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高中英语必修一课文详解Book


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必修一 Unit 4 I. Vocabulary
earthquake n. 地震 quake n. 地震 right away 立刻;马上 well n. 井 vt. & vi. (使)开裂;破裂 smelly farmyard pipe adj. 发臭的;有臭味的 n. 农场;农家 n. 管;导管 n. 突然爆裂;爆发 millio

n n. 百万 event n. 事件;大事 as if 仿佛;好像 at an end 结束;终结 nation n. 民族;国家;国民 canal n. 运河;水道 ruin n. 废墟;毁灭 vt. 毁灭;使破


Earthquakes 地震
suffering n. 苦难;痛苦 extreme adj. 极度的 injure 害 survivor n. 幸存者;生还者 destroy vt. 破坏;毁坏;消灭 brick n. 砖;砖块 dam n. 水坝;堰堤 track n. 轨道;足迹;痕迹 useless
的 adj.无用的;无效的;无益

title n. 标题;头衔;资格 reporter bar damage frighten n. 记者 n. & vt.损失;损害 vt. 使惊吓;吓唬 adj. 令人恐惧的 n. 祝贺 n. 条;棒;条状物

vt. (意外事故)损害;伤

crack n. 裂缝;劈啪声

frightening congratulation

frightened adj. 受惊的; ~s (复数)贺词 judge n. 裁判员;法官 vt. 断定;判断;判决 sincerely adv. 真诚地; 真挚地 express vt. 表示;表达 n. 快车;速递 outline n. 要点;大纲;轮廓 headline dig out bury n. 报刊的大字标题 掘出;发现 cyclist n. 骑自行车的人 vt. 埋葬;掩埋;隐藏

burst vi.爆裂;爆发

shock 动

vt. & vi. (使)震惊;震

n. 休克;打击;震惊 rescue trap n. & vt. 援救;营救 vt. 使陷入困境 n. 陷阱;困境 electricity n. 电; 电流; 电学 disaster n. 灾难;灾祸 mine n. 矿;矿山;矿井

in ruins 严重受损;破败不堪 dirt n. 污垢;泥土

steam n. 蒸汽;水汽

miner n. 矿工 shelter n. 掩蔽; 掩蔽处; 避身 处 a (great) number of 许多;大量 的

II.

Reading A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN’T SLEEP 地球不眠之夜 Strange things were happening in the countryside of northeast Hebei.译文:在 河北东北农村发生奇怪的事情。For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell, rose and fell. 译文:有三天时间村里的井水一会儿上升一会儿下降。Farmers noticed that the well walls had deep cracks in them.译文:农民们注意到井壁上出现了深深的裂缝。 A smelly gas came out of the cracks.译文:裂缝中散发出难闻的气味。 【注释:smelly 发出难闻气味的;有 臭味的 The toilets in that restaurant were horribly smelly.那个餐馆的卫生间气味难闻。 】 In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat.译文:在农家宅院,
小鸡, 甚至连猪都紧张的不吃食。 【注释: ① too … to …:太…而不能… tired to go any further.他显然太疲劳, 一步也走不动了。 eg. 1) He was evidently too 2) This box is too heavy to be lifted.

这箱子太重搬不起来。 ②注意:在 be + too + adj. + to 结构中,该结构中的形容词主要是表示心情, 如:ready, glad, surprised, happy, eager, willing 或表示描述性的,如 good, kind, true 等,则 too 表示“很, 非常”之意。 易犯语法错误。 eg. 1) Beginners are too apt to make mistakes in grammar. 初学者极 eg. You cannot be too careful to cross the street. 2)We are all too pleased to listen to the opinions of other.我们非常乐意听别

人的意见。 ③ cannot too 不至于过度, 越…越好

你过马路的时候,越小心越好。 】 Mice ran out of the fields

looking for placs to hide.
eg. When the cat’ s away

译文: 老鼠从田间跑出来寻找躲藏的地方。 【注释: ① mice 是 mouse 的复数形式

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the mice will play.猫儿不在,鼠儿自在(指管事的不在,下面的人自由自在). ② looking for places to hide 是现在分词,作伴随状语,表示从田间跑出来时伴有的一种情况。用现在分词作状语,可以表示 时间、伴随、方式、原因、结果等,与主句主语之间的逻辑关系为主谓关系。 有关现在分词作状语的考题 汇集:

