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European Culture---An Introduction

Foreign language College

Zhao Hongchun

European Culture: an Introduction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Greek culture and Roman culture 1900 BC---146 BC
146 BC---1453 AD

The Bible and Christianity The Middle Ages Renaissance and Reformation The Seventeenth Century The Age of Enlightenment Romanticism Marxism and Darwinism

the 5th BC---the 4th AD the 5th AD---1500 AD the 14th AD---the middle17th Reformation ---the 16th AD
The Middle Ages---Modern Time began the second half of 18th

The late 18th and early 19th
1848 The Manifesto of the Communist Party; 1859 物种起源 the last half of 19th---early 20th 20th--- the 1th/2th world wars Socialism

9 Realism 10 Modernism and other trends

Division Seven


Foreign language College

Zhao Hongchun

I. General Introduction II. Romanticism in Germany III. Romanticism in England IV. Romanticism in France V. Romanticism in Russia

VI. Concluding Remarks---A True Movement
VII. Art and Architecture

VIII. Music

I. General Introduction
1.What is Romanticism? Romanticism was a movement in literature, philosophy, music and art which developed in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Starting from the ideas of Rousseau in France and from the Storm and Stress movement in Germany, it held that classicism, dominant since the 16th century, failed to express man?s emotional nature and overlooked his profound inner forces.

I. General Introduction Romanticism emphasized individual values and aspirations above those of society. As a reaction to the industrial revolution, it looked to the Middle Ages and direct contact with nature for inspiration. It gave impetus to the national liberation movement in 19th century Europe.

I. General Introduction
Literature took the full force of Romanticism. It brought forth a full flowering of literary talents. The leading Romantic writers were Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Scott, Byron, Shelley and Keats in England, Hugo and Sand in France, Heine in Ger-many, Manzoni and Leopardi in Italy, Pushkin in Russia, Michie-wicz in Poland.

Their works, diversified in character and daring in spirit, all depicted man?s eager search for individual freedom, pure sentiments and ideal beauty.

I. General Introduction

Romantic philosophy, though disorganized and underdeveloped as a system, was an overflow of powerful ideas that pushed the movement ahead. It spread doubts about the rational and empirical approaches to truth and justice. It rejected a mechanistic view of the universe and challenged the fundamental thesis of religion. They held up the individual man of pure sentiments as a way of personal salvation amidst the vices of industrialized society.

I. General Introduction Art and Architecture The artists took it upon themselves to choose new themes and invent new styles in their artistic creation. Abandoning the religious and mythological motifs, they focused instead on historical and contemporary literary themes and figures. They also began to highlight nature, presenting it through direct and openair visions.

I. General Introduction Music in the Romantic period echoed ever more closely the new ideas and themes in art and literature. There occurred an onrush of expressive program music, art songs and operas which all bore the characteristic of originality and difference. They stressed the role of human sentiments, imagination and love of nature and they drew extensively on folk music in their compositions. They also became conscious of their national feelings and tried hard to give them a full expression.

2. Two Revolutions a. The French Revolution It established bourgeois democracy with its slogans of liberty, equality and universal brotherhood. Individualism prevailed. Writers and artists sought to express man?s inner

feelings freely. At the same time, national liberation movements spread, calling forth national literatures in their wake.

2. Two Revolutions
b. The Industrial Revolution It made possible by technological advances such as, James Watt's invention of the steam engine in 1764, brought unforeseen changes to each individual and society as a whole. Man?s thinking was fundamentally affected. New economic ideas were put forward by Adam Smith (1723—1790) in his book The Wealth of Nations (1776), which laid the theoretical groundwork for capitalism.

2. Two Revolutions b. The Industrial Revolution

Capitalist industrialization, however, brought great sufferings to the poor. Writers reacted by wanting to return to the simpler life of the Middle Ages or trying to find consolation in Nature, or doing both at the same time.

II. Romanticism in Germany

1. Goethe歌德 (1749—1832) and Schiller 席勒(1759—1805)

The Storm and Stress movement prepared the way for European Romanticism. Goethe?s novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther《少 年维特之烦恼》 (1774), played an enormous role in the spread of Romantic sentiment among the young.

