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非谓语动词教案


非谓语动词 一、教学目标与重、难点分析: 教学目标:英语动词的基本认识 掌握非谓语动词的几种基本形式

重、难点:不同形式 例如——ing 和不定式的区别掌握难度大,而且高考常常出现,还易 出错 二、授课内容: 课题: 非谓语动词 ◆◆【知识梳理】 非谓语动词(一)——分词 【基本概念】 1. 对英语动词的基本认识 英语中动词的语法作用同汉语区别很大。 动词除

了在句子中充当谓语之外, 还常 以非谓语的形式充当其他的句子成分。 按照动词是否充当谓语, 我们可以把动词分为 谓语动词和非谓语动词两类。每一类动词所包含的主要语法知识如 下。 谓语动词 时态 (按高考要求共九个时态) 语态 (主动语态和被动语态) 语气 (陈述语气和虚拟语气) 主谓一致

动词 动词不定式 非谓语动词 分词 (现在分词和过去分词) 动名词 非谓语动词是指不充当谓语而做其他句子成分的动词,凡是用作非谓语的动词在形式 上都要有所变化,以区别于谓语动词。 2.分词的语法作用 分词分现在分词和过去分词两类,具有形容词和副词的语法功能,在句子中可以充当 表语、定语、状语和宾语补足语。 例 1: The news that the Chinese team won the gold medal was very encouraging. (P.51, Senior Book 2B) 句中的现在分词 encouraging 充当句子的表语。 例 2: The people performing all play different instrument. (P.49, Senior Book2B) Polluted rivers and lakes have also been a cause of death. (P.52, Senior Book2A) 现在分词 performing 作后置定语,修饰 the people; 过去分词 polluted 作定语修饰 rivers and lakes。 例 3: So he left France, preferring to give up the fortune that would one day come to him, and went to live in English. (P.57, Senior Book2B) 现在分词短语 preferring to give up the fortune that would one day come to him 作状 语,表示 he left France and went to live in England 的原因。
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Well known for his expert advice, he was able to help a great number of people with their personal affairs. (P.14 Senior Book2B) 过去分词短语 well known for his expert advice 也充当状语,表示原因。 分词短语充当状语时, 其作用相当于一个状语从句, 因此都可以用状语从句替代。 Well known for his expert advice = Because he was known for his expert advice,显然, 按照修辞的 标准衡量,分词短语较状语从句更为精练。 例 4: They broke into the uncle’s bedroom and found the man lying on the floor, dead. (P.16, Senior Book2B) I can see it fastened to a nail next to the hole in the wall, but it is not fastened to that wire. (P.16 Senior Book2B) The gate must be kept shut so that the animals do not escape. (P.53,Senior Book2A) 【关键知识】 学习分词的知识只要抓住现在分词同过去分词的区别这一关键环节,其他问题便可迎 刃而解。区别现在分词和过去分词的方法主要有两点: 2. 掌握主谓关系用现在分词,动宾关系用过去分词的基本原则。 ①分词做定语时, 看分词同它所修饰的名词或代词的关系。 分词所修饰的名词或 代词同分 为主谓关系时,用现在分词;分词所修饰的名词或代词同分词为动宾关系时,用 过去分词。 There are lots of good English language programmes broadcast on TV or the radio in China. (P.46, Senior Book1A) 过去分词短语 broadcast on TV or the radio in China 作定语修饰 programmes, broadcast 同它所修饰的名词 programmes 具有动宾关系, 即 broadcast programmes on TV or the radio…,因此必须用过去分词。 Two days later I received a letter offering me the job. (P.34-35, Senior Book2B) 现在分词短语 offering me the job 是名词 letter 的定语,offering 同它所修饰的名词 letter 具有逻辑上的主谓关系,如果将现在分词短语转换成定语从句,这种“主谓关系”则更 为明确:Two days later I received a letter which offered me the job。 ②分词做宾语补足语时,看分词同宾语补足语的关系。主谓关系用现在分词;动 宾关系用过去分词。 You often see musicians performing in the streets. (P.54, Senior Book2B) 宾语 musicians 和宾语补足语 performing 具有逻辑上的主谓关系, musicians 发出 perform 的动作,宾语补足语必须用现在分词。 Although we may not realize it, when we talk with others we make ourselves understood not just by words. (P.14, Senior Book2A) 作宾语补足语的过去分词 understood 同宾语 ourselves 为动宾关系,即 understand ourselves,此处的意思是“使我们自己被别人所理解”。 ③分词作状语时,分词的逻辑主语同句子的主语一致。据此,辨别现在分词和过去分 词的区别要看分词同句子主语的逻辑关系,主谓关系用现在分词;动宾关系用过去分词。 In Arab countries, you eat using the fingers of your right hand; the left hand is not used at all. (P.14, Senior Book2A) 现在分词短语 using the fingers of your right hand 作方式状语修饰谓语动词 eat。 之所
