social interactions [B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media
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[C] influentials have more channels to reach the public [D] most celebrities enjoy wide media attention 34. The underlined phrase "these people" in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who [A] stay outside the network of social influence[B] have little contact with the source of influence [C] are influenced and then influence others [A] The eagerness to be accepted [C] The readiness to be influenced Text 4 Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public. Behind the scenes, they have been taking aim at someone else: the accounting standard-setters. Their rules, moan the banks, have forced them to report enormous losses, and it's just not fair. These rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch. Unfortunately, banks' lobbying now seems to be working. The details may be unknowable, but the independence of standard-setters, essential to the proper functioning of capital markets, is being compromised. And, unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers, reviving the banking system will be difficult. After a bruising encounter with Congress, America's Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) rushed through rule changes. These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long-term assets in their income statement. Bob Herz, the FASB's chairman, cried out against those who "question our motives." Yet bank shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls "the use of judgment by management." European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) do likewise. The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning, but the pressure to fold when it completes it reconstruction of rules later this year is strong. Charlie McCreevy, a European commissioner, warned the IASB that it did "not live in a political vacuum" but "in the real word" and that Europe could yet develop different rules. It was banks that were on the wrong planet, with accounts that vastly overvalued assets. Today they argue that market prices overstate losses, because they largely reflect the temporary illiquidity of markets, not the likely extent of bad debts. The truth will not be known for years. But bank's shares trade below their book value, suggesting that investors are skeptical. And dead markets partly reflect the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for fear of booking losses, yet are reluctant to buy all those supposed bargains. To get the system working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with. America's new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive. Successful markets require independent and even combative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB have been exactly that, cleaning up rules on stock options and pensions, for example, against hostility from special interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting pressure to make more concessions. 36. Bankers complained that they were forced to [A] follow unfavorable asset evaluation rules [B] collect payments from third parties
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[D] are influenced by the initial influential [B] The impulse to influence others [D] The inclination to rely on others
35. what is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence?
[C] cooperate with the price managers [A] the diminishing role of management [C] the banks' long-term asset losses [A] keep away from political influences. [C] act on their own in rule-setting. [A] misinterpreted market price indicators
[D] reevaluate some of their assets. [B] the revival of the banking system [D] the weakening of its independence [B] evade the pressure from their peers. [D] take gradual measures in reform. [B] exaggerated the real value of their assets
37. According to the author , the rule changes of the FASB may result in
38. According to Paragraph 4, McCreevy objects to the IASB's attempt to
39. The author thinks the banks were "on the wrong planet" in that they [C] neglected the likely existence of bad debts. [D] denied booking losses in their sale of assets. 40. The author's attitude towards standard-setters is one of [A] satisfaction. Part B Directions: For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G and fill them into the numbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraph E has been correctly placed. There is one paragraph which does not fit in with the text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (10 points) [A] The first and more important is the consumer's growing preference for eating out; the consumption of food and drink in places other than homes has risen from about 32 percent of total consumption in 1995 to 35 percent in 2000 and is expected to approach 38 percent by 2005. This development is boosting wholesale demand from the food service segment by 4 to 5 percent a year across Europe, compared with growth in retail demand of 1 to 2 percent. Meanwhile, as the recession is looming large, people are getting anxious. They tend to keep a tighter hold on their purse and consider eating at home a realistic alternative. [B] Retail sales of food and drink in Europe's largest markets are at a standstill, leaving European grocery retailers hungry for opportunities to grow. Most leading retailers have already tried e-commerce, with limited success, and expansion abroad. But almost all have ignored the big, profitable opportunity in their own backyard: the wholesale food and drink trade, which appears to be just the kind of market retailers need. [C] Will such variations bring about a change in the overall structure of the food and drink market? Definitely not. The functioning of the market is based on flexible trends dominated by potential buyers. In other words, it is up to the buyer, rather than the seller, to decide what to buy .At any rate, this change will ultimately be acclaimed by an ever-growing number of both domestic and international consumers, regardless of how long the current consumer pattern will take hold. [D] All in all, this clearly seems to be a market in which big retailers could profitably apply their scale, existing infrastructure and proven skills in the management of product ranges, logistics, and marketing intelligence. Retailers that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe may well expect to rake in substantial profits thereby. At least, that is how it looks as a whole. Closer inspection reveals important differences among the biggest national markets, especially in their customer segments and wholesale structures, as well as the competitive dynamics of individual food and drink categories. Big retailers must understand these differences before they can identify the segments of European wholesaling in which their particular abilities might unseat smaller but entrenched
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[C] objectiveness [D] sympathy
