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2015年英语高考第一轮复习Unit 5 Nelson Mandela


Unit 5 Nelson Mandela—a modern hero

Ⅰ.高频单词必记 generous adj. 1._________ stage 2.______ vote 3._____ 慷慨的;大方的

n.
vt. & vi. n. vt. vi.

舞台;阶段;时期
投票;

选举 投票;选票;表决 进攻;攻击;抨击 逃脱;逃走;泄露

attack 4._______ escape 5._______

6.quality n.质量;品质;性质→ quantity n.数量;量 actively adv.积极地; 7.______ active adj.积极的;活跃的→________ activity n.活动 活跃地→_________ peaceful adj.和平的;平静的;安宁的→_________ peacefully 8._________ peace n.和平;平 adv.和平地;平静地;安宁地→_______ 静;和睦 illegal (反义 legal adj.法律的;依照法律的→________ 9._______ 词)非法的;违法的

equality n.平等; equal adj.相等的;平等的→_________ 10.______ equally adv.同样地;相等地;公平地 相等→_________
11.violence n.暴力;暴行→ violent adj.暴力的;猛烈的

educated adj.受过教育的; educate vt.教育;训练→_________ 12._______ education n.教育→_________ educator n.教育 有教养的→__________
工作者;教育家 rewarding reward n.报酬;奖金vt.酬劳;奖赏→_________ 13._______ adj.值得的;有益的;有回报的

2.主题串记
请根据词性和汉语提示写出除“ terror” 之外含有“恐惧” 含义的高频单词

(1) frighten vt.
vi. (2) panic vt.& vi. n. (3) scare vt. (4) scream vi. (5) tremble vi.

使惊恐;吓唬
惊恐;害怕 (使)恐慌 恐慌;惊慌 使恐惧;使害怕

(恐惧地)尖声大叫
(因害怕等)发抖;哆嗦;震颤

1.quality n.质量;品质;性质

be of good/bad/poor quality 质量好/差
be of high/low quality 优质/劣质 be of average quality 普通质量 first-class/first-rate quality 头等质量 quality certificate 品质证明书

注意

quantity n.量;数量

in quantity 大量的 a (large/great) quantity of/(large/great) quantities of 大量的(修

饰可数和不可数名词,谓语动词的数由 quantity 的单复数决定)
运用 完成句子 (1)我们应该提高我们的生活品质。 the quality of our living We should improve _______________________.

(2)谦虚是他的美德之一。 his good qualities Modesty is one of _______________________.
(3)一只松鼠把大量的坚果贮藏在树里面。 a large quantity of/large quantities of nuts A squirrel hides ______________________________ inside trees.

2.mean adj.吝啬的;自私的;卑鄙的 vt.意思是;意味着; 打算

be mean about/over sth.对某物吝啬
mean to do sth.打算做某事 mean doing sth.意味着做某事 meaning n.意思;含义;意义;重要性 means n.方式;手段(单复数形式相同)

by means of 用……的办法
by all means 一定;尽一切办法 by no means 决不 by any means 无论如何

运用

完成句子

(1)起床晚了意味着赶不上早班车。 means missing the early bus Getting up late ____________________________.

(2)我打算去国外,什么也阻止不了我。
mean to go abroad I ____________________________ and nothing will stop me. (3)你务必在他去新加坡之前提醒他。 by all means You should _______________________ remind him before he leaves for Singapore.

(4)她的丈夫在金钱上很吝啬。
is very mean about/over Her husband ______________________________ money.

3.devote vt.(与 to 连用)献身;专心于
devote oneself/one's life (time/money/energy) to (doing) sth. 把……献给……;把……用在……上 be devoted to (doing) sth.专心致志于;忠于 devotion n.深爱,热爱(与 for 连用);忠实;专心(与 to 连 用)

运用

完成句子

(1)尽管妈妈上班很忙,但她还是把很多时间用在孩子身 上。 Although the working mother is very busy, she still

devotes a lot of time to _____________________________ her children. (2)他是一个意志坚强的人,一直致力于他的科学研究。
is devoted to He is a person with great determination, who _____________ his scientific research.

