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Aluminum in Ground and Marine Transportation

Robert Sanders Chongqing University 2015 May-June

Outline: Ground Transportation
? Advantages of Aluminum
? Where

is aluminum most economical? ? Trucks
– Different kinds of trucks – Tankers and Tippers – North American and Europe experience – Fuel economy, payload, CO2 emissions

? Railroad Passenger and Freight Cars ? Buses ? Shipbuilding (Marine) Applications
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 2

General Benefits of Aluminum in Transportation
? Light-Weighting:
– 1/3 the weight of steel – Enables increased payloads for most applications

? Corrosion Resistance:
– Aluminum oxide causes natural barrier. This protective
layer instantly heals itself if scratched. Can not flake off. – No coatings or linings necessary. – No contamination to products being contained.

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Advantages of Using Aluminum – Corrosion Resistance
Permanent presence on the metal of a continuous and non-porous film of aluminum oxide known as “alumina” that makes the metal environmentally “passive”. It is formed as soon as the metal comes into contact with oxygen or water No need to paint flat beds or dump trucks, no rust when sheet is sheet is Sheared or scratched. Better appearance over time, easy to clean

Under unfavorable conditions, it is possible that the alumina film disappears or become non- protective
4

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

Plastic Pellet Transport – Corrosion Testing Aluminum Vs. Steel
COATED Steel – Rust Stains on Pellets BARE Aluminum – No Staining

samples and data from Alcoa Tech Center, Corrosion Laboratories
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 5

Reduction in CO2 over Vehicle Life

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Aluminum Use in Truck Applications
Aluminum Tankers

Medium Trucks (6-16T GVW)

Heavy Trucks (>16T GVW)

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Advantages of Aluminum (Vs. Steel)
? Light weighting saves 500-800 kg per trailer – Increased payload (payback is very short) – Marginal fuel savings (493 liters/160,000 km) – Better braking and improved safety (lower center of gravity) – Less damage to roads: Governments want to prevent road damage from overloaded trucks – Longer tire life for dump trailers: $400/year for 8-tire trailer ? Lower corrosion-related maintenance costs – No need to paint flat beds or dump trucks ?Cost to re-paint steel vehicles every five years: $600 – No rust when sheet is sheared or scratched – Better appearance over time, easy to clean ? Premium attractive appearance – Bright trim, bumpers, fuel tanks, tread plate
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 8

Aluminum in Trucking Applications

? By 1930’s aluminum was recognized as key weight saving material for trucks
– Delivery vehicles – Dump trucks – Tankers

1800 extra kg. per load 2000 extra liters per load
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 9

Different Types of Trucks

Tankers

Tanks for hauling dry materials
Tippers (Dump Trucks)
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Commercial Vehicles: Cube Out vs. Weigh Out
CUBE OUT
ALL SPACE filled but max. weight not reached

MAX WEIGHT reached but not all volume filled

WEIGH OUT
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015
Dr.-Ing. Dietrich Wieser

11

Europe vs North America
Typical European Trailer ? Limited in length ? At least one side is soft ? Weight limit is higher Typical American Trailer ? No limit on length ? Sides are painted sheet ? Weight limit is lower

Aluminium per vehicle (average):
Tractor Trailer in kg in kg EU US 280 550 650 1'400
Trailer per segment in kg weight sensitive non weight sensitive

1'950 2'160

330 1'250

North American trucks tend to use more aluminum compared to EU trucks.

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Where does Aluminum pay off?
EAA data for Western Europe

? Average use of Al on EU trailers is 650 kg/truck
– 65% extrusions – 28% sheet – 7% wheels

? Weight-limited trucks such as tankers and “tippers” (dump trucks) have much higher usage ? Tractors use an average of 280 kg Al per truck
– Cooling systems and fuel tanks are two areas with high aluminum usage
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 13

Potential Weight Savings when Aluminum is used (1137 KG)
Cab 200 KG Cab Doors 15 KG

Body Trim 10 KG

Cross members 150 KG

Bonnet 80 KG

Frame Rails 200 KG

Radiator Shutters 7 KG

Suspension 110 KG

Bumpers 15 KG

Engine Parts 50 KG

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

Transmission Housing 75 KG

Wheels 200 KG

Fuel Tanks 25 KG

14

Sheet Parts on Commercial Trailers in North America

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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How to Meet the Customer Needs?
? Pick the right alloy series and temper ? Understand the surface requirements ? Consider the cost
Corrosion Resistance Cost Fatigue