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以用现在分词,是因为 using 同句子的主语 you 有逻辑上的主谓关系。换言之,句子的主 语 you 既发出谓语动作 eat,又发出非谓语动词 using 所表示的动作。 Dr. Watson and I will spend the night locked in your room. ( P.15 Senior Book2B) 过去分词短语 locked in your room 充当 spend the night 的方式状语。lock 同句子的主 语 Dr. Watson and I 的逻辑关系为动宾关系——“lock Dr. Watson and I in your room”。 分词作状语时同句子主语之间的逻辑关系较难理解,再看以下例句,注意分词短语同 句子主语之间的逻辑关系。 The poor of the cities and the peasants in the country, having lived such a hard life for so long, took up their guns and knives and began to kill the rich nobles. (P.58, Senior Book2B) Considering that Charles would be sentenced to death, he went to a chemist’s shop and bought some special medicine. (P. 58 , Senior Book2B) Given advice by the famous detective, the young lady was no longer afraid. (P.17, Senior Book2B) The lady returned home, followed by Mr. Holmes and Dr. Watson. (P.17, Senior Book2B) 3. 分词作表语时,区别现在分词和过去分词的两种方法。 ①分词作表语时,现在分词表示主语的特征;过去分词表示主语所处的状态。 The temperature is –15° C. It is freezing outside. ( P.51, Senior Book2B) 现在分词 freezing 作表语,表示主语“天气”的特征。 Children are afraid of the stone figures in the temple which look so frightening. ( P.51, Senior Book2B ) which 代表先行词 the stone figures 的含义,在定语从句中作主语。frightening 是系动 词 look 的表语,表示主语 the stone figures 的形象特征。 One quarter of the shores of the Mediterranean are polluted. (P.52, Senior Book2A ) 过去分词 polluted 作表语,表示地中海沿岸的四分之一受污染的状况。 ②surprise, excite, interest, frighten, worry, please, 等动词具有共同的特点,他们的意 思都是“使……(人)…怎么样”。这类动词充当表语时区别现在分词或过去分词的方法比 较简单:如果主语是表示“人”的词语,表语用过去分词;主语是表示“事”或“物”的词语, 表语用现在分词。 We were getting very worried. (P.61, Senior Book2A ) “The lion! It must be the lion from the zoo!” Mrs. Cousins was frightened. (P.69, Senior Book2A) 以 上 两 句 的 主 语 分 别 是 “we” 和 “Mrs. Cousins” , 表 语 用 过 去 分 词 worried 和 frightened。 The news that the Chinese team won the gold medal was very encouraging. (P.51, Senior Book2B) 主语是表示“事物”的词语 the news,表语用现在分词 encouraging。 【相关知识及其运用】 在语言实践中,我们还会遇到许多关于分词使用的具体疑难问题。以下选用高考试题 或各地模拟试题为例,集中讨论一些常见的语言现象。 1.现在分词被动式同过去分词的区别 现在分词同过去分词的基本区别可见下表。
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时间概念 现在分 进行或与谓语动作 同时 过去分 完成

语态概念 主动概念 被动概念

词 但现在分词被动式 being done 也表示被动,在语态概念上与过去分词相同,因此区别 就只在于时间概念了。 Most of the people ______ to the party were famous scientists. (1987 年高考试题) A. invited B. to invited C. being invited D. inviting 试题分析:试题意图是考察分词作定语的知识,句子主语的汉语意思为“受到邀请出席 晚会的大多数人”。 选项 A、 C 均表示被动, 区别在于 invited 表示“已经受到邀请出席晚会”; being invited 表示“正在受到邀请出席晚会”。句子是一般过去时,因此答案为 A。 2.分词作定语同不定式作定语的区别 不定式作定语在时间概念上表示“将要”,这是他们之间最根本的区别。 The first textbooks ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the th 16 century. ( 1994 年高考试题) A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 试题分析:选项 A 为现在分词完成式,同其所修饰的主语 textbooks 具有逻辑上的动 宾关系,没有被动形式,不可能考虑;选项 B 为不定式的被动式,在时间概念上表示将来, 与句子的时态不符,必须排除;选项 C 为现在分词被动式,在时间概念上表示“进行“,不 能满足试题要求;选项 D written 既表示被动又表示完成,切合试题要求,是正确答案。 3.介词 with 后的宾语补足语 介词 with 具有一般介词都不具备的语法功能,with 后面可以带“宾语+宾语补足语”的 结构。 In parts of Asia you must not sit with your feet pointing at another person. (P.14, Senior Book2A) 介词后的宾语补足语同动词后的宾语补足语没有区别,在试题中只要善于识别便不难 理解, The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back. (1991 年高考试 题) A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 答案为 D。 下面一道试题具有一定难度。 With his son ______, the old man felt unhappy. (北京西城区试题一) A. to disappoint B. to be disappointed C. disappointing D. being disappointed 试题分析:宾语补足语如果选用被动式,意思为“他的儿子自己感到失望”;如果选择 现在分词,意思为“他的儿子令别人感到失望”。正确答案为 C。 4.分词作状语时的逻辑主语问题 分词作状语时,其逻辑主语必须同句子的主语一致;如果不一致,需在分词前加 一个逻辑主语, 分词和它的逻辑主语合称独立主格结构。 关于分词作状语时的逻辑主
