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形容词和副词 2015


语法复习(四)

形容词和副词

1.形容词的分类 (一) 形容词
1). 单字形容词:big, pretty, cool, gentle… 2) 派生形容词:加后缀构成形容词

-able: reasonable, fashionable, acceptable,
-ful: harmful, c

areful, cheerful, colorful

-less: homeless, careless,
-y: rainy, dirty, snowy, healthy, wealthy -al: cultural, traditional, natural -ed: crowded, determined, devoted

-ly结尾的形容词: brotherly(友爱的) deadly(致命的) earthly(世俗的) friendly(友好的) likely(可能的) leisurely(空闲的) lovely(可爱的)manly(男子气概的) weekly(每周一次的) yearly(每年一次 的)daily(每日的)ugly(丑陋的), silly (愚蠢的), timely (及时的), early (早 的)

3.分词形容词

-ed: excited, frightened, disappointed
-ing: exciting, frightening, disappointing 4. 复合形容词

形容词+名词-ed: kind-hearted, blue-eyed
形容词+形容词:red-hot, dark-blue,

形容词/副词+V-ing: good-looking, easy-going, hard-working, 名词+形容词:life-long, world-famous
数词+名词(单数):ten-year, five-minute

副词+V-ed: newly-born, newly-built , hard-won 名词+V-ed: man-made, hand-made, snow- covered 2.形容词的作用 1.Groups of modern buildings have set up along the river. 定语:修饰名词 2.The story was so humorous that they burst out laughing. 表语:在系动词后 3.The movie makes him moved, though he has seen it for the second time. 宾补:表示宾语的状态

4.He spent three days in the snow, cold and hungry. 状语:表伴随的状态

1.某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛 指一类人,如the dead,the living, the rich,the poor,the blind, the hungry等。 我们应该尊老爱幼。 We should respect the old and care for the young. 注 意 灾后,死者被掩埋在废墟下。 After the disaster, the dead were buried under the ruins.

2.修饰由不定代词one、no、any、some和every构 成的复合词如anything、something等时通常后置。 我有重要的事情告诉你。
I have something important to tell you.

形容词和副词都有级的变化 1) 单音节形容词的比较级和最高级形式是在词 尾加 -er 和 -est 构成。 cheap---cheaper---cheapest tall---taller---tallest great --- greater --- greatest 2) 以 -e 结尾的单音节形容词的比较级和最高 级是在词尾加 -r 和 -st 构成。 wide --- wider --- widest nice---nicer---nicest late---later---latest

3) 以 -y 结尾,但 -y 前是辅音字母的形容词的 比较级和最高级是把 -y 去掉,加上 -ier 和-est 构成. happy --- happier --- happiest busy--- busier---busiest early--- earlier--- earliest healthy --- healthier --- healthiest 4) 以一个辅音字母结尾其前面的元音字母发 短元音的形容词的比较级和最高级是双写该 辅音字母然后再加 -er和-est。 big --- bigger --- biggest hot--- hotter---hottest

5) 双音节和多音节形容词的比较级和最高级需用 more 和 most 加在形容词前面来构成。
beautiful (原级) more beautiful most beautiful difficult (原级) more difficult most difficult

特别: clever --- cleverer --- cleverest narrow---narrower---narrowest

常用的不规则变化的形容词的比较级和最高级: 原级 比较级 最高级 good better best bad worse worst ill worse worst many more most much more most little less least far farther farthest far further furthest old older oldest old elder eldest

形容词和副词级变化的运用:(总复习书 P214) colder 1.It is _________(cold) today than it was yesterday. 2.He answered the question more carefully ________________(careful) than I did. 3.The harder ______(hard) you learn, the more you know. colder and _________(cold). colder 4.It’s getting _______ more and ______expensive. more 5.Vegetables become ______ bigger 6.Which is ______(big), Canada or China? the taller one. 7. Of the two boys, he is ______

never 与比较级连用,可表示最高级。

I have never heard a better voice. Jim is the tallest in our class.
Jim is the tallest of the three. Which is the biggest, a tiger, a dog or a monkey ?
# Huanghe is the second longest river in China.

as mine. This box is as big ______

as that one. This building looks not so (as) high _____

(二)副词
(一)构成: 1.形容词+ly: quickly slowly traditionally hopefully 2.本身是副词:rather, quite, very, often,fast… (三)基本用法:修饰动词,形容词,副词,或 者整个句子。

mentally 1.He must be __________(mental) disabled. 2. “ But such a small thing couldn’t possibly _______(possible) destroy a village.” happily 3.They run out _________(happy).

(三)-ly副词的变化规则 形容词+-ly变副词口诀:
一般直接加,“元e”去e加,“辅y”改i加, “le”结尾e改y。

quick- quickly true- truly happy- happily possible- possibly
1.绝大多数辅音字母加e结尾的形容词直接加-ly。 polite-politely; wide-widely; wise-wisely; nice-nicely immediate-immediately

2.以“y”结尾的,且读音为 / i /, 先将“y”改成 “i”,再加“ly” happy-happily; heavy-heavily; angryangrily; busy-busily
但是如果读音为 / ai /, 直接加ly,如:drydryly; sly-slyly; shy---shyly 3.以ic 结尾的词,加ally,如:

economic-economically; basic-basically; scientificscientifically; automatic-automatically; energeticenergetically; 但是public-publicly 例外。

4. –le结尾的形容词,去e加-ly
terribleterribly possibly

possible-

comfortable- comfortably

simpleprobablegentle-

simply probably gently


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