? Alloy Selection
– – – – – 6xxx –T6= economical extrusions 3xxx/5xxx-H48 painted sheet 5xxx –O = good forming for fuel tanks 5xxx-H11X for high-toughness tankers 1xxx or 3xxx for corrosion resistance

? Surface Finish
– Bright for surface appearance – Painted = economics + corrosion

Surface Quality

Formability

Finishing

? Cost
– NHTed sheet is economical – Use bare material where possible

Strength Joining

Fracture Toughness

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Selection of Aluminum Alloys for Trucks
Use
Chassis, Trailer Frames Side Sheets Roof Fuel Tanks Compressed Air Wheels Cab Sheets Bumpers Trim

Alloy/Product
6061-T6 Extrusion 3004, 5052-H291 Sheet 3003-H1x Sheet 5052-O Sheet 5083, 5754, 5154 Sheet 6061-T6 Forgings 6022, 6111-T4, 5182-O Sheet 6061 Extrusions, 5xxx Sheet Various 3xxx, 5xxx Sheet

Key Attributes
Strength, fatigue* Painted, durability Wide width Impact resistance* Impact resistance* Fatigue, surface, wear Formability Surface, strength Good surface

* After welding
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 17

Non-Heat Treatable Alloys for Commercial Transportation
These alloys are commonly used for rail, road, and marine applications.

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Aluminum in Tanker trucks
? Aluminum tankers currently carry oil, petrol (gasoline), chemicals, cement, and other dense materials ? Currently alloy 5083 (Europe) and 5454 (USA) are most commonly used alloys ? New alloys are being introduced in Europe to provide higher tensile strength and elongation to meet safety requirements with lighter thickness ? In USA and Europe – Aluminum has completely replaced steel for these applications. Stainless is used for some specialized products.
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 19

Economics: Aluminum Tankers
? Practically all aluminum tanker trucks are
limited by total weight (not by volume)

? Lightweighting with Aluminum can haul
more volume at same weight – or – haul equal volume at lower weight - typically 10% higher payload for same or less operating cost vs steel design

? Value of Aluminum is in reduced number of
loads to haul same amount of cargo
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 20

Aluminum Offers Other Benefits for Tankers

? Improved Appearance for a Better Image
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 21

Advantages of Using Aluminum – Non-combustible material, No Sparkling ? Non Combustible material
– Aluminum and its alloys are, under atmospheric conditions, totally noncombustible and do not contribute to the spread of fire. No toxic or flammable gases are released on melting

? No Sparking
– Good electrical conductivity – Less Static concentration – No sparkling when impact or fallover
22 Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 22

Advantages of Using Aluminum – Great Design Flexibility
? A variety of aluminum alloys and fabricating processes offer designers enormous opportunities ? Available as: extrusion, sheet, plate, casting and forgings. ? A variety of joining techniques: Welding, riveting, crimping and bonding are all used in manufacturing truck components.
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 23

Advantages of Using Aluminum – Long service life-

15-20 year lifetimes are typical for petrol tankers

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Alloy Selection for Tankers
? Alloy 5454 (2.7 Mg, 0.6 Mn) – H321 temper – Good combination of strength and formability – Excellent corrosion resistance, even after elevated temperature
exposure – Good weldability – Good fatigue resistance after welding

? Available as Bulk Transport Sheet (BTS) in various finishes – Mill finish – Consistent uniform surface finish – Specular – Engineered bright finish – Al Bright – ultimate in brightness and image clarity ? Alloys 5083 and 5182 – standard alloys used in Europe
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 25

Safety of Aluminum Tankers
? The tankers have to designed to resist rolling over. They have to absorb energy of collisions by deformations and they don’t have to tear abruptly. ? T? V has established a mechanical test to evaluate and approve aluminium alloys. The test is meant to measure the piercing resistance.