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语问题,在试题中可以看到各种不同的命题技巧。 The key______,she went through her handbag carefully.(2000 年长沙模拟试题) A. hadn’t been found B. having not been found C. not having been found D. wasn’t found 试题分析:选项 A、D 均为谓语形式,选择其中的任何一项前半部分便成为一个分句, 与后面的分句必须使用连词。以表示前后分句的逻辑关系,因此全部排除。选项 B 是现在 分词的完成被动式,凡非谓语动词的否定形式,not 必须加在最前面,因此也应排除。not having been found 同其逻辑主语 the key 构成独立主格结构, 作原因状语。 本试题中句子的 主语 she 不能充当分词的逻辑主语。 ______ you should have no trouble with the difficult work. (北京崇文区统一练习一) A. Knowing this B. If you are knowing this C. From knowing this D. If you have knowing this 试题分析:分词作状语时一般都可以转换为状语从句。本试题的选项 B、D 作为条件 状语从句, 时态不正确, 应该排除。 选项 A 的 knowing this 的逻辑主语同句子的主语一致, 符合要求,为正确答案。 Written in a hurry, ______ . How can it be satisfactory? (2001 年广州市综合测试一) A. they found many mistakes in the report B. Sam made lots of mistakes in the report C. There are plenty of mistakes in the report D. The report is full of mistakes 试题分析:这时一道非常典型的试题。四个选项均为完整的句子,初看起来似乎不容 易领悟试题的意图。其实,本题的意图仍然是考察分词作状语的知识。抓住试题意图就容 易产生正确的思路——哪个句子的主语能够同过去分词 written 的逻辑主语一致。 沿着这个 思路向前走,不难想到 the report was written in a hurry, 试题的答案不言自明。 5.现在分词作宾语补足语时同不定式作宾语补足语的区别 动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe 等可以用不带 to 的不定式作宾语补足语, 也 可以用现在分词作宾语补足语,但意思有区别。不定式作宾语补足语表示动作的全过程已 经完成;现在分词作宾语补足语表示动作在谓语动作发生的瞬间正在进行。 The missing boys were last seen ______ near the river. (1994 年高考试题) A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play 试题分析:本试题意在考查分词作宾语补足语的知识,试题使用被动语态使我们不容 易意识到试题的意图。“这些丢失的孩子们最后被看到的瞬间正在河边玩”,句子的意思决 定了只能选择 playing 作宾语补足语。如果选择 play,则表示动作业已完成,与试题的意 思不符。 非谓语动词(二)——动名词 【基本概念】 1.现行高中教材中将动名词和现在分词统称为-ing 形式。 这样处理英语传统语法项目的 初衷是简化语法术语、淡化语法概念,让学生更多地通过语感掌握其用法。然而,在教学 实践中却遇到了另外一些不好解决的问题。 其一, 取消了“现在分词”的概念之后, 增加了“现 在分词和过去分词的区别”这一关键知识的教学难度:其二,混淆动名词和现在分词的概念 使得属于动名词范围的一些细节问题的教学不容易开展,如动名词做宾语的问题、分词和
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动名词的逻辑主语问题等。 现在分词和动名词都可以做定语和表语,概念却有所不同。遇到这些问题完全可以采 取淡化或者回避的办法,就如同我们很少强调形容词做定语、表语同名词做定语、表语的 区别一样。学生能够领悟其中的区别更好,不能理解也无关紧要。 2.动名词在书写形式上同现在分词相同,但语法概念和语法功能各异。动名词具有名 词的语法作用,在句子中主要充当主语和宾语。 例 1:动名词做主语 Using body language in a correct way will help communicate with people and make the stay in a foreign country easy and comfortable. (P.16, Senior Book2A) Checking information is very important. (P.20, Senior Book2A) Doing this can save a lot of time and money. (P.20, Senior Book2A) Learning new words and useful expressions is very important for me. (P.22, Senior Book2A) 例 2:动名词做宾语 After a short while he started directing films himself. (P.26, Senior Book2A) Disney stopped drawing and watched the mouse. (P.2, Senior Book2A) 例 3:动名词做介词的宾语 Scores of people went there in the first few days after its opening. (P.3, Senior Book 1B ) after 在句中为介词,动名词 opening 做介词的宾语,形容词性物主代词 its 是动名词 的逻辑主语。 The money spent on educating a black child was just one fourth of that spent on each white child. (P.38, Senior Book2) I was pleased that the manager had decided not to be angry with me for having been so rude. (P.35, Senior Book2B) having been 是动名词 being 的完成式,做介词 for 的宾语。 【关键知识】 动名词一章的关键知识是动名词做宾语同不定式做宾语的区别。 这种区别根据“约定俗 成”的原则成为语法规则,因此没有过多的道理可讲。牢牢记住这些规则,在语言实践中能 够熟练地运用,便是最好的学习方法。 1.