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高考英语定语从句用法讲解及专练


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高考英语定语从句用法讲解及专练 一.定义: 1.定语从句:修饰一个名词或代词的从句称为定语从句,一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。 2.关系词:引导定语从句的关联词成为关系词 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, w

hom, whose, as 等; 关系副词有 where, when, why 等。 关系词常有 3 个作用:1,引导定语从句。2,代替先行词。3,在定语从句中担当一个成分。 3 结构:先行词+关系词+从句 二.关系代词引导的定语从句 1.who 指人,在从句中做主语 (1) The boys who are playing football are from Class One. (2) Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way. 2. whom 指人,在定语从句中充当宾语,常可省略。 (1) Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus. (2) Mr. Ling is just the boy whom I want to see. 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语和非正式语体中常用 who 代替,可省略。 (3) The man who/whom you met just now is my friend. 3. which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略 (1) Football is a game which is liked by most boys. (2) This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. 4. that 指人时,相当于 who 或者 whom;指物时,相当于 which。在宾语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省 略。 (5) The number of the people that/who come to visit the city each year rises one million. (6) Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning? 5. whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语
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(1) He has a friend whose father is a doctor. (2) I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in. whose 指物时,常用限定词 名词+of which 或 of which+ 限定词 名词结构来代替 (3) The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. (4) The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. 三.介词+关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中做介词宾语时,从句常由介词+关系代词引导 (1) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous. (2) The school in which he once studied is very famous. (3) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for. (4) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked. 注意:1. 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用,如:look for, look after, take care of 等 (1) This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (T) (2) This is the watch for which I am looking. (F) 2. 若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时用 whom,不可用 who 或者 that,不可以省略;指物时用 which,不 能用 that,不可以省略;关系代词是所有格时用 whose (1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) (2) The man with who/that you talked is my friend. (F) (3) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T) (4) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F) 3.“介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词或者数词 (1) He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. (2) In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. (3) There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 4.限制性定语从句只能用 that 的几种情况
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1.当先行词是 some (something 除外),anything, everything, nothing,/ few, little,/all, none, 等代词时,或者是由 some, any, every, no,/ few, little,/ all, much /the very, the only,one of 等修饰时 (1) Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li has said? (2) There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the world. (3) All that can be done has been done. (4) There is little that I can do for you. (5) This is the very dictionary that I want to buy, (6) After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned. (7) Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting 注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用 who (4) Any man that/.who has a sense of duty won't do such a thing. 2. 当先行词被序数词修饰或本身是序数词 (1) The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 3. 当先行词被形容词最高级修饰或本身是形容词最高级 (1) This is the best film that I have seen. 4. 当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时

(1) Who is the man that is standing there? (2) Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 5. 当先行词既有人,也有物时 (1) Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned? 6. 在 There be 句型中 7.先行词在主句中做表语,或关系代词在从句中做表语。 经典习题: 1. Is this the factory __________ you visited the other day? A. that B. where C. in which D. the one 2. Is this factory __________ some foreign friends visited last Friday?
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A. that B. where C. which D. the one 3. Is this the factory __________ he worked ten years ago? A. that B. where C. which D. the one

四.关系副词引导的定语从句 1. when 指时间,在定语从句中做时间状语 (1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school. (2) The time when we got together finally came. 2. where 指地点,在定语从句中做地点状语 (1) Shanghai is the city where I was born. (2) The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 3. why 指原因,在定语从句中做原因状语 (1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. (2) I don't know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 注意:关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换 (1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear, (2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up. (3) Great changes have taken place in the city in which/where I was born. 五.限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 1.区别: 1) 形式:非限制性定语从句与先行词之间通常有逗号,而限制性定语从句与先行词之间则无逗号。

The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 2) 3) 关系:限制性定语从句与先行词的关系非常密切,是先行词不可缺少的部分;而非限制性定语从句在意义上 只是先行词的一个附加修饰语,对先行词只起进一步补充说明的作用。 先行词:限制性定语从句的先行词一般为单个的名词或代词,非限制性定语从句的先行词可以是整个句子或 其中的一部分。

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2.非限制性定语从句的“四个不能” 1) 2) 非限制性定语从句通常不能用 that 引导。 非限制性定语从句不能用 why 引导,要用 for which 代替。

I had told them the reason, for which I didn’t attend the meeting. 3) 4) 由“介词+关系代词”时,关系代词不能用 as。 指人的关系代词作宾语时用 whom,不能省略。