1. (09 申-31) A small plane crashed into a hillside five miles east of the city, ____ all four people on board. A. killed B. killing C. kills D. to kill 2. (09 湘-25) At the age of 29, Dave was a worker, ____ in a small apartment near Boston and ______ what to do about his future. A. living; wondering B. lived; wondering C. lived; wondered D. living; wondered 3. (09 川-10) ______ many times, he finally understood it. A. Told B. Telling C. Having told D. Having been told 4. (09 辽-22) When we visited my old family home, memory came _____ back. A. flooding B. to flood C. flood D. flooded 5. (08 全 II-9) —— What are you reading, Tom? —— I’m not really reading, just _____ the pages. A. turning off B. turning around C. turning over D. turning up 6. (08 京-24) ______ that she was going off to sleep, I asked if she’d like that little doll
on her bed.

A. Seeing B. To see C. See D. Seen 7. (08 重-29) _____ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed 8. (08 陕-14) _____ around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird’s Nest for the 2008 Olympic Games. A. Having shown B. To be shown C. Having been shown D. To show 9. (08 闽-22) ____ in the queue for half an hour, the old man suddenly realized he had left the cheque in the car. A. Waiting B. To wait C. Having waited D. To have waited 10. (08 皖-30) ____ in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring. A. To walk B. Walking C. Walked D. Having walked 11. (08 浙-10) ______ that he was in great danger, Eric walked deeper into the forest. A. Not realized B. Not to realize C. Not realizing D. Not to have realized 12. (08 鲁 -35) Lucy ’ s new job paid twice as much as she had made ____ in the restaurant. A. working B. work C. to work D. worked 13. (08 辽-27) He was busy writing a story, only ____ once in a while to smoke a cigarette. A. to stop B. stopping C. to have stopped D. having stopped 14. (08 申 30) My sister, an inexperienced rider, was found sitting on the bicycle ___ to balance it.

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A. having tried B. trying C. to try D. tried 15. (07 津-6) The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance, ___ in the natural light during the day. A. to let B. letting C. let D. having let 16. (07 湘-29) As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not ____, and asked myself what I was going to do. A. moved B. moving C. to move D. being moved 17. (06 皖-21) My cousin came to see me from the country, ____ me a full basket of fresh fruits. A. brought B. bringing C. to bring D. had brought 18. (06 浙-5) When ____ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities. A. compared B. being compared C. comparing D. having compared 19. (05 全 I-32) The storm left, ____ a lot of damage to this area. A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused 20. (05 鄂-26) _____ from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world.
A. Being separated B. Having separated C. Having been separated D. To be separated

21. (05 鲁-27) Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ____ a record US $ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching Keys: 1-10:BADAC ADCCB 11-21: CABBB BBCDC B】 Fish jumped out of their bowls and ponds.译文:鱼突然从洼地池塘跳出来。 【注释:jump out of 突然离开; 跳离 eg. He jumped out of bed as soon as he was called.一听到有人叫他, 他立即跳下床来。 】 At about 3:00 am on July 28, 1976, some people saw bright lights in the sky.译文:1976 年 7 月 28 日,大约在凌晨 3 点, 一些人看见天空中出现一些 (紫色) 很强的光亮。 【注释: bright lights 强光。 】 The sound of planes could be heard outside the city of Tangshan even when no planes were in the sky.
译文:即便当时天上没有飞机,但人们依然能听到唐山市外飞机(的轰鸣声) 。 【注释:even when + 从句: 表示“即使当…” eg. Even when you are asleep , you are using energy . 甚至在你睡觉时,你也 在消耗能量。 】In the city, the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.译文: 在市内,一些建筑里的自来水管破裂、喷水。 But the one million people of the city, who