II. Romanticism in German
维特出生于一个较富裕的中产阶级 家庭,受过良好的教育。他能诗善画, 热爱自然,多情善感。初春的一天,为 了排遣内心的烦恼,他告别了家人与好 友,来到一个风景宜人的偏僻山村。 这位靠父亲遗产过着自由自在生活的 少年,对山村的自然景色和纯朴的生活 产生了浓厚的兴趣。山村的一切如天堂 般美好,青山幽谷、晨曦暮霭、村童幼 女??这些使他感到宛如生活在世外桃 源,忘掉了一切烦恼。没过多久,在一 次舞会上,维特认识了当地一位法官的 女儿绿蒂,便一下子迷上了她。

II. Romanticism in German
虽然绿蒂早已定婚,但对维特非常 倾心。从此以后,尽管日月升起又落下, 维特却再也分不清白天和黑夜。在他心 中只有绿蒂。最终在朋友的劝说下,他 下决心离开心爱的绿蒂,离开那曾经给 他带来欢乐与幸福的小山村。
维特回到城市,在公使馆当了办事 员。他尽可能使自己适应这份工作,然 而官僚习气十足的上司对他的工作吹毛 求疵,处处刁难他,他的同事们也戒备 提防,唯恐别人超过自己,这一切都使 他产生许多苦恼。

圣诞节前的一天,他又来到心上人绿蒂的身边,作最后的诀别。 两天后,他留下令人不忍卒读的遗书,午夜时分,他一边默念着 “绿蒂!绿蒂!别了啊,别了!”,一边拿起她丈夫的手枪结束 了自己的生命,同时也结束了自己的烦恼。

A Chinese translation of it by Guo Moruo during the New Culture Movement of 1919 also moved many young Chinese to tears, a situation which drew from the translator these sentimental lines:


Schiller started off as a Romantic. In his first play The Robbers《强盗》 (1781), he expressed a strong resentment against the repressive feudal rule.
It was Love and Intrigue that made Schiller the best dramatist for the “Storm and Stress” ideas. In his tragedy, Schiller gave full voice to his thoughts of idealism, his longing for freedom and love.

2. Schlegel Brothers(施莱格尔兄弟) (the Jena School) A second wave of romantic writers appeared in Germany. They were the Schlegel brothers, Tieck, Novalis and others. They were based in Jena, therefore, came to be known as the Jena School. (耶拿派)

August W. von Schlegel (1767—1845)
His greatest achievement was in the field of translation. He translated 17 plays by Shakespeare into the German language, which remain the standard texts for the German theatre even today. Friedrich von Schlegel (1772—1829) He attempted to do away with the distinctions between different modes of writings, blending poetry, criticism, oratory and philosophy into a whole.

3. Heinrich Heine (海涅)(1797—1856)
He was also both romantic and classicist

, but became a realist in his years of exile
in France. The most popular of Heine?s lyrics is perhaps Die Lorelei: Loreley. 《洛勒莱》 Indeed, Heine writes such wonderful German that people say that it is worthwhile to learn German well in order to appreciate Heine?s lyrics in the original.

III. Romanticism in England An engraver by trade, Blake wrote the most original kind of poetry
威廉.布莱克 in the simplest language in his two early collections: Songs of Innocence 《纯真之歌》(1789) and Songs of Experience 《经验之歌》 (1794).

His preface to Milton is another striking poem, from which people often quote the phrase “dark Satanic Mills” to show his denunciation of capitalist industrialization

‘ I wander thro? each charter?d street,
And mark in evEry face I meet

III. Romanticism in England

Near where the charter?d Thames does flow,

Mark of weakness, marks of woe.
我走过每条独占的街道, 徘徊在独占的泰晤士河边, While the Songs of Innocence 我看见每个过往的行人 有一张衰弱,痛苦的脸。

are mostly happy, the Songs of Experience are bitter and contain some of his most deeplv felt lines

2. The Lakers---(Wordsworth and Coleridge)
In 1798, a volume of poems was published in London under the title Lyrical Ballads. It had a preface proclaiming a new literary theory which held that “poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings ... recollected in tranquillity.”

They were then living in the Lake District. Hence they were called the “Lakers”.

Wordsworth had been enthusiastic about the French Revolution, describing his own feeling in these famous lines: Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive,
But to be young was very Heaven! (The Prelude, Book XI)

Coleridge wrote such poems as Kubla Khan 《乎必烈汗》 and The Rime of the Ancient Mariner《古舟子咏》. He represented the mysterious and exotic side of Romanticism. He was also an influential literary critic and emphasized the importance of imagination in his theory.

3. George Gordon Byron (1788--1842)
Byron wrote many other works, but

Don Juan 《唐璜》(1819—1824), the
long satirical epic, from which the quoted lines are taken, is generally considered his masterpiece. The Chinese writer Lu Xun, while yet a medical student in Tokyo, wrote about the impact of Byron?s poetry in eastern Europe in a long essay entitled 《摩罗诗力说》 (“On the Power of Satanic Poetry”)

4. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792--1822) He is also known to Chinese readers, mainly for his Ode to the West Wind 《西风颂》 (1820), whose ending:
“If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?” It has given courage to many revolutionaries faced with reverses, even death.

