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高考英语语法填空解题技巧与练习


高考英语语法填空解题技巧与练习
一. 语法填空的考查范围:
1 语境(上下文) ; 2 语法: 动词(时态、语态、主谓一致、非谓语形式) 、名词、代词、冠词、介词、固定搭配、情态动词、复合 句、形容词和副词的比较级最高级及构词法、倒装等。

二.语法填空的能力要求:
1.阅读/理解语篇的能力 2.分析句子结构的能力 3.熟练运用语

法的能力 4.单词拼写能力

三.句子的类型
简单句 并列句 复合句: 转折 因果 联合 选择 名词性从句: 形容词性从句: 副词性从句: 主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 定语从句 状语从句: 时间,地点 原因,目的 结果,条件 方式,让步 五种基本句型 从语法填空题空格的设置来看,至少应当包括以下 4 个特点 一、考查语法。每一个空格的设置都必定涉及到某一条或某几条语法规则,不会单纯考查单词的拼写和词组 的用法。 例 1 In Greece, women had little freedom. Wealthy women hardly left their houses, but they______ (allow) to attend weddings and some festivals.
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例 2 The ______ why I was sad was that he didn't understand me. 二、考虑语境。既然采用短文的形式来考查语法,其目的就是要利用短文有较强语境的特点来命题,否则, 就不如用单句来考查语法了。也就是说,考生要填出正确答案,至少需理解整个句子的意思或各分句之间的 逻辑关系,或者需要理解前后几个句子,甚至整个段落或篇章。 例 3 Several changes have brought wild animals to the improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts… 三、考点分散。基本上一个空格代表一个语法点,10 个空有可能涉及到 10 个语法点,至少也得有 7 个语法 点。笔者认为,即使对一些非常重要的语法项目,如动词时态、非谓语动词、不定代词等,单独一项也可能 是一空,至多两空,设三空的可能性是极小的。 四、适当提示。但是若涉及到动词的时态、语态、非谓语动词、词类转换等需要词形变化的空格. 例 4 Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ___________(reach) a record US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. 例 5 It would be ____________ (believe) that such an honest fellow should have betrayed his friends! 五、出题一般涉及到以下几个方面: 1)动词与介词或副词搭配构成的固定动词短语; 2)冠词的用法; 3)连词的用法,包括从属连词和并列连词; )派生词的用法; 5)动词的适当形式; 6)情态动词的用法; 7)定语从句、名词性从句的引导词等。 解答语法填空题的八条思路 1. 根据语法知识进行填充 2. 根据逻辑关系进行填充 3. 根据语篇标志进行填充 语篇是指比单个句子长的语言单位(句群、段落、篇章等) 。语篇间往往有标明内在联系的词,我们称这些词 为“语篇标志词”。如表示结构层次的有 first, second, third, finally 等;表示逻辑关系的有 thus,therefore,so 等; 表示转折关系或变换话题的有 however, but, by the way 等。“语篇标志词”对迅速理清文章的脉络,弄清上下文 关系很有帮助。 4.根据固定词组进行填充 熟练掌握一些常见的词组,如 as a matter of, be proud of, by the way, come from, congratulate?on?, devote?to?, earn one’s living, keep one’s word, make up one’s mind 等,对解题很有帮助。 5. 根据句型搭配进行填,就是根据一些常用的句型搭配,如 so/such?that?, it is?(for sb.) to do sth., There is no doubt that?, there is no sense in doing sth.等来解题。 6. 根据词汇知识进行填充 指根据某些词语在用法上的特殊搭配来解题。如下列各类动词必须牢记:只能接动词的-ing 形式作宾语的动 词,只能接 to do 作宾语的动词,接 to do 作补语的动词,接 do 作补语的动词,接 doing 或 done 作补语的动 词,对句式搭配要求较为特别的词语,等等。 7. 根据生活常识进行填充 I crossed the street to avoid 1 (meet) him, but he saw me and came running towards me. It was no use
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. Foremost, air and water quality in many cities have

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(pretend) that I had not seen him, so I waved to him. I never enjoy 4

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(meet) Nigel Dykes. He (come) with you.

never has anything

(do). No matter how busy you are, he always insists on

【考点设置】 一、动词(谓语/非谓语)
给出动词的原形,根据句子结构的需要给出其适当的形式。填动词形式,首先抓住主谓结构, 确定主句,剩下的部分,如有连词,则是句子,仍然有主谓结构,否则就用非谓语;是谓语就思考时态,语 态,主谓一致,是非谓语就看主动被动,有否先后关系。 1.… Ms Chen ______________(teach) me English since Junior 1, and to show my appreciation I decided to get her a present. (广州一模) 2… I was certain she would like it because I ______________ (tell) by my classmates that she loved hot food. (广州一模) 3… The exam, which was originally to be held in our classroom,__________

(change) to the library at the last minute. .(广州二模) 4. I had to leave work to take him to the hospital because he __________ (break) his finger. (深二模) 5. The child, Nicole Hobson, ______________ (take) by her mother to Children's Memorial Hospital about 11 p.m., Wednesday to check ?(汕头二模) 6. A transit spokesman said the driver should______________ (make) radio call to the control center for help. (汕头二模)