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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ADR Description
? The EU has special requirements for aluminum tanks used to transport gasoline and other dangerous goods ? - before 2003; Rm x A = 4675 (Rm ≥ 275MPa, A ≥ 17%) wall thickness t = 5,12mm

- after 2003 ; with above mat., wall th. ≥ 6,6mm ; Rm x A = 6600 (Rm ≥ 275MPa, A ≥ 24%) wall thickness t = 5,3mm first generation ; Rm x A = 7150 (Rm ≥ 275MPa, A ≥ 26%) wall thickness t = 5,0mm second generation
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 27

Comparison of Tanker Materials
Improvements needed in ductility to meet the new requirement
Rm Rp,02
(MPa)

Alloy - Product AA5086* AA5083* AA5186/5182* 5182 RTSG1
Notes :

Temper 0/H111 0/H111 0/H111 0/H111

A(2)
(%)

(MPa)

Rm x A5 ≥ 4320 ≥ 4930 ≥ 6600 ≥ 7280

≥ 240 ≥ 290 ≥ 275 ≥ 280

≥ 100 ≥ 145 ≥ 125 ≥ 125

≥ 18 ≥ 17 ≥ 24 ≥ 26

*) Mechanical Properties according to EN14286 : 2004 1) Mechanical properties obtained from tensile testing according to EN 10002-1 standard at ambient temperature on samples taken on the long transverse.

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Aluminum Usage in Railroad Car Applications

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Passenger RR Car Body Materials
Geographic preferences dictate material choices
Aluminum used due to ? improved corrosion resistance ( against some stainless steels) ? lightweighting improves performance of urban trains/metros ? existing experience at key manufacturers

TGV Duplex

Pendolino

NYC Subway
aluminum trains steel trains both materials

Delhi Metro
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

Buenos Aires Metrovias

Source: BCG Analysis (2007) 30

Aluminium Passenger Rail Car Body Design
?Design is more like an aircraft than an automobile ?A few major companies dominate this business

?Costs for aluminum and steel car body comparable
8 – 10 mt aluminum materials for one car

? 80% - 90% large hollow extrusions
? ? ? ? length of up to 25 m; width up to 700 mm high design complexity (hollow type profiles) very high quality requirements (tolerances, surfaces) alloys mainly 6005, some 6060 or 6082) Roof structure detail

? 10% - 20% typical sheet and plate (> 4 mm thick)
? mostly low volumes for each dimension ? alloys 6082 and 5083

? Few lateral welded joints
? low manufacturing costs

? Longitudinal welds can be highly automated
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015
Source: Siemens

31

Aluminium for Freight Rail Cars
Biggest benefit for weight sensitive goods (with high density) ? increased payload!

? Light-Weighting:
? 1/3 the weight of steel ? Enables increased payloads for most applications

? Corrosion Resistance:
? Aluminum oxide causes natural barrier. This protective

layer instantly heals itself if scratched. Can not flake off ? No coatings or linings necessary ? No contamination to products being contained

? Aluminum in Rail Cars:
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Increased Cargo Capacity per Unit Train Greater Revenue to Operating Cost Ratio Reduced Operating Costs Corrosion and Surface Metal Treatment Eliminated Reduced Maintenance Costs - 10% less proven over time Ease of Repairing Aluminum Added Value of Recycling Aluminum at End of Lifecycle

Literature:
- Aluminum for more efficient railroad cars; Aluminum Association, 1980 - The Coal Industry Learned….; Alcoa

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

Source: 32ATC

Aluminium Freight Rail Cars
Aluminum Freight Rail Car Materials:
4 - 6 Mt aluminum materials for one car

? 50% - 55% extrusions (6061-T6)
? up to 430 mm circle size, ? solid and hollow structural shapes ? alloys mainly 6061, 6082 and 6005

? 45% - 50% shates and plates (5083 and 5454)
? in 4.5 to 9.0 mm thickness, ? up to 2440 mm width and ? up to 12440 mm length; ? alloys 5083 and 5054

? fasteners (mainly Huck bolts)

Aluminium freight rail cars are used widelyin US but there are no aluminium freight rail cars in Europe
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 Source: 33 ATC

Bus Transportation
? Buses have not been as aggressively lighweighted as trucks and freight trains (…..not weight limited……more cost-sensitive) ? Some companies have adopted construction techniques used for rail vehicles. (Alcan has supplied composite materials to both RR and bus applications). ? In North America, aluminum wheels have been substituted as a way to save weight. ? 2008 – China Bus Project w/ Alcoa and Yutong
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 34

Al Saves Fuel and CO2

Source: Alcoa
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 35

China Transit Bus - Overview
? ? ? ? Alcoa Partnership with Yutong bus, ZhengZhou, China Aluminum body structure and wheels 50-80 tons of CO2 saved per bus lifetime 2 Prototypes were on the road July 1, 2008