competitors. New skills and unfamiliar business models are needed too. [E] Despite variations in detail, wholesale markets in the countries that have been closely examined? France, Germany, Italy, and Spain? are made out of the same building blocks. Demand comes mainly from two sources: independent mom-and-pop grocery stores which, unlike large retail chains, are two small to buy straight from producers, and food service operators that cater to consumers when they don't eat at home. Such food service operators range from snack machines to large institutional catering ventures, but most of these businesses are known in the trade as "horeca": hotels, restaurants, and cafes. Overall, Europe's wholesale market for food and drink is growing at the same sluggish pace as the retail market, but the figures, when added together, mask two opposing trends. [F] For example, wholesale food and drink sales come to $268 billion in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom in 2000? more than 40 percent of retail sales. Moreover, average overall margins are higher in wholesale than in retail; wholesale demand from the food service sector is growing quickly as more Europeans eat out more often; and changes in the competitive dynamics of this fragmented industry are at last making it feasible for wholesalers to consolidate. [G] However, none of these requirements should deter large retailers (and even some large good producers and existing wholesalers) from trying their hand, for those that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe stand to reap considerable gains. 41 Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value. Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and, if its stability depends on its integrity, they are entitled to continuance. When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to love it .We invert excuses to give it economic importance. At the beginning of century songbirds were supposed to be disappearing. (46) Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them. the evidence had to be economic in order to be valid. It is painful to read these round about accounts today. We have no land ethic yet, (47) but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us. A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds. (48) Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on "worthless" species. Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded foresters because they grow too slowly, or have too low a sale vale to pay as timber crops. (49) In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such, within reason. To sum up: a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided. (50) It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land
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? E? 45
community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning. It assumes, falsely, I think, that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic parts. Section ? Part A 51. Directions: You are supposed to write for the postgraduate association a notice to recruit volunteers for an international conference on globalization, you should conclude the basic qualification of applicant and the other information you think relative. You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "postgraduate association" instead. Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should 1) describe the drawing briefly, 2) explain its intended meaning, and then 3) give your comments. You should write neatly on ANSHWER SHEET 2. (20 points) 2010 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题答案 Section I: Use of English (10 points) 1. A 6. B 11. C 16. A 2. 7. B D 3. 8. C A 4. B 9. C 5. C 10. D 15. B 20. D Writing
12. A 17. D
13. A 18. C
14. D 19. B
Section II: Reading Comprehension (60 points) Part A (40 points) 21. B 26. D 31. B 36. A 22. C 27. D 32. D 37. D 23. D 28. C 33. A 38. C 24. A 29. B 34. C 39. B 25. A 30. A 35. C 40. A
Part B (10 points) 41. B 42. F 43. D 44. G 45. A
Part C (10 points) 46.科学家们提出一些明显站不住脚的证据迅速来拯救，其大意是：如果鸟类无法控制害虫， 那么这些害虫就会吃光我们人类。 47. 但我们至少几乎也承认这样一点：不管鸟类是否给我们带来经济上的好处，但鸟类作为生 物其固有的权利应该继续存在。
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48. 曾几何时，生物学家们有点过度使用这个证据，即这些物种通过杀死体质弱者来保持猎物 的正常繁衍或 者这些生物捕杀的仅仅是毫无价值的物种。 49. 在欧洲，林业在生态方面更加发达，无商业价值的树种被看作是原生森林群落的一部分， 而得到合理的保护。 50. 这一系统易于忽视，因而最终会消除掉这个土地共同体里的许多要素(成员)，虽然这些要 素(成员)缺乏商业价值，但这些要素(成员)对这个共同体的健康运行来说是必要的。 Section III: Writing (30 points) Part A (10 points) 51. 参考范文 Volunteers Wanted/Needed An international conference on globalization will be held in the coming winter vacation. This conference will be organized by the Postgraduates?Association。 At present we will recruit 10 volunteers to work as assistants for this conference. The applicants are required to speak English fluently. Those who can speak another foreign language such as French or Japanese are preferable. In addition to the language skills, those volunteers are expected to be patient, helpful, open-minded with a loving heart. The volunteers will be provided free three meals a day as well as transportation from and back to the conference site。 Those who are interested in working as volunteers, please send your resume and application letter to the e-mail address firstname.lastname@example.org"> email@example.com. The Postgraduates? Association will contact those chosen candidates for an interview before Febulary, 1th。 We are sincerely waiting for you to join us! Postgraduates?Association Part B (20 points) 52. 参考范文 As is vividly depicted in the drawing, in the middle of the cartoon stands a hot pot, containing many Chinese cultural symbols, such as Beijing operas, Daoism, and some foreigh cultural symbols, etc. How impressive the drawing is in describing the common phenomenon that Chinese culture is becoming increasingly integrated into the world. The drawer? s intention seems to be highly self-evident and the meaning causes us to be thought-provoking。 It holds to be apparent that the cartoon is indicative of a pervasive phenomenon with regard to culture. When it comes to(一谈到) culture，its great impacts and benefits can? t be too estimated. As China opens to the outside world, our traditional culture is embracing the foreign culture, thus making our Chinese culture more diversified, colorful and internationalized just like a melting pot. What the picture conveys goes far beyond this. The fact that people from different countries are attracted to each other, indicating that to some extent different cultures can be accepted，respected，appreciated and shared internationally. Or put it in another way, Chinese unique culture can become international through worldwide cultural exchanges. Since the trend of globalization become irresistible, cultural integration can effectively improve mutual understanding and friendship among different countries. In my personal sense, Chinese national culture as priceless spiritual treasure should be preserved and cherished. Meanwhile，there are good reasons to embrace foreign cultures on the
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ground that those ideas from other cultures can provide different perspectives for us to observe the world in the long run. However， confronted with a different culture， we should be sensible enough to absorb its essence and to resist its dark side. Only in this way can we promote cultural integration positively, thus making our motherland dimensional, colorful and vigorous. (298 words)
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