thought little of these events, were asleep as usual that night.译文:可是,那天晚
上,该市的一百万人,对此事没有多想,像往常一样睡着了。 【注释:①think little of (= think nothing of) 不重视; 不加思索 eg. He thinks nothing of walking ten miles.她认为走十英里路没什么。 Think ② as usual 像往常一样 eg. highly of 尊重; think well of 对…有好感; think poorly of 低估;评价低; think ill of sth.认 为…不好; think no end of 极看重; think small of sb.瞧不起某人 I got up at six that morning as usual.像往常一样那天早上我六点起床。 】

At 3:42 am everything began to shake.译文:在 3 点 42 分,一切都开始摇晃。 It seemed as if the world was at an end!译文:那似乎是世界的末日(也可以说成:It seemed that the world
was at an end! = The world seemed to be at an end!) ! 【注释:as if 好像,似乎; 后跟从句时,可 根据表达的需要,既可以用陈述语气,也可以用虚拟语气, 但 It seems that…后面只跟陈述语气,不用 虚拟语气; 另外,seem 后出现从句时,seem 的主语只能是 It,不能用人或物。 eg. Why doesn't she buy me a drink? It isn't as if she had no money!她为什么不给我买一点饮料?好像她没钱似的! 注意: It seems/ seemed that/ as if…“看来……”; 该句可用从句中的主语作句子的主语,构成“sb. seems/

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seemed + 不定式”结构。如: It seemed that he was burying something. = He seemed to be burying something. 辨析: seem, look, appear we have missed the chance. 这三个词均有“看来,似乎”之意。但⑴seem 指从迹象上作 出的判断, 虽有一定的根据, 但还是不能令人完全相信, 其后可接不定式或 that 从句。 如: It seems that ⑵look 指凭一个人的视觉对人或物作出判断,但含有较多的真实性,即看 上去如此而实际也是如此; 其后不接不定式或 that 从句。 如: You look tired after a night’ s hard work. ⑶appear 指从外表上看上去似乎如此,而实际上是否如此不得而知;其后可以接不定式或 that 从句。如: She appears not to like you. A. There seems that A. It seems that 试题: B. It seems to be C. There seems to be C. He seems that D. It seems that 】 1) Our club is open to adults only. _____ your children have entered without permission. 2) _____ he knew nothing about her. B. It seems as if D. He seems as if
th

Eleven kilometres directly below the city the greatest earthquake of the 20 century had begun.译文:就在该市地下 11 公里处,20 世纪最强的地震开始了。 It was felt in Beijing,

which is more than two hundred kilometres away.译文:就连两百公里以外的北京也有震感。
【注释: which is more than two hundred kilometres away 是非限制性定语从句, which 指代前面的 Beijing。 在非限制性定语从句中不能用 that 来代替 which. 在非限制性定语从句中要注意 which 与 as 的区别:⑴ 位臵关系:as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句的后面,也可以放在主句的前面;而 which 引导的非 限制性定语从句只能放在主句的后面。 ⑵代表语义:as 仅指代整个主句所表达的抽象概念,而 which 除 了指代前面的具体名词(如下面试题中 4、7、8、9)外还可以代指前面主句所表达的抽象概念(如下面试题 中的 1、2、3、5、6、 ) ;但当表示“正如”之意时,只能使用 as 来引导非限制性定语从句,如下面试题中 的第 10、11。考题汇集:

1. (09 全 II-17) My friend showed me around the town, ____ was very kind of him. A. which B. that C. where D. it 2. (09 鲁-24) Whenever I met her, _____ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. A. who B. which C. when D. that 3. (09 辽-23) They’ve won their last three matches, _____ I find a bit surprising actually. A. that B. when C. what D. which 4. (08 浙-8) Yesterday she sold her car, _____ she bought a month ago. A. when B. where C. that D. which 5. (07 湘-32) By serving others, a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself, ___ can be very eye-opening and rewarding. A. who B. which C. what D. that 6. (08 全 II-16) The road conditions there turned out to be very good, ____ was more than we could
expected.