下列动词只能用动名词做宾语, 不能用不定式:suggest, finish, enjoy, practise, miss, avoid, require, delay, excuse, pardon, consider, deny, escape, can’t help, risk 等。 Besides, I enjoy learning about new things from politics to sports and music. (P.22, Senior Book2A) Then for a period of several weeks we practise doing the play. (P.25, Senior Book2A) 2.一些动词后用动名词做宾语和用不定式做宾语意思不同。 ①remember, forget, regret 后用动名词做宾语表示已经发生过了的动作; 用不定式做宾 语表示将要发生或尚未发生的动作。 remember to do 表示记住要去做某事; remember doing 表示记得曾经做过某事。 regret doing 表示后悔做了某事;regret to say (tell)表示遗憾地说(告诉) 。 ---- The light in the office is still on. ---- Oh, I forgot ______. (1991 年全国高考试题) A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
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答案为 C。句子的意思是“我刚才忘记了关灯”,“关灯”的动作没有发生。 ---- You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. ---- Well, now I regret ______ that. (1995 年全国高考试题) A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done 答案为 D。having done 是动名词 doing 的完成式,表示该动作先于谓语动作,句子的 意思是“后悔在会议上提出反对意见”。 ②try to do 表示“设法做”(克服困难、障碍努力做) ;try doing 表示“试着做”(对结 果没有把握,尝试去做,看看是否可以) 。 The little time we have together we try ______ wisely. (上海市 1995 年高考试题) A. spending it B. to spend it C. to spend D. spending that the little time we have together 是 spend 的宾语,前置以示强调。正确的答案为 C。 ③like (love) to do 表示具体的一次性动作;like (love) doing 表示倾向性的动作。 Little Tom should love ______ to the theatre this evening. (1992 年全国高考试题) A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taken 答案为 A。时间状语暗示了应该考虑“一次性动作”。本试题中 little Tom 和谓语动词 take(带领)为动宾关系,必须注意被动概念的使用。 ④动词 need 的用法同动名词做宾语有密切的关系。 a)当主语是表示“人”的词语时,need 的宾语用动词不定式的一般式,这时不定式同句 子的主语也是主谓关系。 Right now you need to stay still until help comes. ( P.43, Senior Book2B) 但是,也有少数句子 need 的宾语同句子的主语构成动宾关系,这时 need 的宾语可以 用动名词或不定式的被动式: The patient will need looking after. b)当主语是表示“事”或“物”的词语时,主语同 need 往往为动宾关系。这时,用 need to be done 或 need doing 均可,但要注意 need doing 是用动名词的主动式表示被动的概念。 These shoes need repairing. These shoes need to be repaired. You have come just in time to help us.” “Fine. What needs ______?” (1985 年广东高考试题) A. I do B. done C. to be done D. to do 答案为 C。what 是句子的主语,表示事物。 ⑤stop to do 和 stop doing 的语法结构不同, 因此意思也就不同。 stop doing 中的 doing 是动名词做宾语, 表示 stop 动作的对象, 意思为“停止做某事”。 Stop to do 中的不定式 to do 是目的状语,表示“停止正在做的事的目的是要做某事”。 "Let's have a break." "Not now. I don't want to stop ______ yet." (1985 年广东高考试题) A. study B. to study C. for studying D. studying 答案为 D。 ⑥mean doing 的意思是“意谓着”、“就是”。
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I meant to tell you yesterday, but you were not in the office.(P.13, Senior Book2B) Missing the train means waiting for an hour. mean to do 的意思是“意欲做……”或“打算做……”。 What do you mean to do? 【相关知识及其运用】 1.动名词的逻辑主语 动名词的逻辑主语表示动名词所代表的动作是谁做的。 动名词逻辑主语规范的表达 形式是:①无生命的内容用名词的一般形式。②有生命的内容如果是名词,用该名词的所 有格;如果是代词,则用形容词性物主代词。 He has always insisted on his being called Dr. Turner instead of Mr. Turner. 译文:他总是坚持让别人称呼他特纳博士而不是特纳先生。 his 是动名词 being called 的逻辑主语,但同 call 构成被动关系。如果是主动关系应为 call him Dr. Turner。 再看下列两道试题: They insisted on ______ a thorough rest before going back to work. A. him to take B. he took C. his taking D. his taken 答案为 C。 ______ made her mother very angry. A. Helen’s married Jack B. Helen has married Jack C. Helen marrying Jack D. Helen’s marrying Jack 答案为 D。 2.动名词的完成式 所有非谓语动词的完成式都表示非谓语动作先于谓语动作, 动名词的完成式也不 例外。 Tony was very unhappy for ______ to the party. (2000 年上海市高考试题) A. having not been invited B. not having invited C. having not invited D. not having been invited 答案为 D。 