二、代词 挖掉代词,句子的结构受到破坏,句子间出现不连贯。
1. …I patiently walked to the library, took my seat and did some deep breathing to help relax ____________. (广州二模) 2. The little boy pulled ___________ right hand out of the pocket and studied a number of coins in it. (深一 模) 3. …the driver did _________to help and even stopped once to pick up more passengers.(汕头二模) 4.If you give your children ? that they can never do anything quite right, then they will regard _________as unfit or unable persons. (深圳罗湖) 5. Some 134,000 Chinese students went to study abroad, and 120,000 of _________ were self-funded students,?(茂名二模)

三、定语从句的引导词.
必须根据定语从句的信息和先行词进行推断,从而补出引导词,这本身就是考查逻辑思维能力。

1.?The exam, _________ was originally to be held in our classroom, was changed to the library at the last minute.(广州二模) 2? Then I went to the department store _________I worked part-time and bought her an expensive gift box of Sichuan beef. (广州一模) 3. It was a poem about me, ______ included the time ?(深二模) 4. At the same time, there had been a growing number of overseas students _______came back to China after study. (茂名二模)
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5. More and more Chinese students go abroad for study, _________ is supported by the Chinese government. (茂名二模)

四、连词(从属连词/并列连词)
A) 引导各种从句的连词叫从属连词。 如名词性从句的引导词 what, who, which, when, where, whatever, whoever, whichever, whether;副词从句引导词 where, wherever, when, if , how, unless, until …

1. The American Academy of Pediatrics (儿科) says _________ children really need for health development is more good, old-fashioned playtime.(四校联考) 2. I almost started to yell his name _____ I suddenly remembered he was in bed asleep. (深二模) 3. _________children believe they can succeed, they will never become totally independent. 4. Statistics show that _________China carried out the opening - up policy, a total of one million students have gone abroad for study. (茂名二模) 5._________we are satisfied with only a few rules we have memorized, we are not really learning the language. (佛山一模) 6. Some people, however, maintain that this is precisely _________ the danger lies. B) 并列句的各种关联词叫并列连词。如 and, but, or, though, although, so? 挖掉关联词,要想补上连词,思路必须与作者思路相吻合。 1. I had no idea how to do it. I tried to stay positive and persevered _________I finally found the solution. ? (广州二模) 2.? I asked my classmates about her interest _________ I made my final decision. (广州一模) 3.Tom, an 8—year—old boy, entered a hotel coffee shop _________sat at a table.(深一模) 4. It is difficult for parents of nearly every family to teach their children to be responsible for housework, _________with one of the following suggestions, you really can get your children to help at home. (深圳罗湖)

五、挖掉表示起承转合的副词或副词性短语
此功能于关联词相似。 只是这种副词 (短语) 在用法上更加灵活多变。 典型的有 though, however, also, therefore, still, besides, in addition, instead, or ,otherwise,first, second, then, finally, in a word 等等。

1.This, _________ , didn’t bother me because maths had always been my strongest subject. (广州二模) 2. Don’t always scold and give lots of praise_________ . (深圳罗湖) Keys: 1. however 2. instead

六、特殊句型(或固定短语)
考查对固定结构(短语)的熟悉掌握程度。属于字词层面考查语法。

1.It was not long____________the waitress came back and then she began to wipe down the table. 2. _________was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG! (广州一模) 3. So careless was I _______ I had forgotten all about that. (深二模)
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4.…"as a matter of _________ , you have done well and made great achievement?(惠州一模)

七、冠词
1.? But my mood quickly changed when I saw_____ first question. (广州二模) 2… Then I went to the department store … and bought her_________ expensive gift box of Sichuan beef. .(广州一模) 3. Tom, _________ 8—year—old boy, entered a hotel coffee shop. (深一模) 4.He talked about how I wrestled with him in the evenings and _____ good many other things. (深二模) 5. Television is not only a convenient source of entertainment, but also _____ comparatively cheap one. 东莞 ( 一模)

八、词形变化或者词性变化.
给出单词的原形,通过句子分析,缺少什么成分,再用正确的单词形式补充完整。这属于比较基础的 单词拼写方面的能力要求。 1… Mr Chen has taught me English since Junior 1, and to show my_________ (appreciate) I decided to get her a present. (广州一模) (广州二模) 2. …_________ (fortunate), I then noticed that I had just 10 minutes to complete the rest. 4. “Thirty-five cents,” she said _________ (rude). (深一模) 5. I must know how to care for others and try not to _________ (understand) them. (惠州一模)

3. Some people were now waiting for her service and the waitress grew a bit_________ (patience). (深一模)

九、介词或数词
1. I was always told that the three Ps,…,were a sure path_______ success. (广州二模) 2. "Don't be always particular _________ your present work and income. (惠州一模) 3. It began to make sense to me that I could include praise along ______constructive criticism. (深二模) 4. There is no easy way to success _________language learning. 5. It was his ______ (nine ) year of school. (深二模)

十、形容词/副词
1. One of the _________ (bad) gift choices I ever made was for my high school English teacher, Ms Chen. (广州一模) 2. I put the paper aside and turned to the _____ one, at the top of which?(深二模) 3. Many other actors are _________ (badly)off than me at present,?(惠州一模) 4. In 2006, over 40,000 overseas students came back, with 33,000 of them being self-fund students, 20% _________ than the year before. (茂名二模)

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