A. as B. what C. which D. that 7. (08 苏-24) The Science Museum, _____ we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of London’s tourist attractions. A. which B. what C. that D. where 8. (07 浙-14) Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, _____ used to be poorly run, is now a successful
business.

A. that B. which C. who D. where 9. (05 鄂-29) Her sister has become a lawyer, _______ she wanted to be.

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A. who B. that C. what D. which 10. (09 津-14) I travel to the Binhai New Area by light railway every day, ____ do many businessmen who live in downtown Tianjin. A. as B. which C. when D. though 11. (06 津 12) The Beatles, ____ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool. A. what B. that C. how D. as Keys: 1-11: ABDDB CABDA D 】 One-third of the nation felt it.译文:全国三分之一有震感。 A huge crack that was eight kilometres long and thirty metres wide cut across houses, roads and canals.译文:
一条巨大的裂缝,8 公里长,30 米宽,将房屋、道路和管道切断。 【注释:cut across 抄近路穿过;遮断, 打断;与…相抵触 穿过田地。 eg. 1)He cut across the fields so as not to be late.为了不迟到, 他抄近路 3) His 2) Her loud voice cut across the conversation.她大嚷大叫, 打断了这次谈话。

ideas cut across mine on the subject.在这个问题上他的想法和我的不一致。 】 Steam burst from

holes in the ground.译文:蒸汽从地洞中喷出来。 Hard hills of rock became rivers of dirt. 译文:坚硬的岩石山丘变成灰土河道。 In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins.
译文: 在 15 秒钟内, 一座巨大的城市便成为废墟。 【注释: in ruins 严重受损; 破败不堪 lay in ruins after the earthquake.地震之后, 这座城市成为一片废墟。 eg. 1) The city 2)Our plans are in ruins.

我们的计划失败了。 】 The suffering of the people was extreme.译文:人民遭受的痛苦是极其 巨大的。

Two-thirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake. 译文:地震

中有三分之二的人死亡或受伤。 【注释:分数的表达格式为:分子用基数词,分母用序数词,当分子大于1 时分母序数词后加s.如:四分之一 one fourth; 五分之三 three fifths.】Thousands of families

were killed and many children were left without parents.译文:数以千计的家庭遇难,
许多孩子失去父母(成为孤儿) 。 【注释:①thousands of …数以千计的; handreds of …数以百计的; millions of …数以百万计的。 ②leave +宾语+补语(to do/ adj./ done/ doing/ 介词短语), eg. 1) You can leave me to deal with the matter.你可以让我去处理这事。 weak.生病使他很虚弱。 呀。 2) His illness has left him very 3) How careless you are to leave your room unlocked.没有锁门,你多粗心

4) His words left us talking all the day.他的话使我们谈论了一整天。 5) This left her without

a ray of hope.这使他感到没有一线希望。 】

The number of people who were killed or injured

reached more than 400,000.译文:死亡或受伤的人数达到 40 多万。 【注释:the number of …:…
的数目, …的数字; 当 the number of …作主语时谓语动词要用三单式形式。 Eg. The number of our class

is 55.

注意:a number of …意为“许多” ,后跟可数名词,作主语时谓语动词用非单数式形式。

Eg.

A number of new products have been successfully trial-produced.许多新产品已试制】

But how could the survivors believe it was natural?译文:可是,幸存者怎么能相信 那是自然的呢? Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed.译文:无论他们
往哪里看, 几乎一切都被毁坏。 【注释: everywhere 到处, 无论哪里(类似于 No matter where 或 wherever)。 eg. Everywhere she went she was fêted.无论走到哪儿,她都受到热情款待。 】 It was a city whose

hospitals, 75% of its factories and buildings and 90% of its homes were gone.译
文: 这座城市的医院、 75%的工厂和建筑以及 90%的家庭都没有了。 【注释:gone 不在的, 离去的 days later he was gone.两天后他就不在了。 eg. ⑴ Two ⑵ The bad old days are gone.糟糕的往昔已一去不返

