1.形容词、副词的作用与位置； ①多个形容词作定语排列的顺序 ②enough 作修饰成分时的位置问题及形容词作后置定语 ③形容词作伴随状语和原因状语 2.表语形容词的特点及连系动词+形容词作表语； 3.形容词、副词比较等级的用法； ①原级的用法 ②比较级的用法 ③最高级的用法 ④形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况 ⑤由 as/
so 组成的形容词或副词短语 ⑥more /less than 及其相关结构 4.容易混淆的形容词、副词的区别。
形容词和副词是历年英语高考的重点。要复习好这一块知识点，考生不仅要掌握其基础知识，同时要 牢记其中的重点和难点，也是高考的热点。 I.形容词、副词的作用与位置 1.形容词是用来修饰名词的，常被放在名词前作定语，或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词则用来修饰形容 词、动词，其他副词或者句子，一般位于形容词之前，动词之后或句子之首。以下属几种情况，须牢记： ①几个并列的形容词作定语，其语序通常为： 限定语（The、A）+ 描绘性形容词 + size（大小）+ shape（形状）+ age（年龄、时间）+ color（颜 色）+origin（国籍、来源）+material（材料）+ purpose（目的）+名词； a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella, the man’s first tow interesting little red French oil paitings 熟记口诀就可以顺利解题：限定描绘大长高，形状年龄和新老，颜色国籍跟材料，作用类别往后靠。 ②形容词短语作定语，定语后置； a language difficult to master, a leaning tower about 180 feet high This is a student worth of praise. They will turn their motherland into a country, beautiful and modern. ③表语形容词（afraid、alike、alone、asleep、awake、alive 等）作定语，定语后置； a man alive：活着的人 有些表身体健康状况的形容词如 well、faint、ill 只作表语。sick 既可作表语又可作定语，ill 如作定语 意为“bad” ； ④形容词作定语修饰由不定代词 one、 no、 any、 some 和 every 构成的复合词如 anything、 something 等时， 通常后置； I have something important to tell you. ⑤enough、nearby 修饰名词前置或后置，程度副词一般位于形容词、副词前面，enough 修饰形容词、 副词时，必须后置； ⑥else 常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语； ⑦几个副词并列作状语时，其顺序较灵活，但一般是：方式→地点→时间；
⑧频度副词如 often、always、usually 等在 be 动词后，行为动词前； ⑨副词作定语，定语后置； The person there is waiting for you. ⑩复合形容词常用作定语，个别也可以作表语。 He was a 12-year-old boy. He is good-natured. 复合形容词的构成： ▲形容词+名词-ed：kind-hearted 好心的，white-haired 白发的 ▲形容词+形容词：red-hot 炽热的，dark-blue 深蓝的 ▲形容词+现在分词：good-looking 好看的，easy-going 随和的 ▲副词+现在分词：hard-working 勤劳的，fast-moving 快速转动的 ▲副词+过去分词：hard-won 得来不易的，newly-made 新建的 ▲名词+形容词：life-long 终生的，world-famous 世界闻名的 ▲名词+现在分词：peace-loving 爱好和平的，fun-loving 爱开玩笑的 ▲名词+过去分词：snow-covered 白雪覆盖的，hand-made 手工的 ▲数词+名词 + ed：four-storeyed 4 层楼的，three-legged 3 条腿的 ▲数词+名词（名词用单数） ：ten-year 10 年的, two-man 两人的 2.形容词作伴随状语和原因状语 He spent 7days in the wind and snow，cold and hungry. 他在风雪中度过了 7 天，又冷又饿。 She stared into the distance, speechless for a long time. 她盯着远处看，好长时间不讲话。 Afraid of being caught，the thief hid himself under a bed. 因为害怕被抓，这个小偷藏在床下面。 II.连系动词与形容词 象 get,grow,become,feel,appear,prove ,look,keep,smell,taste,sound,go,turn,remain 等这些动词既可以用作 为实义动词又可以用作连系动词，因而要根据上下文语境判断究竟是什么性质的动动词才能正确解题。 请看下面这道选择题： ▲We don't care if a hunting dog smells_____,but we really don't want him to smell_____. A. well; well B. bad; badly C. well; badly D. badly; bad 第一个“smell”是“闻起来”的意思，是连系动词，用形容词。第二个“smell”是实义动词，用 副词来修饰；此外 well 作形容词是表示人身体好、气色好，用在此句中不行，只能作副词用。