Source: US ATC, Bus Life-cycle Is conservatively 600,000km in 10 years, Customer Interview

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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China Bus Project – Material Mix
Aluminum upper structure

Existing steel chassis

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Weight Savings Summary
Aluminum Weight (kg) Weight Savings

Aluminum Bus Body and outer panels

1130 kg

955 kg

Aluminum Wheels

175 kg

170 kg

Total Weight Savings = 1125 kg 10% of total bus weight
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 38

Aluminum Alloys for Marine Applications
Used for both military and civilian ships and boats. Used by US military since 1960’s.

Now used for high-speed transportation in Asia.
USS Asheville - 1966

Australian ferry carries cars and passengers.
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 39

Shipbuilding – Why Aluminum?
Major Considerations: ? Strength (weld strength especially) ? Corrosion Resistance ? Joining ? Weight savings (40% vs steel is typical) Intermediate Considerations: ? Cost (only <5% of construction is materials) ? Fatigue/Fracture Toughness (5xxx alloys excellent) Minor Considerations: ? Formability (extensive forming usually not used) ? Surface quality/finishing
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 40

Alloy Selection – Sheet and Plate
A chain is only as strong as the weakest link…

Fusion welding is the most common joining method for building ship structures.

The weld is the weakest link in this chain!
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 41

Alloy Selection – Sheet and Plate
Because welded aluminum has O-temper/as-cast strength, alloys should be chosen that have high O-temper strength
200

O-Temper Yield Strength, MPa

150
115 115

145

100
70 50 30 30 35 40 40 55 55

90

50

0

1060

1350

1100

3003

5005

5457

3105

5050

3004

5052

5454

5086

5083

5456

Annealed D YS, MPa

160

(wt %) Solute

Alloy

….so the logical choice is high Mg high Mn alloys in the 5xxx series, such as 5086, 5083, 5456, etc. (plus 5454 for some lower strength recreational/small vessels)….
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 42

Alloy Selection – Sheet and Plate
Alloy Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr

O-Temper Strength, MPa

AA5454 AA5086 AA5083

0.25 0.40 0.40

0.40 0.50 0.40

0.10 0.10 0.10

0.50-1.0 0.20-0.7 0.40-1.0

2.4-3.0 3.5-4.5 4.0-4.9

.05-.20 .05-.25 .05-.25

115 115 145

AA5456

0.25

0.40
6.0

0.10

0.50-1.0

4.7-5.5

.05-.20

160

5456

5.0

Mg, wt.%

4.0
5086

5083

5383

3.0
5454

2.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Mn, wt.% 0.8 1.0

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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Extrusions
Used for ribs, supports, spars, reinforcements. Often welded to sheet or plate. ? ? ? ? Commonly used marine extrusion alloys: 6005, 6061 and 6082 Should not be used in direct contact with seawater 6061 most commonly used in USA, and 6082 in Europe Extrusions available in long lengths and a variety of cross-sectional shapes and sizes
Alloy
6005 6061 6082

Si
0.6-0.9 0.40-0.8 0.7-1.3

Fe
0.35 0.7 0.50

Cu
0.10 0.15-0.40 0.10

Mn
0.10 0.15 0.40-1.0

Mg
0.40-0.6 0.8-1.2 0.6-1.2

Cr
0.10 0.04-0.35 0.25

maximum values allowed (limits) unless a range is stated
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 44

Summary: Ground Transportation
? Legislated emissions and CO2 reductions will drive improvements in ground transportation and offer opportunities for aluminum ? Weight-limited applications are more attractive for aluminum than volume-limited trucks; but both cabs and trailers use large amounts of aluminum. ? Advantages compared to steel are improved corrosion resistance, lower density, and safety. ? Passenger RR cars are made largely of complex extruded sections and small amoutns of sheet. ? Freight RR car applications in aluminum are limited to North America and China where coal transportation is necessary. ? Buses are not currently a large opportunity for aluminum – unless something will drive significant weight or emission reductions. ? Marine alloys are selected for strength after welding and corrosion resistance. High-Mg 5xxx alloys and 6xxx extrusions are most common.
Chongqing University – May-June, 2015 45

Aluminum means “Sustainable Transportation”

Source: Alcoa

Chongqing University – May-June, 2015

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