4.vote vt.& vi.投票;选举

n.投票;选票;表决

vote for/against 投票赞成/反对 cast one's vote for 投票……

take/hold a vote on 就……进行投票表决
运用 完成句子

(1)她投票赞成共产党。
voted for/cast her vote for the Communist Party. She _______________________ (2)我们开会的目的是就这个问题进行表决。 take/hold a vote on We had a meeting in order to ________________________ the issue.

5.equal adj.相等的;平等的
相等的事物

n.[C](地位等)相同的人;

vt.等于;比得上,敌得过

be equal to sth./doing sth.胜任某事

divide/cut sth.into equal parts 把某物分成等份
be on equal terms with sb.与某人地位平等

equality n.相等;平等;均等;(数)等式

运用

完成句子

(1)这项任务需要思维敏捷,但约翰胜任得了。 was equal to it The task needed quick thinking, but John ________________.
(2)不管是容貌还是舞艺我们都比不上她。 equal her either in beauty or as a dancer. None of us can ____________ (3)四加五等于九。 equals nine Four and five ________________.

(4)论智力,他和他哥哥不相上下。 the equal of He's ________________ his brother as far as intelligence is
concerned. (5)妇女们要求同工同酬。 equal pay equal work Women demand _______________ for _______________.

6.willing adj.乐意的;自愿的(作表语或定语) be willing to do sth.乐意去做某事

be unwilling to do sth.不愿意/勉强做某事
against one's will 违背某人的意愿

a strong will 坚强的意志
at will 随心所欲 will aux.v.将会;愿意

n.意志;遗嘱

运用

完成句子

(1)我们愿意在互利互惠的原则下同各国发展经济关系。 are willing to We ________________ develop economic relations with all countries on the basis of mutual benefits. (2)我相信他会来的。 will come I believe he ________________. (3)他有击败对手的坚强意志。 a strong will He had ________________ to beat his opponent.

7.escape vi.& vt.逃脱;逃走;泄露 escape from 从……里逃出来(后接名词、动词-ing 形式) escape doing sth.逃脱做某事 运用 完成句子

(1)那个男孩终于从燃烧的房子里逃了出来。 to escape from the burning building. That boy managed ________________ (2)小偷跑得很快,警察没能抓到他。 escaped being caught The thief ran very fast and _________________________ by the police.

8.reward n.报酬;奖金

vt.酬劳;奖赏

give sb.rewards for...因……对某人进行奖赏 be given a medal as a reward for...因……而获得一枚奖章 offer a reward of 悬赏……

reward sb.with sth.用某物奖赏某人
reward sb.for (doing) sth.因(干)某事奖赏某人 注意 词 of。 表示奖赏的原因用介词 for;表示具体奖赏多少用介

运用

完成句子

(1)他因为有功而获得一枚奖章。 as a reward for his service. He was given a medal ________________ (2)如果你英语学得好,我们会奖励你一次免费的国外游。 reward you with a free trip If you do well in English, we'll ________________ abroad.

用所学单词及用法完成下列句子 1.很难聘请到高素质的教师。 of high quality It's difficult to recruit teachers ________________. 2.优胜者将获得去英国旅游的奖赏。 be rewarded with Winners will ___________________ a trip to England.

3.你打算身无分文就走吗? mean to go Do you ________________ without money?
4.他将一生奉献给稀有动物的保护工作。 devotes his whole life to the protection of the rare animals. He ____________________

5.所有的人生来都是平等的。 equal All men are created ________________. 6.据报道,这种疾病会破坏中枢神经系统。 attacks It is reported that this disease ________________ the central nerve system.

7.勉强孩子做事不是教育孩子的办法。
to educate It is not the way ________________ a child by making him do things against his will.