答案 是 B。句意是：“我们不在乎猎狗闻起来难闻，但是我们确实不希望它的嗅觉力差。 III.形容词、副词比较等级的用法 注意：many,old 和 far 比较级及最高级用法的区别 ①如果后接名词时，much more +不可数名词，many more +可数名词复数。 ②old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。elder，eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼 关系。 My elder brother is an engineer. Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. ③far 有两种比较级，farther，further..在英语中两者都可指距离。 在美语中，father 表示距离，further 表示进一步 I have nothing further to say. 1.原级的用法 表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时，用“as+原级形容词/副词+ as”的结构；表示双方不相等 时，用“not so(as)+原级形容词/副词+ as”的结构；表示一方是另一方的若干倍时，用“倍数+ as+原级形容
词/副词+ as”的结构。 Xiao Wang is as tall as Xiao Yu. This building looks not so (as)high as that one. Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you . This room is three times as large as that one. 2.比较级的用法 ①双方比较，表示一方超过另一方时，用“比较级+than”的结构表示； This picture is more beautiful than that one. 注意： ▲比较对象的一致性 请看下面这道选择题： The weather in China is different from__ __. A. in America B. one in America C. America D. that in America 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家，C 不能选。A 没有名词，后句成分不 全，排除。B 和 D 中，B 中的 one 常用来代替可数名词，而 that 可车以代替不可数或抽象名词，所 以选 D。 ▲要避免将主语包含在比较对象中 （错）China is larger than any country in Asia. （对）China is larger than any other countries in Asia. ▲注意比较对象的省略或隐藏： 有时省略或不点明被比较的对象， 而是通过语境来暗示被比较的对象。 请看下面这两道选择题： If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time 本题将比较的对象隐藏在虚拟条件句中，即：与没有考试的时候相比。本题答案选 D。 I don’t think this film is by far the most boring.I have seen____________. A. better B. worse C. the best D. the worst 由前文“我认为这部电影不是最没趣的”可知，“我看过(比这部)更差的电影”，省略了 than this one。 本题答案是 B。 It takes a long time to go there by train; it's ________by road. A. quick B. the quickest C. much quick D. quicker 由语境可知，句末省略了 than by train，用比较级。本题答案是 D。 ②表示一方不及另一方时，用“less+原级+than”的结构表示； This room is less beautiful than that one. ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时，可在比较级前加表示程度的状语，如 even、a lot、a bit、a little、 still、much、far、yet、by fay 等修饰； He works even harder than before. 注意：by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时，一般放在比较级的后面，如在前面，应在二者中 间加“the”。 He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers. ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时，用“the +比较级（主语+谓语） ，the +比较级（主语+谓语）” 的结构（意为“越……越……”） ； The harder he works, the happier he feels. ⑤不与其他事物相比，表示本身程度的改变时，用“比较级+ and+比较级”的结构； The weather is getting colder and colder. The girl becomes more and more beautiful. ⑥某些以-ior 结尾的形容词进行比较时，用 to 代替 than。这些词有 inferior（劣等的，次的） 、superior（较 好的，优于……） 、junior（资历较浅的） 、senior（资格较老的） 、prior（在……之前）等； He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry.
⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复，我们通常用 that(those)、one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that 指物,one 既 可指人又可指物。that 可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词，而 one 只能代替可数名词； The book on the table is more interesting than that(或 the one)on the desk. A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. ⑧否定词+比较级 该结构用否定形式表示肯定意义。要掌握该结构的用法，须注意以下几点： ▲该结构多为“can't ／couldn't ＋比较级”的形式 I can't agree with you more.我再同意你的意见不过了。 （或：我完全同意你的意见。 ） The weather couldn't be worse.天气再糟糕不过了。 He couldn't have done better.他做得再好不过了。 ▲用于该结构中的否定词除了 not 之外，还有 no，never，nothing 等 This could give her no greater pleasure.这使她再高兴不过了。 There's nothing cheaper.这东西再便宜不过了。 There is no greater love than that of a man who lays down his life for his friends. 为朋友而放弃生命的爱是最伟大的爱。 ▲当该结构中的比较级为 less 时，其意义为“一点也不” 试比较：He couldn't care more.他非常介意。 （或：他最关心不过了。 ） He couldn't care less.他毫不介意。 （或：他最漠不关心了。 ） 注意：反过来用肯定形式表示否定意义。这种用法主要见于： ▲know better than+不定式。这种结构意为“不至于” You have a better command of French than to make such mistakes. 你的法语较好，不至于犯这样的错误。 He is more experienced than to do such a thing. 他比较有经验，不至于做这样的事。 ▲more than…can。这种句型形式上是肯定，实际上有否定含义 The boys in the street have become very insolent and it is more than flesh and blood can bear. 街上的男孩变得非常无礼,到了人所不能忍受的地步。 The beauty of the place is more than I can describe. 那地方美得无法形容。 ⑨倍数表达法 ▲A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大（高）/这座新楼比那座旧楼大（高）三倍。 ▲A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 ▲A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上，两倍可以用 twice 或 double. 3.最高级的用法 ①三者或三者以上相比，表示最高程度时，用“the +最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比 较范围的介词短语； Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three. He works(the)hardest in his class. ②最高级可被序数词以及 much、by far、 nearly、almost 、by no means、not quite、 really、nothing not like 等词语所修饰； This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like the biggest.
③表示“最高程度”的形容词，如 excellent、extreme、perfect 等，没有最高级，也没有比较级。 ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时，被修饰的词往往省略； He is the tallest(boy)in his class. ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。 Of all the boys he came(the)earliest. 4.形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况 ①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词，副词最高级前可不加冠词； ②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词，或不加冠词，不表比较，表示“非常” ； He is a most clever young policeman.(most=very) The film is most interesting.(most=very) ③as+形容词+a+单数名词； This is as good an example as the other is. ④表示两者间“较??的一个”比较级前加 the； who is the older of the tow boys? ⑤在“the + 比较级…，the + 比较级…”结构中； ⑥在 same 前一般要加 the； ⑦What +a/an+形容词+单数可数名词=How+形容词+ a/an+单数可数名词 What an interesting film it is！=How interesting a film it is! ⑧so 和 such 的用法 so + 形容词 / 副词 + that … so + 形容词 + a（n）+ 单数可数名词 + that … so + many / much / little / few + 名词 + that … such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词 + that ? such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that … such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that … 下列词组中为什么只能用 so 不可用 such？ so much progress、so many people、so little food、so few apples 等。 因为名词受 many、much、little、few 等表示“多或少”意义的词修饰。 下列这句中 such 用得对不对？（对） 。为什么？ These are such little boys that they can’t dress themselves. 因为 little 在这儿表示“小”，而不是表示“少”的意思。 下列 so 的用法是错误的：so difficult problems, so hot weather 为什么？因为 problems 是复数，weather 是不可数名词。 ⑧有些形容词前加 the 成为名词。如 the poor、the rich 等。 5.由 as/so 组成的形容词或副词短语 ①as much as + 不可数名词：多达 Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons. ②as many as + 可数名词：多达 I have as a many as sixteen reference books. ③as early as：早在 As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island. ④as far as：远到；就……而知（论） We might go as far as (走到)the church and back. As far as I know（就我所知） ，he has been there before. ⑤may (might, could)as well：不妨、不如 Then you might as well stay with us here.
