[命题分析] 《考试大纲》明确要求考生“理解文章的基本结构”。高考对 文章结构的考查主要涉及两个层次：一是按段落的组织方法 理解文章的结构，二是按写作方法(论证方法)理解文章的结 构。把握文章
的基本结构有利于理解文章的主题。篇章结构 题属于较高层次的考查，重在考查对整个文章内在逻辑关系 的理解，对文章结构的清晰认识及对文中举例的目的等，看 考生对整篇文章的整体理解如何。因此，把握全篇的文脉， 即句与句、段与段之间的逻辑关系对理解文章的基本结构会 有很大帮助。
按段落的组织方法理解文章的结构 文章的体裁有记叙文、说明文和议论文等，不同体裁的文章 的组织方法是不同的。文章结构题主要考查考生在理解全文 的基础上对文章所描述的事件的发展顺序、所说明事物的结 构层次或在论述观点过程中使用的论证方法进行推测、归纳 和总结的能力。主要设题形式： Which of the following shows the organization/structure of the passage? How is the passage organized? Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?
(2015· 高考北京卷) Technological change is everywhere and affects every aspect of life，mostly for the better.However，social changes that are brought about by new technology are often mistaken for a change in attitudes. An example at hand is the involvement of parents in the lives of their children who are attending college.Surveys (调查) on this topic suggest that parents today continue to be “very” or “somewhat” overly?protective even after their children move into college dormitories.The same surveys also indicate that
the rate of parental involvement is greater today than it was a
generation ago.This is usually interpreted as a sign that
today’s parents are trying to manage their children’s lives past the point where this behavior is appropriate. However，greater parental involvement does not necessarily indicate that parents are failing to let go of their “adult” children. In the context (背景) of this discussion，it seems valuable to first find out the cause of change in the case of parents’ involvement with their grown children.If parents of earlier generations had wanted to be in touch with their collegeage
children frequently，would this have been possible？Probably
not.On the other hand，does the possibility of frequent
communication today mean that the urge to do so wasn’t
present a generation ago？Many studies show that older parents—today’s grandparents—would have called their children more often if the means and cost of doing so had not been a barrier. Furthermore，studies show that finances are the most frequent subject of communication between parents and their college children.The fact that college students are financially dependent on their parents is nothing new；nor are requests for more money to be sent from home.This phenomenon is neither good nor bad；it is a fact of college life，today and in
Thanks to the advanced technology，we live in an age of
bettered communication.This has many implications well
beyond the role that parents seem to play in the lives of their children who have left for college.But it is useful to bear in
mind that all such changes come from the technology and not
some imagined desire by parents to keep their children under their wings.
Which of the following shows the development of ideas in this B passage?_________
“新科技带来的一些改变常被误认为是态度的改变”的现 象。第二段提出了第一个论点“父母在子女生活中参与度提 高的现象通常被误认为是在试图安排孩子的生活”。第三段 提出了第二个论点 “父母更多的参与不一定表明父母对子
出一个结论，这就是文章的大致框架。了解文章的大致框架 是突破文章结构题的关键。在解答此类试题时，考生应做 到：一读，就是通读全文；二想，就是想一想每个自然段的
主要内容；三归，就是把一些内容相同或关系密切的自然段 并在一起，成为一个大段；四查，就是再把各段段意连起 来，看是否能构成一个连贯的整体；五选，就是选出符合文
的发展情况。2.空间顺序，按照事物的空间结构顺序(从左到 右，从内到外，从整体到局部等)进行描写或说明。3.举例论 证，用所列举的事物来论证观点，通常列举一些数据、事例 等。4.对比或类比，通常以对比各事物之间的共同点或差异
The passage is mainly developed by________．
The second paragraph is developed by________．
The author develops the passage mainly by________． How does the writer support the underlined statement in Paragraph 2?
(2015· 高考重庆卷) There are many places to go on safari (观赏野生动物) in Africa，but riding a horse through
the flooded waters of Botswana’s Okavango Delta must rank
as one of the world’s most exciting wildlife journeys. Several safari camps operate as the base for this adventure，
providing unique rides twice a day to explore deep into the
delta.The camps have excellent horses，professional guides and lots of support workers.They have a reputation for providing a great riding experience.
The morning ride，when the guides take you to beautiful， shallow lakes full of water lilies，tends to be more active.It is unlike any other riding experience.With rainbows forming in the splashing water around you and the sound of huge drops of water bouncing off your body and face，it is truly exciting.You are very likely to come across large wild animals，too.On horseback it is possible to get quite close to elephants，giraffes and many other animals.The sense of excitement and tension levels rise suddenly though，as does
your heart rate，as you move closer to them.
In the evening，rides are usually at a more relaxed and unhurried pace，with golden light streaming across the grassy delta and the animals coming out to eat and drink.Sedate though they are，rides at this time of day are
still very impressive.As the sun’s rays pass through the dust
kicked up by the horses，the romance of Africa comes to life. Back at the camp you can kick off your boots and enjoy
excellent food and wine.Looking back on your day，you will
find it hard to deny that a horseback safari is as close as you will ever come to answering the call of the wild.
The author introduces the riding experience in the Okavango B Delta mainly by ________ ． A．following space order B．following time order C．making classifications D．giving examples 【解析】 篇章结构题。A项意为“按空间顺序”，B项意为“ 按时间顺序”，C项意为“归类”，D项意为“举例”。根据文中
出现的The morning ride，In the evening，At this time of day
和Looking back on your day可知，文章是按时间顺序进行描 写的，所以选B项。
见的论述方式包括按照事情发展的顺序，按照时间的先后顺 序，按照人物的活动内容，按照地点和空间的位置变换，通 过讨论、比较和描述等。段落在全文所起的作用一般有引出 话题、举例子和下定义等。不管是哪种形式的篇章结构题， 都需要对文章深刻理解，把握文章的脉搏，特别是段与段之 间的逻辑关系，从而正确解决问题。