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外研版选修六module6 Introduction and reading


Introduction & reading

Contents
Introduction Pre-reading

Passage I
Passage II Passage III Language Points

Read the quotation about war and p

eace. A good soldier is not violent. A good fighter is not angry. A good winner is not vengeful. Laozi, Chinese philosopher 善为士者不武,善战者不怒, 善胜敌者不与。

There has never been a good war or a bad peace. Benjamin Franklin, American scientist

War does not tell us who is right – only who is left. Bertrand Russell, British philosopher

You cannot prevent
and prepare for war at the same time. Albert Einstein, German-born American theoretical physicist

If everyone demanded
peace instead of another TV set, we’d have peace. John Lennon, British musician

1.Can you explain these quotations in your own words? 2. which of the quotations do you like most? Why?

War logo

Peace logo Anti-war logo

What event started the Second World War? In which year did Germany invade

Poland?
In which year did Germany invade

Russia?

Answer the questions about a war in the twentieth century. 1. There was a war that took place between 1939 and 1945. What is the

name of this war?
(a) the Great War

(b) the Second World War

2. When the war began, which countries were involved? (a) Britain and Germany (b) the United states and Japan. 3. The war began when a country was invaded. Which country was invaded? (a) Poland (b) France

The D-Day Landings

World War II Glossary Axis Powers: The alliance of Germany,
Italy, and Japan. 轴心国 Allies: Countries that fought against the Axis Powers.

协约国

Allied Expeditionary Force (AEF):

Twelve nations supplied troops and
material for it, including the United States, Canada, France and the United Kingdom. 协约国远征军

Operation Overlord: code name for the military operation in 1944 to invade France. 领主行动 D-Day / H-Hour: The terms D-Day and H-Hour are used for the day and hour on which an attack or operation is to be launched. “D” is for the day of the invasion and “H” for the hour the operation actually begins.

D-Day landings: D-Day Invasion or Invasion of Normandy.

Read the passage 1 and answer the following questions:

1. What event started the Second World War? Germany’s invasion of Poland. 2. What was the purpose of Operation Overlord? To invade France.

3. What nationality were the troops
taking part in the landing? British, American and Canadian. 4. Where was the most dangerous place to land? Omaha Beach.

Map of D-Day Landings

Read passage 2 and choose the best answers. 1. When the Germans started firing at

the boats, ______.
A. the boats were so far from the

beach that they weren’t hit.
B. the boats were one kilometer from

the beach.

2. When Boat 5 was hit by a shell, ___. A. everyone was killed. B. most of the men were rescued from the water. 3. The men from Boat 3 had problems in the water because______. A. their backpacks were too heavy. B. The water was too deep.

4. Six men tried to climb up the cliff and ______. A. some of them managed to reach the top. B. all of them reached the top. 5. Two of the soldiers from Able Company______. A. stayed on the beach. B. Met some other soldiers.

Read Passage 2 of the text carefully and fill in the blanks. 6 June On the morning of ________ 1944, the soldiers of Able Company crossed the English Channel. When they were about _____ kilometres from the beach, the 5 Germans started firing at them. Boat 5 ___ was hit and six men drowned. ________ Twenty men were saved by other boats.

When Boat _____ was a few metres from 3 the beach, the soldiers jumped out so that some drowned. Many were killed or wounded by machine gun fire. Most of ____________ the soldiers on Boat 1 and Boat 4 drowned. Half an hour after the first attack, two thirds ___________ of the company were dead.

After an hour and forty-five minutes, six of the survivors tried to get off the beach, two but only _______ joined a group from another company.

Passage 3 World War II Cemetery

Read Passage 3 of the text carefully and choose the best answer. The poem For the Fallen was written _____. D A. at the beginning of the Second World War B. at the end of the Second World War C. after the Second World War D. before the Second World War

World War II

Memorial
In France

World War II Memorial In U.S.A.

For the Fallen
They fell with their faces to the foe. They shall not grow old, as we that are left grow old. Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning We will remember them. ……

To the inner most heart of their own
land they are known; As the stars are

known to the Night; As the stars that
shall be bright when we are dust; As the stars that are starry in the time of our darkness, To the end, to the end, they remain.

Language points
1. vengeful (adj.): very eager to punish someone who has harmed you e.g. 复仇之神 a vengeful God vengeance (n.): sth. violent or harmful that you do to someone in order to punish them for harming you, your family, etc. 报仇, 复仇, 报复

e.g. 他的父亲被杀之后, 哈姆雷特为复
仇的愿望所驱使。

Hamlet is driven by a desire for
vengeance after his father is killed.

2. demand (v.) (1) [demand + 名 + (from / of 名)] 对 (人)要求… e.g. 那名顾客向公司要求一个合理的 解释。 The customer demanded a reasonable explanation from the company.

(2) [demand + to do] 要求去做… e.g. 他们要求被告知每件事。 They demanded to be told everything. (3) [demand + that]

e.g. 他们要求公司把他们的钱还回来。
They demanded that the company

(should) give back their money.

(2) invade (人) 涌入(城市等) e.g. 每年夏天许多旅游者涌入那个城市 Many tourists invade the city every summer. (3) 侵犯(人的权利等), 侵扰(生活) e.g. 侵扰某人的隐私 invade a person’s privacy invasion (n.) 侵略 invader (n.) 入侵者

3. invade (vt.) invaded invading (1) 侵略(他国等), 入侵…… e.g. 德国于1939年入侵波兰。 Germany invaded Poland in 1939.