⑥as … as can be：到了最……的程度，极其 They are as unreliable as they can be.他们极其不可信。 ⑦as … as one can：尽其所能 He began to run, as fast as he could. ⑧as … as possible：尽可能 Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible. 6.more /less than 及其相关结构 第一类 ①more than＋具体数字=over：多于、超过…… He spoke English more than two years.(两年多) more than＋名词/动词/形容词/副词：不仅仅 China Daily is more than a newspaper and it can also help us learn English. ②not more than：不超过……，顶多……=at most There were not more than 70 women in the store then.（不足 70 个女性） ③no more than：仅仅，只不过 The theater was no more than a painted barn. 这戏院只不过是漆了油漆的库房而已（没什么大不了的） 。 ④less than：少于、不足…… Their car broke down where they drove less than five miles.（不到五英里） less than＋名词/形容词：仅仅 He is less than pleased to have visitors. ⑤not less than：……以上，至少……=at least He has not less than 2oo dollars.（至少 200 美元） ⑥no less than：不会少于……，与……一样，简直就…… It is no less than robbery to ask me for so much. 要我这么多钱，简直跟抢劫没有两样。 第二类 ①more＋形容词/副词/名词＋than：比……更…… I have found that he is a more efficient worker than any other one. ②more…than…：与其……不如…… He is not more an artist than a philosopher. 与其说他是位艺术家，不如说他是位哲学家。 ④no＋比较级＋than：仅仅…..，最多……，只不过……，和……一样不 This kind of plant grows no higher than one inch. 这种植物最多长到一英寸。 He is no more a good player than I am. 他和我一样都不是好球员（他也好不到哪里去） 。 ⑥not less…than：不比……少，不亚于…… She is not less charming than her daughter.她跟她女儿一样有魅力。 ⑦no less…than：不会比……差，正如……一样” A dolphin is no less a clever animal than a dog is.海豚不会比狗笨吧！ IV.容易混淆的形容词、副词的辨析 1.下列单词虽以-ly 结尾，但却是形容词而非副词 deadly,friendly,lovely,likely,lonely,silly,lively,brotherly,weekly 等。 2.有无 ly 的副词意义、用法有别 ②具体和抽象的关系
They buried the body very deep. 他们把尸体埋得很深。 （具体） His words deeply moved me. 他的话深深地打动了我。 （抽象） 类似的词：high/highly,wide/widely 4.搭配特别的形容词和副词 英语中有些形容词和副词与名词、动词、或另一形容词等的搭配与汉语不完全一样，在平时学习中通 过运用要把它们掌握好。 特别要记住下列与汉语不同的表达方法： well worth 很值得 wide awake 很清醒 fast/sound asleep 睡得很香 largely due to…主要因为 greatlyrespected/honoured 很受尊敬 badly/seriously hurt/injured 伤得很严重 rain/snow hard/heavily 下大雨（大雪） large/small population 人口多（少） heavy traffic 交通堵塞 5.体现两句间逻辑关系的连接性副词 解决这类问题，首先要弄清形容词和副词真正含义，在解题时要弄清上下文的逻辑关系。 常用的此类词有：besides 而且、再说,instead 而是，反而,though 不过，可是，然而,however 不过，仍 然，然而,thus/therefore 因此，所以,furthermore/moreover 此外，而且，再者,otherwise/or 否则，不 然,anyhow/anyway 反正，不管怎样,even so 即便如此，即使这样,or rather 更确切地说等等。 请看下列选择题： ①Progress so far has been very good. _______, we are sure that the project will be completed on time. A. Howeve B. Otherwise C. Therefore D. Besides “一直进展良好”与“按时完工”是因果关系，用 therefore。本题答案是 C。 ②The hurricane damaged many houses and business buildings;_____ , it caused 20 deaths. A. or else B. therefore C. after all D. besides 由前后语境不难确定，是要表示“此外，还有，而且”，用 besides。其它选项不合语境：or so 大约；therefore 因此；after all 毕竟。本题答案是 D。 ③Much of the power of the trade unions has been lost. _ , their political influence should be very great. (2006 广东) A. As a result B. As usual C. Even so D. So far 由前后的语意逻辑可知，所填之词应是表示“即使如此”之意，用 even so。句意：工会已经失去 很多权力了；即使这样，他们的政治影响还应当还是很大的。本题答案是 C。 6.too much 和 much too 的区别 ①too much 有下列用法 too much 的含义是“太多”，充当形容词用时，too 是副词，用来修饰 much，后接不可数名词。 I have too much homework to do.我有太多的家庭作业要做。 too much 充当副词用时，可用来修饰动词 Watching TV too much is bad for your health.看电视看得太多对你的健康有害。 too much 充当代词用时，后面不接名词，代替上下文提到的事物。 You gave me too much.你给我的太多了。 ②much too 意为“太”，much(副词)用来修饰 too(副词)，以加强语气，只可起副词作用，在句中修 饰形容词或副词。 It’s much too expensive.太贵了。 You walk(much)too far yesterday.昨天你散步走得太远了。 It’s much too cold.