5. John Keats (1795--1821)

His great work:
Ode to a Nightingale 《夜莺颂》

Ode on a Grecian Urn 《希腊古瓮颂》with its striking ending: Beauty is truth, truth beauty.

IV. Romanticism in France 1. Chateaubriand (夏多布里昂)(1768—1848)

He wrote a book called the Genius of Christianity 《基督 教的真谛》(1802) in which he praised the church for its achievements in the field of art and learning.

IV. Romanticism in France His true Romanticism came out in his two novels, Atala 《阿塔拉》(1801) and Rene《勒内》 (1802).

The first of them tells the love between an Indian and a French girl in America. The second has for its hero a young Frenchman with Wertherish sorrows.

IV. Romanticism in France 2. Victor Hugo (雨果) (1802—1885) An ardent Romantic, he wrote in the preface to his play Cromwell (1828) a veritable manifesto of romantic drama which angered all classicists. Thus when his tragedy Hernani (1830) was produced, it caused a riot between the classicists and the romanticists.

IV. Romanticism in France His poetic works include Les Feuilles d‘automne 《秋叶集》(1831) and La Legende des siicles 《历代传说》(1859). Some consider him the greatest poet of his day.

IV. Romanticism in France To readers in general in France and the world over, he is important as the author of Notre Dame de Paris 《巴黎圣母院》(1831) and Les Miserables 《悲惨世界》(1862). There have been many films based on these two novels.

IV. Romanticism in France
Jean Valjean, the core of this long novel, stole a loaf of bread to feed his starving sister and her family and was sentenced to a long term in prison for that. Finally released, he tried to lead a decent life and to help others. Love of humanity is one of the themes of the book. Hugo makes it clear that a man cannot exist without love, for if he tries, he becomes warped and less than a man. Jean Valjean grows as a person, becomes a good and honourable man after he has found the love of a helpless little girl, Cosette, daughter of a prostitute, whom he takes care of. By contrast, the police inspector is inhuman, with his fanatical sense of duty.

IV. Romanticism in France 3. George Sand (乔治.桑) (1804—1876) She led a hard but eventful life, battling her way through social prejudice and misunderstanding. Two things caused the most bitter experience in her life: her conventional marriage and her gender of a woman.

IV. Romanticism in France 3. George Sand (乔治.桑) (1804—1876)

Her first novel Indiana 《安蒂亚娜》came out in 1832 under a male pen name. The novel, in the author?s
own words, “is love beating its head against the barriers raised by civilization”(爱情用自己的头去撞击文明所累积起 的壁垒). It proposed a new ethic, one that upheld love above society?s moral conventions.

V. Romanticism in Russia 1. Pushkin (普希金) (1799—1837) Pushkin stood in the van of the Romantic movement in Russia. Eugene Onegin《叶甫盖 尼.奥涅金》 took Pushkin 8 years to finish and is generally recognized as his masterpiece. It is a verse-novel based on Byron?s model Don Juan.

V. Romanticism in Russia
叶甫盖尼.奥涅金是圣彼得堡的一个贵族青年,他厌倦 了贵族生活,变成了一个花花公子和悲观厌世的人。

不久,奥涅金离开了圣彼得堡,遇到了地主家的女儿--美丽的达吉亚娜。达吉亚娜爱上了奥涅金。但是当她 向他表白爱情后,奥涅金却拒绝了她。因为他是个厌世 主义者,对爱情和生活都不感兴趣。在一次晚会上,奥 涅金调戏达吉亚娜的妹妹奥丽佳,于是他最好的朋友连 斯基向他提出决斗,决斗中连斯基被杀。奥涅金离开了 那里,在俄国游历了3年后,又回到了圣彼得堡。在那 里,他再次遇见了达吉亚娜,而此时的她已嫁给了一个 贵族。现在轮到奥涅金达吉亚娜表白自己的爱情而遭拒 绝。最终他向命运屈服。

V. Romanticism in Russia
Tatyana embodies all the Slavic virtues while Onegin sets up the type of the “superfluous man(多余人)” for the numerous Russian novels to come. What stands in the way of their love seems to be a conflict between Onegin’s dissatisfaction with the imperfect Russian society and his cynic, even pessimistic attitude towards life. It in turn reflects upon the impact of western decadence and corruption on Russian youths with progressive thinking.

V. Romanticism in Russia
“superfluous man(多余人)” 指当时一些所谓的贵族 知识分子,虽然受到资本主义文明的熏陶,有一定 的社会判断能力,但由于脱离人民群众,看不到变 革俄国的社会力量,认不清前进道路的方向,因而 在现实面前显得软弱无能。

V. Romanticism in Russia 2. Mikhail Y. Lermontov (莱蒙托夫) (1814—1841) He began as a defiant rebel, at odds with the oppressive society. His novel A Hero of Our Time《当代英雄》 (1840) draws a fine portrait of such a figure.