4. abandon (v.) (1) 抛弃(某人), 遗弃, 弃(船)等而去, (下 车、船等)置之不顾 [abandon + 名] e.g. 他抛弃家人。 He abandoned his family. 背弃祖国 / 朋友 / 船 abandon one’s country/friends/a ship

(2) 中止, 断念, 放弃 e.g. 他放弃了这个计划。

He abandoned the plan.
革除恶习 abandon a bad habit

放弃希望 abandon one’s hope

abandon, desert, forsake, leave, give up 的区别: 这些动词或词组均含“抛弃、放弃”之 意abandon强调永远或完全放弃或抛弃 人或事物等, 这可能是被迫的, 也可能是 自愿的。 desert着重指违背法律责任和义务,或自 己的信仰与誓言的行为, 多含非难的意 味。

forsake侧重断绝感情上的依恋, 自愿抛 弃所喜欢的人或物。也指抛弃信仰或 改掉恶习。 leave普通用词, 指舍弃某事或某一职业, 或终止同一某人的关系, 但不涉及动机 与果。 give up普通用语, 侧重指没有希望或因 外界压力而放弃。

6. attempt: 1) (v.) 尝试, 企图, (较try 更正式的说法) [attempt + 名] e.g. 那犯人企图逃跑, 但失败了。 The prisoner attempted an escape but failed. 试着解答难题 attempt a difficult problem

[attempt + to do] 尝试…, 试图… e.g. 他们试图攀登崂山。 They attempted to climb Mt. Lao. (2) (CN.) 尝试, 企图[at 名] …的 [to do名] e.g. 他尝试着学滑雪。 He made an attempt to learn to ski. 他试图获得头奖, 但却失败了。 He failed in his attempt at winning/ to win the first price.

7. declare “宣布, 声称, 声明”, 常跟名 词、从句和复合结构 (1) 跟名词 e.g. 之后, 美国对日本宣战。 After that the United States declared war on / upon Japan. 保加利亚在1908年宣告独立。 Bulgaria declared the independence in 1908.

(2) 跟从句

e.g. 被控告者声称他无罪。
The accused man declared that he

was not guilty.
我们宣布启动工程。

We declare that time has come to
start our project.

(3) 跟复合结构
e.g. 他声称自己是他们派别的人。

He declared himself to be a member
of their party. 被控告者宣称自己的清白。 The accused man declared himself innocent.

学生们声明反对作弊。

The students declared themselves
against cheating.

8. occupy (1) (vt.) 占(空间、场所、地位等), 居住 于(家、房间等),占用时间 e.g. 公园占了那个城市的1/3 面积。 The park occupies a third of the city. 晚餐和演讲占用了两个钟头。 The dinner and speeches occupied 2 hours.

(2) (vt.) (军队)占领, 占据 [occupy + 名] e.g. 第二次世界大战后, 盟军占领了那

个国家好几年。
The allied forces occupied that

country for several years after
World War II.

(3) [be occupied with / in] = [occupy

oneself with / in] 正从事……, 专心
于…… e.g. 我一直专心念历史。 I have been occupied in reading history books.

他从事种种项目。 He occupied himself with various projects. occupation (n.) 职业, 固定工作, 居住, 占有

8. break through (v.)

(1) to force a way through sth.
突围, 突破

e.g. 拂晓时, 300辆坦克准备突破敌人
的防线。

At dawn, 300 tanks prepared to
break through the enemy lines.

(2) If the sun or lights breaks

through, you can see it through
sth, such as clouds or mist.

[太阳或光从云雾中]透出来, 冲
破]

3) To deal successfully with sth. especially unreasonable behavior or bad feeling 克服(尤指不合理行为或不

好的感觉)
e.g. 我该怎样做才能让他开口呢?

How could I break through his
reserve?

breakthrough (n.) e.g. 科学家们在克隆中取得了重大突 破。 The scientists make a great breakthrough in cloning.

9. drown (1) (vt. / vi.) 沉没, 淹没, 淹死 e.g. 那人溺死在河中。 The man drowned in the river. 他试图把她淹死在河里。 He tried to drown her in the river. (2) (vt.) 使淹没,使湿透 e.g.洪水淹没了许多房屋。

The great flood drowned many houses.

(3) (vt.) (噪音等)把(声音)压倒, 盖住, 淹 没 [drown + 名] (常与out连用) e.g. 她的声音被瀑布的水声给淹没了。 The noise of the waterfall drowned

(out) her voice.
Her voice was drowned out by the

noise of the waterfall.

10. weary (adj.)

(1) 疲倦的,疲惫的
e.g. 疲倦的脚 weary feet

(2) 感到厌倦的, 感到厌烦的(不置于名
词之前) [be weary of + 名] 对…

e.g. 你的说教令我厌烦。
I’m weary of your preaching.

(3) 使(人)疲倦的, 厌烦的, 感到无聊的

(置于名词之前)
e.g. 令人疲倦的旅行 a weary journey

weary (vt./ vi.) 使(人) 疲倦, 感到疲
倦, 使(人)厌烦.

e.g. 他整天走路, 感觉疲倦不堪
He was wearied with walking all day. 我不久就对那演讲感觉厌烦了。 I soon wearied of listening to the lecture.

11. condemn:

1) (vt.) (因…) (严厉地) 责难(人、行为)
责备, 谴责

[condemn + 名 + (for 名)]
e.g. 报纸严厉谴责那政客的受贿行为。

The newspapers condemned the
politician for bribery.

(2) (因……) 判决 (某人)有罪, 判刑 [condemn + 名(人) + (for 名)] e.g. 他因凶杀被判有罪而入狱。 He was condemned (for murder)

and sent in prison.

[condemn + 名(人)+ to 名/ to do ] 宣
言(某人) ……判处…… e.g. 法官判他死刑。[无期徒刑] The judge condemned him to death.


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