having been invited 是动名词的完成被动式, 表示否定的 not 必须放在动名 词结构的最前面。 3.动名词的被动式 动名词的被动式同现在分词的被动式相同----being done。 动名词被动式的使用主要看 动名词和句子主语的逻辑关系:主谓关系用主动式,动宾关系用被动式。 While shopping, people sometimes can’t help ______ into buying something they don’t really need. (1996 年上海市高考试题) A. to persuade B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded can’t help 后必须用动名词做宾语,persuade 同句子主语 people 具有逻辑上的动宾关 系,因此答案 C 正确。 He dare not go home for fear of ______ . A. punishing B. punished C. being punished D. to be punished 正确答案为 C。 4.动名词做介词宾语时应注意的问题
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动名词做介词的宾语一般情况同做动词的宾语没有区别。应注意的是,下列短语中的 to 不是动词不定式的符号,而是介词,因此如果需要使用动词的非谓语形式,必须使用动 名词。 look forward to 盼望、预期 be (get) used to 习惯于 object to 反对 devote…to 献身于、专心于 get down to 认真着手进行、认真处理 They have just come here to get down to repairing the road. We are looking forward to hearing from you. Do you object to my closing the window? 非谓语动词(三)——不定式 【基本概念】 不定式是动词的非谓语形式之一,具有名词、形容词、副词的性质,在句子中可以充 当主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和宾语补足语。 使用不定式时,大多数情况下要带有不定式的符号“to”,少数情况不用“to”。 1.不定式做主语。 不定式做主语时,通常使用形式主语。而将做主语的不定式放在句子的后面。 I think it would be a good idea to have comments from secretaries and typists who are already using it. (P.25, Senior Book3) How long will it take you to complete the trip? (P.9, Senior Book2B) 2.不定式做宾语。 I have decided to take a lot of cabbage in vinegar. (P.7, Senior Book3) Agriculture first started about 10,000years ago, when people began to grow crops in the river valleys of the Nile in Egypt, in the Middle East and in India. (P.20, Senior Book3) 不定式做宾语时也有使用形式宾语的问题, 但必须同时具备两个条件: ①有宾语 补足语。②宾语是动词不定式短语或宾语从句。 The dusty air makes it difficult to get a clear picture of space. (P.10, Senior Book2B) 以上句子中,it 为形式宾语;difficult 为宾语补足语;不定式短语 to get a clear picture of space 是真宾语。 3.不定式做表语 It has been proved that the way to produce the most food is to let farmers grow crops either to feed their family or to sell. (P. 22, Senior Book3) A better method is to take waste far out to sea in ships where the wind and waves break it down. (P.32. Senior Book3) 4.不定式做定语…but it is thought that 500 million people in the world do not have enough to eat, which is about one in ten. (P.20, Senior Book3) Farmers have the right to sell their crops to the EU. (P.22, Senior Book3)
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5.不定式做状语 Third, a lot of irrigated land has become too salty to grow plants. (P. 20, Senior Book3) 本句中的 to grow plants 是 has become too salty 的结果状语。 Various things can be done to increase the food supply in the world. )P.20, Senior Boo9k3) to increase the food supply in the world 是目的状语。 不定式表示目的极为常见。有时为了强调目的,可以用 in order to 或 so as to ; 有时将不定式短语置于句首也是表示目的常见用法。 Cook went up and down the river in order to chart all the dangerous rock. (P.8, Senior Book3) The lion looked at her as she swung the pork in her hand so as to attract the lion’s attention. (P.69, Senior Book2A) To become a top gymnast, it is important to start when very young. (P.50, Senior Book3) To do that, it must find a place where it can keep fairly warm; and it must be a place where its enemy cannot find it. (P.68, Senior Book3) only to do 是不定式做结果状语的典型用法,这种“结果”往往是预想不到的。 Yesterday I went to see him only to find he had been away on business. He got to the station only to be told the train had gone. 6.