注意:区分以下几个句子的不同——理解即可 (1) His brother who is now a doctor always encourages him to go to college. 他那当医生的哥哥常鼓励他要考上大学。(他还有其他的哥哥) (2) His brother, who is now a doctor, always encourages him to go to college. 他的哥哥是当医生的,常鼓励他要考上大学。(他只有一个哥哥) 难点分析 (一)关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句,有相同之处也有不同之处。具体情况是: 1.先行词:As 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,代表前面整个句子。 (1) He married her, as/which was natural. (2) He was honest, as/which we can see. 2. 位置:as 引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前,或者主句之后,甚至可以切割一个主句;which 引导的非 限制性定语从句只能放在主句或先行词之后。另外,as 有“正如……,正像……”的意思 (1) As is known to all, China is a developing country. (2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent. (3) John, as you know, is a famous writer. (4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don't believe. 注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用 which 3. 当先行词受 such, the same,so, as 修饰时,常用 as
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(1) I have never heard such a story as he tells. (2) He is not such a fool as he looks. (3) This is the same book as I lost last week. 注意:当先行次由 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但是和由 as 所引导的定语从句意思不同 A. She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary's wedding. 她穿着她在 Mary 婚礼上穿过的一条裙子。 B. She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。 (二)以 the way 为先行词的定语从句通常由 in which, that 引导,而且通常可以省略。 The way in which/ that/./ he answered the question was surprising. (三)区分定语从句和同位语从句 1).从句和先行词的关系:定语从句修饰先行词,它和先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容, 是补充说明的关系 (1) The plane that has just taken off is for London. (2) The fact that he has been dead is clear. 定语从句

同位语从句

2).关系词:同位语从句的连词 that 不能省略,而定语从句的关系代词 that,当其在从句中作宾语、表语时可省 略,作主语也不可省略。 I’ve heard the news that he visited our factory. I’ve heard the news that he told you the other day 当 when, why, where 引导同位语从句时,它们为连接副词。虽然它们在从句中充当句子成分,但前面却没有与其 意义相当的先行词。 I have no idea when he will be back. 。 The problem where we got the machine needed has already been solved. 引导定语从句的 when, where, why 是关系副词, 在其前面分别有表示时间、地点、原因或方式意义的名词作先先词。 I will never forget the day when I joined the League. The factory where I once worked has changed a lot. (四)定语从句的做题方法: 一.找出主句,确定先行词;二.找出从句,判断从句是否完整(是否符合简单句的基本构成)——否,用关系代词;是, 用关系副词。
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定语从句专项练习 1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what D. in which 2.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 3.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed 4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. when D. on which 5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when 6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which 7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which D. there 8.This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked 9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked 10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that 12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom 13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose 14.I'm interested in ______you have said. A. all that B. all what C. that D. which 15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as 16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as 17.He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what 18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much. A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him 19.I don't like ______ as you read. A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels 20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who
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22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women. A. them B. which C. whom D. who 23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it. A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who 24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that 25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what 26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV. A. that B. which C. as D. it 27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. whose C. what D./ 29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting. A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which 30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after C. that I have looked after D. I have looked after 31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B.that;why C. for that;that D.for which;what 32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam. A.that B.which C.for which D.who 33.That is not the way ______I do it. A./ B.which C.for which D.with which 34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use. A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which 35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago. A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which 36.My neigh bours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. that D. it 37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph. A. that B. which C. from that D. from which 38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done. A. that B. which C. who D. as 39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes. A. / B. why C. when D. whose 40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular. A. that B. which C. it D. though 41. --- Did you ask the guard _______ happened? --- Yes, he told me all _______ he knew. A. what; that B. what; what C. which; which D. that; that 42. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life. A. when; who B. that; which C. which; that D. when; which 43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing. A. owns; are B. owns; is C. own; is D. own; are 44. During the days ________, he worked as a servant at the Browns.
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A. followed B. following C. to follow D. that followed 45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn? A. that B. / C. which D. it 46. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, _______ he could see _____ was going on inside house. A. which; what B. through which; what C. through that; what D. what; that 47. Is _______ some German friends visited last week? A. this school B. this the school C. this school one D. this school where 48. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected. A. as B. that C. what D. who 49. I have bought two ballpens, _______ writes well. A. none of them B. neither of them C. neither of which D. none of which 50. All that can be eaten _______ eaten up. A. are being B. has been C. had been D. have been