了。 】 Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves.译文:砖头像秋天的红叶似的覆 盖在地面上。 No wind, however, could blow them away. 译文:可是,风吹不走它们。Two dams

fell and most of the bridges also fell or were not safe for travelling.译文:两个 大坝倒掉,大多数桥梁也都倒掉, (即便没有倒掉的)走上去也不安全。 The railway tracks were now

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useless pieces of steel. 译文:铁轨现在也成为无用的废铁。Tens of thousands of cows would never give milk again.译文: 数以万计的母牛再也不下奶了。 Half a million pigs and millions of chickens were dead. 译文:50 万头猪和数百万只鸡死掉。Sand now filled the wells instead of water. 译文:井里充满的是沙子而不是水。People were shocked.译文:人们都震惊了。 Then, later that afternoon, another big quake which was almost as strong as the first one shook Tangshan. 译文:随后,那天下午晚些时候,又一场大地震摇晃唐山,几乎与第一场一样强烈。 Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins.译文:一些营 救人员和医生被困在废墟下。More buildings fell down.译文: 又有更多的房子倒塌。Water, food, and electricity were hard to get.译文:很难搞到水、食物和电。 People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.译文:人们想知道这场灾难会持续多久。 【注释:① last vi.
持续, 延续 eg. The rain lasted quite a few days.雨一连下了好几天。 ② continue 持续 eg. This rain can’t continue for long.这场雨不会持续很久。 】

All hope was not lost.译文:希望并没有完全丧失。 Soon after the quakes, the army sent 150,000 soldiers to Tangshan to help the rescue workers.译文:地震后不久,部队 派 15 万战士到唐山帮助营救工作人员。 Hundreds of thousands of people were helped. 译文: 数以千万计的人得到救助。The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. 译文:部队组织队伍将那些受困的挖出来,并将死去的埋葬掉。To the north of the city, most of the 10,000 miners were rescued from the coal mines there.译文: 该市北部的 10,000 名矿工, 大多数从煤矿井下被救了出来。 Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.译文: 工作人员为那些房屋被毁的幸存者建庇护所。 Fresh water was taken to the city by train, truck and plane.译文:列车、卡车和飞机将淡水运送到该 市。 Slowly, the city began to breathe again.译文:慢慢地,该市又开始呼吸啦(又有了生
机) 。

重点句型:

1.In the farmyards,the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat.【精 提取】 too...to 意为“太……而不能……” ,表示否定意义。 【巧应用】 这孩子太 小,不够上学的年龄。 The child________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________. 答案:is too young to go to school 2.It seemed as if the world was at an end! 【精提取】 It looks/seems as if 看 起来好像……。 【巧应用】 看起来好像已经是春天了。 ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________spring already. 答案:It seems as if it were 3.Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed. 【精提取】 everywhere 在该句中用作从属连词,引导让步状语从句,意为“无论哪里;不论在什么地方” 。 【巧 应用】 乔丹所到之处都受到热烈地欢迎。 Jordan is warmly welcomed ________ ________ ________. 答案:everywhere he goes 4.As you know,this is the day the quake happened... 【精提取】 句中的 as 引导 非限制性定语从句,as 代替主句内容,在从句中作主语或宾语。 【巧应用】 据上周报 道,在这家外国公司的帮助下,他们要发射另一颗人造卫星。

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They would send up another satellite,________ ________ ________ ________ ________, with the help of the foreign company. 答案:as was reported last week 5. Now, _____ there has been a big earthquake. 现在,假想一下已经发生了一次大地 震。 答案:imagine 6. What do you think _______ _________ before an earthquake?你认为地震前会发生什 么事? 答案: may happen 7. _________ _______ ________ the world was at an end! 似乎是世界末日来临了! 答案:It seemed that 8. The park will also _________ those ____ helped the survivors.公园也将向那些 帮助过幸存者的人们致敬。 答案: honour; who destroy, ruin, damage

hurt, wound, injure prepare sth.; prepare for sth.

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