不定式做宾语补足语 不定式做宾语补足语时有两种情况:绝大多数做宾语补足语的不定式用带 to 的 动词不定式; 动词 see, hear, watch, feel, notice, observe, have, make, let 后做宾语补足 语的不定式主动语态时必须用不带 to 的不定式;改为被动语态又必须用 to 。 What stores do you want me to order? (P.7, Senior Book3) But Cook ordered the crews to throw over the side of the ship guns, iron balls, pots and chains and even stores to raise the boat in the water. (P.10, Senior Book3) And I advise you not to eat fruit that isn’t ripe in future. (P.1, Senior Book1B) I read about you in the newspaper and decided to come and hear you play. (P.68, Senior Book2B) 下面的例子是 1991 年的高考试题, 试题的意图便是考查不带 to 的不定式变为被 动语态时的用法。 John was made ______ the truck for a week as a punishment. A. to wash 答案为 A。 【相关知识及其运用】 1.不定式的进行式 当谓语所表示的动作或状态发生时,不定式所表示的动作正在进行,这时要用不定式 的进行式。
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B. washing

C. wash

D. to be washing

They are said to be building another bridge across the Changjiang River. He pretended to be doing his homework carefully when his mother came in. 2.不定式的完成式 同其他非谓语形式一样,不定式的完成式表示不定式的动作先于谓语动作。 I’m sorry to have done that, I didn’t mean to be so rude. (P.43, Senior Book3) Between 1850and 1910 the bison population is thought to have fallen from 60 million to just a few hundred. (P.75, Senior Book3) 3.不定式的被动式 当不定式的逻辑主语同不定式具有逻辑动宾关系时,不定式要用被动式。 But some people don’t want good farmland to be built on. (P.25, Senior Book2B) good farmland 是句子的宾语,to be built on 是宾语补足语,宾语和宾语补足语之间总 是具有逻辑上的主谓或主表关系。因此,good farmland 是不定式 to be built on 的逻辑主 语,同时它们又具有逻辑动宾关系,不定式必须同被动式。 He has asked to be introduced to the pianist. (P.68, Senior Book2B) 不定式短语 to be introduced to the pianist 的逻辑主语是句子的主语 he,同时 he 同 introduce 又有逻辑上的动宾关系,因此用被动式。 不定式的被动式是个比较复杂的问题。尤其是当不定式同形容词配合使用时很容易造 成理解上的困难。下列句子中的不定式通常不用被动式。 ①The question is difficult to answer. ②The shirt is too small to wear. ③I find English easy to learn . ①、②两句中的不定式短语都可以加入逻辑主语,如 for me 一类,③句中不定式的逻 辑主语就是句子的主语。 4.不定式与疑问词连用 不定式与疑问词连用,其作用相当于一个名词性从句,可充当句子的主语、宾语和表 语。 I’m not sure whether to go to the one about accidents. (P.1, Senior Book3) How to get rid of waste is a great problem for the world today. (P.32, Senior Book3) The problem is how to feed a growing world population of over 6 billion. (P.20, Senior Book3) As soon as the reporters know what to write about, they get down to work. (P.20, Senior Book2A) 5.不定式做定语时的有关问题 不定式做定语时可以分为两类: ①不定式所修饰的名词是不定式的逻辑主语。 China is the first countries in the world to study the science of farming. (P.38, Senior Book 1B) 不定式短语修饰 the first countries, 同时 the first countries 又是 to study the sciences of farming 的逻辑主语。 ②不定式同他所修饰的名词具有逻辑动宾关系,如果不能确立动宾关系或不定式为不 及物动词,必须使用介词。 Years of hard work, very little food, only a small room to live in and never a moment’s rest. (P.13, Senior Book1B) She had little money to live on. (P.3, Senior Book3)
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I really don’t know what topic to write about. (to write about what topic) Would you please give me a pen to write with? (to write with a pen) 不定式做定语时,被动的概念应给予格外重视。通常的情况是不定式动作的执行者就 在句子中。以上述三个句子为例,to live on 的执行者是 she;to write about 的执行者是 I; to write with 的执行者则是 me。因此,以上三句中的不定式都用主动式。 在句子中没有不定式动作执行者的情况下,不定式所修饰的名词即为不定式的逻辑主 语。如果不定式同它的逻辑主语为动宾关系,则用不定式的被动式。 The action to be taken is correct. 下列试题的意图便是考查这个问题。 --Have you got anything ______ there? --No, I will go there myself. Thank you just the same. A. to be taken B. been taken C. taken D. to take 句子的主语 you 不是 take 的逻辑主语。根据句子的意思,take 的逻辑主语应该是说 话者自己,因此必须用被动式的被动式。答案为 A。 在 there be 句型中,不定式做定语极为常见,但使用不定式的一般式和被动式意义不同。 不定式的一般式表示“会有人去做……”,通常可根据上下文在不定式前加一个逻辑主语。 There are plenty of interesting places(for you) to visit. (P.33, Senior Book1B) There was nowhere (for anybody) to hide. (P.58, Senior Book3) Here is a game to play. (P.33, Senior Book3) 如果使用不定式的被动式,则表示说话人着重强调不定式所修饰的名词,不考虑 不定式所代表的动作由谁做,且整个句子往往含有情态意义。 There is nothing to be gained by pretending. = Nothing can be gained by pretending. There is a lot of work to be done. = A lot of work has to be done. 6.不定式的逻辑主语问题 不定式的逻辑主语表示不定式动作的执行者,通常由介词 for 加名词、名词性词组或 宾格代词构成,置于不定式符号 to 之前。 Lincoln said that it was not right for the South to break away from the Union. (P.50, Senior Book1A) It was easy for them to carry a guitar on their travel. (P.42, Senior Book1A) 在“It is +形容词”结构的句子中,不定式的逻辑主语可能用介词 for ,也可能用介词 of。 当这个形容词同不定式的逻辑主语构成逻辑上的主表关系时,介词用 of,否则就用 for。 ①Is is very kind of you to give me so much help. = You are very kind to give me so much help.(不定式的逻辑主语 you 可以同形容词 kind 构成逻辑上的主表关系,介词用 of) ②It is important for us to learn English well. 不定式的逻辑主语 us 不能同 important 构成逻辑上的主表关系,因此用 for。

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非谓语动词解题思路 非谓语动词是高中语法的重点,也是难点,学生常常对此感到头疼。其实只要理解并 掌握非谓语动词各种形式的特点,做起题来会很轻松。我们先来看看非谓语动词的各种变 化形式。熟悉知道了非谓语动词形式后,做题时可分四步分析。 一、分析句子结构 1. ________many times , but he still couldn't understand it . 2. ________many times, he still couldn't understand it. A. Having been told B. Told C. He was told D. Though he had been told 3. ________to the left, you'll find the post office. 4. If you ________to the left, you'll find the post office. 5. ________to the left , and you'll find the post office . A. Turning B. To turn C. Turn D. Turned 分析:句 1. 用连词 but 引导并列句子,因此,前面也是个独立句子成分,故选 C。 句 2. 句中用逗号隔开,且无连词引导,因此,前面不是句子结构,只是句子的一个成 分,故选 A,用非谓语动词作状语。 句 3. 同句 2,选 A 。 句 4. 前面用 if 引导从句,故选 C ,构成从句谓语。 句 5. 同句 1,选 C。 二、分析逻辑主语 确定要选非谓语动词之后,第二步要分析其逻辑主语。非谓语动词虽不能作谓语,但 仍具有动词特点,其逻辑上的动作执行者就叫做逻辑主语。非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑 主语须和句子的真正主语一致。若不一致,则须加上自己的逻辑主语。 1. ________no buses, we have to walk home. A. There being B. It were C. There were D. It being 2. ______Sunday I shall have a quiet day at home . 分析:句 1. 表示“没有公共汽车”,应用“there be”结构,即逻辑主语是“there”,故选 A 。 句 2. 同理选 D。 三、分析语态 分析语态就是在确定逻辑主语之后,分析非谓语动词和逻辑主语在搭配使用时是主动 还是被动关系。 1. ______from space , the earth looks blue . 2.______from space , we can see the earth is blue . A. Seen B. Seeing C. To see D. See 这两个题选项中的非谓语动词都没有加自己的逻辑主语, 因此其逻辑主语就是句子的 主语。 分析:句 1. “地球”被“看起来”,表被动,故选 A,用过去分词表被动。 句 2. 我们“主动看……”即表主动,故选 B。 3. The dirty clothes ______ , the girl hung them up outside . 4. ______ the dirty clothes, the girl hung them up outside. A. was washed B. washed C. were washed D. having washed 分析:句 3. 前面应用非谓语动词作句子的状语,逻辑主语是“the dirty clothes”,和动 词搭配表示“衣服被洗”,故选 B。