定于从句参考答案及解析: 1. A. which 用作关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。 2.C. "和谁讲话”要说 speak to sb. 本题全句应为 Do you know the man whom I spoke to.。whom 是关系代词,作介词 to 的宾语,可以省略。 3. D. where 是关系副词,表示地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。 4. C. when 是关系副词,表示时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。
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5.A. which 是关系代词,在从句中作 forget 的宾语。其他几个答案都不能作宾语。6.C. 解析同第 5 题。7. A. 解析见 第 3 题。 8. A. 本句话的先行词应该是 films,因此,关系代词 that 是负数概念,其谓语动词应用复述的被动语态 have been shown。 如果句中的 one 前面使用了定冠词 the,则 the one 应该视为先行词。 9. A. “谈到某事物”应说 talk about sth.。about 是介词,其后要用 which 作宾语,不能用 that。 10. A. with which 是"介词+关系代词"结构,常用来引导定语从句.with 有"用"的意思,介词之后只能用 which,不能用 that. with which 在定语从句中作状语,即 he is writing with a pen. 11. C. in front of which 即 in front of a farmhouse. In front of which 在从句中作状语. 12. D. with whom 引导定语从句.with whom 放在从句中即为:my father works with the engineer. 13. D. whose 引导定语从句,在从句中作主语 family 的定语. 14. A. that 引导定语从句,因为先行词是 all,所以只能选用 that 引导. 15. D. the same……..as 是固定用法, as 引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本句话中,as 作从句的主语. 16. D. such……… as 是固定用法,as 引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本题中,as 作表语. 17. B. as 作关系代词可以单独用来引导非限制性定语从句。这时 as 所指代的不是主句中某个名词,而往往指代整个主 句的含义。as 在从句中可以作主语、宾语。从句可放在主句后,也可置于主句前。在本句中,as 作宾语. 18. B. Li Ming enjoyed it very much 是主句,with whom I went to the concert 是定语从句.with whom 放在从句中为:I went to the concert with Li Ming. 19. C. as 引导定语从句时通常构成 such…as 或 the same…as 固定搭配,其中 such 和 same 修饰其后的名词,as 为关系代 词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。 as 在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾语。Such 修饰单数名词时,要用 such a…….., 本题中 such books, such 直接修饰复数名词. 20. B. things 和 persons 是先行词.当定语从句要修饰的先行词是既表示人,又表示物的名词时,其关系代词要用 that. 21. D. who 引导非限制性定语从句,who 作从句的主语. 22. C. two thirds of whom 即:two thirds of the 2,000 workers. 23. D. 先行词 person 后有两个定语从句,第一个从句省略了关系代词 whom.因为, whom 作从句中 met 的宾语,可以省略. 第二个从句 who could do it.who 在从句中作主语,不可省略. 24. A. whose title 引导非限制性定语从句,whose title 也可以说成 the title of which 25. A. for which 引导定语从句,使用介词 for,是来自于从句中的固定短语 be famous for "以……..而闻名". 26. C. 当先行词被 such 修饰时,引导定语从句的关系代词要用 as. As 在本从句中作主语. 27. A. 两个先行词 the day 都是表示时间的名词,但第一个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作状语,因此要用关系副词 when. 第二个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作动词 spent 的宾语,因此要用关系代词 which 或 that 来引导定语从句. 28. D. 在 way、distance、direction 等词后的定语从句中,常用 that 来代替“in (或其他介词)+which”、when 或 where,而 that 常可省略。 29. D. for which 在定语从句中作原因状语,可用 why 来替代. 30. B. which I have looked after 构成一个非限制性定语从句. 31. A. The reason why… was that….已成为一种固定句型,这一句中的 why 和 that 不能随意换位,也不能将 that 改成 because,尽管 that 这个词在译文中可能有 “因为”的含义。 32. B. 非限制性定语从句常用 which 引导,which 表示前句话的整个含义. 33. A. 解释见 28 题. 34. D. 主句中的 two 表明不能选 A.从句中的 are 表明不能选 B. both of which 用来引导非限制性定语从句. 35. C. as 引导定语从句时通常构成 such…as 或 the same…as 固定搭配,其中 such 和 same 修饰其后的名词,as 为关系代 词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。as 在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾语。本题中 as 作从句的主语. 36. B. 非限制性定语从句常用 which 引导,which 表示前句话的整个含义. 37. D. 38. D. 解析见 35 题. 39. A. he makes 是定语从句, 从句前省略了关系代词 that. 40. B. which is a bad habit 非限制性定语从句. 41. A. what happened 是宾语从句. all 之后 that he knew 是定语从句.先行词是 all,所以关系代词只能用 that.
选校网 www.xuanxiao.com 专业大全 历年分数线 上万张大学图片 大学视频 院校库

选校网 www.xuanxiao.com 高考频道 专业大全 历年分数线 上万张大学图片 大学视频 院校库

42. D. years 是表示时间的名词,用 when 引导定语从句,是因为 when 在从句中作时间状语.第二个空选用 which,引导一个 非限制性定语从句. 43. C. 本句话的定语从句是 who own cars. 其先行词是 people,因此,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数的 own。本句话主句 的主语是 The number of 指“…..的数目”,是单数概念。因此,主句的谓语动词要用 is。 44. D. that followed 是定语从句,关系代词 that 在从句中作主语。 45. A. 先行词 gas 被 only 修饰,关系代词要用 that,而不用 which。 46. B. through which 引导定语从句,through which 即 through the hole,在定语从句中作状语。What 引导的是 see 的宾语 从句,并作从句的主语。 47. B. 为便于理解,改写本句话:This is the school that some Germanfriends visited last week. 不难看出,作表语的 the school 是先行词。that 引导了定语从句,因为 that 同时又作 visited 的宾语,所以被省略了。其它选项结构不对。 48. A. 解释见 35 题。 49. C. 因为是 two ballpens, 并且定语从句的谓语 writes 是单数概念。因此,C 是正确选项。 50. B. 本句话中,主句的主语是 all,为抽象概念。因此,其谓语应用单数的 has been。关系代词 that 引导定语从句,并 在从句中作主语。

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