VI. Concluding Remarks—A True Movement The Romantic movement was a true movement in that it was international in scope and produced not just works of merit but a whole literature.

VII. Arts and Architecture
Art and Architecture The artists took it upon themselves to choose new themes and invent new styles in their artistic creation. Abandoning the religious and mythological motifs, they focused instead on historical and contemporary literary themes and figures. They also began to highlight nature, presenting it through direct and open-air visions.

VII. Arts and Architecture 1. Paintings 1). Goya((戈雅) (1746----1828) Goya was a revolutionary Spanish court painter and etcher. He was best known for his portraits of royalty and nobility. Goya was remarkable in using brilliant color along with light and shade to achieve dramatic effects.

VII. Arts and Architecture
Major Works: The Parasol《阳伞》, an early painting in. a mood of gaiety.

VII. Arts and Architecture
The Execution of the Third of May《1808年5月3日:枪 杀马德里保卫者》, a painting showing the shooting of a group of citizens of Madrid who had rioted against French soldiers the day before.

VII. Arts and Architecture
Family of Charles IV《查理四世一家》, this is one of the series of portraits done by Goya while he was a painter to Charles IV. It?s a group portrait done in a master stroke of vulgar humor, presenting the members of the royal family as stupid, pompous and disgusting.

VII. Arts and Architecture 2). David (大卫) (1748----1825)

The Death of Socrates,《苏格拉底之死》 this is a typical example of neoclassicism. The figures are as firm and solid as statues. Socrates is shown as a virtuous and heroic defender of freedom in ancient Athens, moreover, as the actual founder of the religion of reason. The picture breathes of the political ideals of the French Revolution.

画中所描绘的就是苏格拉底服毒自杀的情节,在一个阴暗坚固的牢狱中展开, 苏格拉底庄重地坐在床上,亲人和弟子们分列两旁;牢门半开,从门缝中射进 一束阳光,使画中人物在黑暗的背景衬托下格外突出;苏格拉底位于视觉中心 位置,他裸露着久经磨难的瘦弱身子和坚强的意志,高举有力的左手继续向弟 子们阐述自己的见解和观点,同时镇静地伸出右手欲从弟子手中接过毒药杯, 面临死亡毫无畏惧。弟子们个个聚精会神地倾听老师的演讲,竟忘了老师死亡 将至。

VII. Arts and Architecture
苏格拉底是古希腊伟大的哲学家,主张无神论和言论自 由,但却与当局统治相向。苏格拉底被判处有罪以后, 他的学生已经为他打通所有关节,可以让他从狱中逃走。 并且劝说他,判他有罪是不正义的。然而苏格拉底选择 了慷慨走向刑场。他的理由:我是被国家判决有罪的, 如果我逃走了,法律得不到遵守,就会失去它应有的效 力和权威。

VII. Arts and Architecture The Oath of Horatti, 《荷拉斯兄弟之誓言》this is a strong and dramatic statement of the Corneillan concept of moral duty prevailing over personal feeling.

VII. Arts and Architecture 3). Delacroix (德拉克洛瓦) (1798----1863)
The Massacre at Chios,《希阿岛的屠杀》 a painting on the War of Independence of the Greeks against the Turks.

VII. Arts and Architecture 4). Gericault (热里科) (1791----1824)
His most famous work Raft of Madusa《梅杜萨之筏》.

VII. Arts and Architecture 5). Turner (特纳) (1775----1851)

Turner was an English landscape painter. The landscapes of his early years were calm and static.

VII. Arts and Architecture 6). Constable (康斯特布尔) (1776----1837)
His paintings of the English countryside such as Hay Wain 《干草车》, Hadleigh Castle《哈德雷城堡》.

VII. Arts and Architecture 2. Architecture
There was in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century a movement of revival in architecture.

VII. Arts and Architecture
1). The Houses of Parliament in London (伦敦的议会大 厦)were the largest monument of the Greek revival;

VII. Arts and Architecture
2). The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin (柏林的布兰登堡 大门)had some very distinct features of the Greek Doric style(多利安式风格)

VII. Arts and Architecture
3). Opera House in Paris(巴黎歌剧院) is a typical example of the revival of the Baroque style(巴洛克风格).

VIII. Music Music in the Romantic period echoed ever more closely the new ideas and themes in art and literature. There occurred an onrush of expressive program music, art songs and operas which all bore the characteristic of originality and difference. They stressed the role of human sentiments, imagination and love of nature and they drew extensively on folk music in their compositions. They also became conscious of their national feelings and tried hard to give them a full expression.

VIII. Music

VIII. Music

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