1.—Why don’t you like the shirt?
—Its neck is not big for me at all. Have you got a shirt of this kind with _____ neck? A. the biggest B. a far bigger C. by far the biggest D. a more bigger 2.—The temperature today is 10℃ below zero. —Oh, it’s ____cold. A. the most B. the more C. most D. much more 3.—Do you think him naughty enough? —I’m afraid he’s ___than naughty. A. more clever B. clever C. much clever D. much more clever 4.Exercise is _____as any other to lose unwanted weight. A. so useful a way B. as a useful way C. as useful a way D. such a useful way 5._ ____, the boys were shouting and singing. A.Happy and excited B.Happily and excitedly C.To be happy and excited D.To be happily and excitedly 6.I’m glad to say that he’s already finished _____50% of the book in these three days. A.no less than B. no more than C. not more than D. much less than 7.The US is about the same size as China, but its population is five times_ ___. A.as little B. smaller C. as few D. fewer 8.—Are you going to the football game? —No, the tickets are ____expensive for me. A.very much B. so much C. far too D. highly 9.The little town has now grown into a modern big city, and is ___ what it used to be. A.twice the size than B. two times the size as C. twice the size as D. twice the size of 10.—What do you think of the plan? —I feel ___that we ought to give it up at once. A. strong B. stronger C. strongly D. it strong 11.To handle the financial crisis, the new government has to work more ______ with other nations, especially the less-affected ones. A.formally B. smoothly C. carefully D. closely 12.The more teenagers watch actors smoking in films, the more ______ they are to take up the habit of smoking themselves. A. likely B. simply C. probably D. possibly 13.—Haven’t you seen the speed limit sign? Please drive _______. —Sorry, but I have to. A. more slowly a bit B. slowly a bit more C. a bit more slowly D. slowly more a bit 14.—This book by Tony Garrison is of great use for our course. —But I think his latest one is _______ worth reading. A.better B. more C. most D. very 15.After hearing the manager's stating their future plan, Mr．Brown came back home, ____． A.excited and hopefully B.exciting and hopeful C.excited and hopeful D.excitingly and hopefully 16. —Do you think the weather is good enough for an outing? —Yes, you couldn’t hope for _____at the time of the year. A. a nice day B. the nicer day C. a nicer day D. the nicest day 17.This kind of fried chickens sells ______, mainly because it tastes _____ _. A. well; good B. good; well C. to be good; well D. to be well; good 18.How exciting this football match is!Have you ever watched________ one? A.a better B.another better C.a much too better D.a very good
19.With the help of the new equipment, our factory produced ________ VCD players in 2009 as the year before. A. as many as twice B. twice more than C. as twice many D. twice as many 20.In the eyes of Premier Wen Jiabao, there is never ____________thing as far as peasants are concerned. A. too small a B. a too small C. such small a D. a such small 21.He’s _______ working in Germany as a representative of a Chinese company. A.lately B.recently C.presently D.likely 22.—You know our manager has been in hospital for days? —Yes.I wonder if he is ___ better now. A. any B. some C. very D.too 23.—Are you satisfied with her work, sir? —Not at all. It couldn’t be any _______. A. better B. best C. worse D. worst 24.On the third floor there are two rooms, _____ is used as a meeting-room. A.one of them B. the larger of which C. and a larger of them D. the largest one of which 25.People are always on the go , so they spend their weekend on housework . A.most B．almost C.mostly D.nearly 26.These natural parks are very important for preserving many animals, which would _______ run the risk of becoming extinct. A.otherwise B. therefore C. nevertheless D. however 27.