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句 4. 逻辑主语为句子的主语“the girl”,表示“女孩洗衣服”,为主动关系,故选 D。 四、分析时态,在选定了主动或被动后,还要考虑动作发生的时间问题,即时态。 1. The building ______now will be a restaurant . 2. The building ______next year will be a restaurant . 3. The building ______last year is a restaurant. A. having been built B. to be built C. being built D. built 句 1 中 now 说明大楼正在被修,故用进行式,选 C。 句 2 中 next year 说明大楼将在明年被修,故用表将来的不定式,选 B。 句 3 中 last year 说明大楼已被修,但不能选,因为现在分词的完成式不能作定语,故 用过去分词,选 D。 又如: 1. He stood there ______for his mother . 2. ______for two hours , he went away . A. waiting B. to wait C. waited D. Having waited 句 1 表示“站在那等”,两个动词同时发生,故选 A 作伴随状语。 句 2 表示已经等了两个小时,发生在谓语动词“went away ”之前,故用完成式,选 D 。 需要注意的是,非谓语动词的否定也是常考的项目,要认清否定形式,非谓语动词的 否定都应将 not 放在前面。 如: What is the reason for ______there? A. not your going B. not your go C. your not going D. you not to go ◆◆【融知于题】 巩固练习: 1. ______won't be of much help. A .Tom's going B. Tom going C. Tom to go D. Tom goes 2. They managed _____the meeting room before the guests arrived. A. finishing to clean B. finishing cleaning C. to finish cleaning D. to finish to clean 3. We must find a room big enough _____. A. for all of us to live B. for all of us to live in C. to live in all of us D. of all of us to live 4. _____a teacher , I should set a good example to students . A. Being B. Having been C. To be D. As I being 5. _____a teacher, one must first be their pupil. A. Being B. Having been C. To be D. To have been 6. It was stupid _____ your advice. A. for me not to take B. for me not taking C. of me not to take D. of me not taking 7. The teacher told him to speak louder _____by, everybody. A. so as to be heard B. so as to hear C. in order that heard D. in order to hear 8. They suggested _____ the sports meet till next Tuesday. A. us to put off B. our putting off
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C. us of putting off D. our put off 9. The doctor gave me some medicine, _____ three times a day before meals. A. to take B. to be taking C. to be taken D. I took it 10. Thanking them for their kindness, he said that the old lady really appreciated _____by them. A. visiting B. visited C. to be visited D. being visited 11. _____made her parents very angry . A. Jane's engaging Black B. Jane's being engaged to Black C. Jane having engaged to Black D. Jane has engaged to Black 12. Don't you think it any good_____ in public places? A. forbidding smoking B. to forbid smoking C. to forbid to smoke D. forbidding to smoke 13. China is a _____ country and we should introduce _____ science and technology from the _____ countries. A. developed; advanced; developed B. developing; advanced; developed C. developing; advancing; developing D. developed; advancing ; developing 14. _____, the work can be done much better . A. Given more time B. We had been given more time C. More time given D. If more time had given 15. _____from space, the earth , with water _____seventy percent of its surface , looks like a "blue ball". A. Seen; covered B. Seeing; covering C. Seeing; covered D. Seen; covering 16. People always shake hands with each other when _____. A. to introduce B. introduce C. introduced D. introducing 17. _____, tears ran down her pale face. A. No word said B. Say no word C. Not saying a word D. Without saying a word 18. Tigers _____ meat -eating animals, _____meat. A. belonged to; fed on B. belonging to; feed on C. were belonged to ; feed on D. belonging to ; feeding on 19. We must take measures to prevent our earth _____. A. to be polluted B. from polluting C. from being polluted D. from polluted 20. As the stone was too heavy to move, I left it _____ on the ground. A. laying B. lay C. lying D. lain.

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