—Have your working conditions improved? —No, _____ than before, I’m afraid. A. no better B. a little better C. not worse D. no worse 28.My parents want me to take_________maths lessons at the weekend, but I want to play and have fun. A. extra B. available C. former D. recent 29.The dress is really fashionable and eye-catching, but it is ______ too big for me. A. fairly B. rather C. quite D. pretty 30.It took ______ building supplies to construct these energy-saving houses. It took brains, too. A. other than B. more than C. rather than D. less than 31.—You’re not worried about your English, are you? —No, certainly not. Not Chinese, not math and _____ English. A. as far as B. at the least C. best of all D. least of all 32.I’m not a little tired today after giving the room a thorough cleaning and I have never had ____ today. A. as tiring a day as B. as a tiring day C. tiring as a day as D. day as a tiring as 33.—It is said that the number of Chinese characters you can type on your mobile phone is the total number of Chinese characters. —I know. That is because the character input systems are made by foreign cell phone producers. A. much than 25 percent B. 25 percent as less as C.25 percent less than D. 25 percent as much 34. There was no news;____, she didn’t give up hope. A. moreover B. besides C. but D. nevertheless 35. Although she could speak very little Chinese, _______ we did manage to communicate with her.. A. anyhow B. anyway C. somewhere D. somehow 36.The boat is ________ small, we can’t put _______ food in it. A. much too; so many B. much too; too much C. too much; much too D. too much; so much 37.Those who are not ___ with the progress they 've made will have greater success. A．proud B. afraid C. popular D. content 38.— Don’t you agree with what he said?
—Yes，_______! It can’t be better． A.approximately B. absolutely C. relatively D. partly 39.The bridge is closed so we advise you to use a(n) ______ route. A. accurate B. alternative C. tentative D. primitive 40.—Can I buy Jane Rye here? —Sorry, but we’ll call you as soon as it becomes . A. present B. available C. convenient D. inexpensive 41.—Why couldn’t they meet us at five o’clock? —Because they were delayed by _________. A. heavy traffic B. heavy traffics C. crowded traffic D. crowded traffics 42.I think Zheng Jie is _______ a rising tennis star. She has put China on the tennis map. A.especially B.formally C.definitely D.gradually 43. It is not for me to return all the books to the library now because I still need them. A. mature B. convenient C. available D. tight 44.The workers are so _____ to the noise of the machine that they don’t even notice it during their work. A. accustomed B. subjective C. familiar D. associated 45.After I arrived at her house, she showed me into ____________. A. a room cosy or little B. a little cosy room C. a cosy little room D. cosy little a room 46.Letterboxes are much more ____ in the UK than in the US, where most people have a mailbox instead. A. common B. normal C. ordinary D. usual 47.He was robbed last night, but he didn’t have much on him then. A.fortunately B.eventually C.certainly D.surprisingly 48.Although my grandfather is in his eighties, he is still as ______ as a young man and hates sitting around doing nothing all day. A. enthusiastic B. automatic C. energetic D. innocent 49.Everything works out well. ____, we are sure that the experiment will be completed on time. A.Therefore B. While C. However D. Otherwise 50.It’s ______ to borrow money from your mother to settle your debt to your uncle. That’s just robbing Peter to pay Paul. A.ridiculous B. strange C. stubborn D. splendid
21-25CACBC 26-30AAABB 31-35DACDD 36-40CDBBB 41-45ACBAC 46-50AACAA