8.他到处旅游以解烦闷。
escape from He traveled extensively to ________________ boredom. 9.他愿意到偏远地区帮助那里的农民。 is willing to He ________________ go to the remote areas and help the farmers there. 10.人们投票反对亨利。 voted against People ________________ Henry.

Ⅱ.重点短语必背 out of work * 1.___________ as a matter of fact * 2.__________________ blow up *3._________ in trouble 4._________ turn to *5._______

失业
事实上 使充气;爆炸 在危险、受罚、痛 苦、忧虑等的处境中

求助于;致力于

lose heart *6.__________ come to power 7.______________ set up *8.________ be sentenced to 9.______________ *10. be willing to do

丧失勇气或信心 当权;上台 设立;建立

被判处……(徒刑)
愿意干某事

1.out of work 失业 out of breath 上气不接下气 out of control 失去控制 out of business 破产 out of order 次序颠倒;发生故障 out of use 不被使用;废弃 out of balance 失去平衡 out of date 过时 out of touch 失去联系;不熟悉的 out of question 毫无疑问

out of the question 不可能

out of patience 不耐烦
运用 用 out of 相关短语的适当形式填空 (1)The machine went ________________ because of out of order improper use. (2)When a number of species are extinct, the entire ecology is out of balance said to be ________________. out of question that I will write to you. (3)It is ________________ out of touch (4)I would like to go back to teaching but I'm _____________ with my subject now. out of work for two years and has no (5)He has been ______________ money to support his family now.

2.turn to 求助于;致力于;转向 turn away 不让进入;把脸转开 turn down 调低(温度、音量等);拒绝 turn up 调高(温度、音量等);露面,出现 turn off 关掉(开关等) turn on 打开(开关等) turn out (to be) 最后结果是 turn over 翻身;翻转

运用

用 turn 相关短语的适当形式填空

(1)We invited her to dinner but she didn't even bother to turn up ________________.
turn away (2)How can you ________________ from a soldier who was

wounded?
turn down (3)She petitioned ( 请求) her neighbor to ________________

the radio because her baby was sleeping. turns out (to be) (4)If it ___________________ wet, we may have to change
our plans. turn to (5)We can ________________ him for help.

用所学短语及用法完成下列句子

1.据报道,那个谋杀犯上星期被判处死刑。
was sentenced to death It is reported that the murderer ________________________ last week. 2.纳尔逊· 曼德拉一生都在努力为黑人争取平等的权利。

Nelson Mandela worked harder and harder all his life to win
equal rights for ___________________ the black.

3.这个下岗工人失业将近半年了,还没有找到一份工作。 The laid-off worker has been ________________ for nearly out of work half a year and he still hasn't found a job.

4.这所中学成立于 100 周年前。
was set up The middle school ________________ 100 years ago. 5.我们被鼓励去帮助那些陷入困境的人们。 We are encouraged to give a hand to those who are ________. in trouble

6.你有能力去做好这份工作,我们都相信你。
believe in You have the ability to do the job well.All of us ___________

you.

7.他没有失去信心;相反,他更加努力地工作去达到他的 目标。 lose heart He didn't ________________.Instead, he worked even harder to reach his goal. 8.如果你遇到了困难,可以向你的老师求助。 If you are in trouble, you can ________________ your teacher turn to for help.

原句 1

...only then did we decide to answer violence with

violence.……直到那时我们才决定以暴制暴。 当 only 修饰状语(从句)位于句首时,主句采用部分倒装结

构,即将助动词、情态动词或 be 动词提到主语前。 精练 根据中文提示,完成下列句子
(1)他只有靠大声喊才能使河对岸的人们听到他的声音。 was he able to/could he make people on the Only by shouting ____________________ other side of the river hear him. (2)在 1949 年战争结束之后,他才返回了家乡。 did he return/get back Only when the war was over in 1949 ____________________ home.

原句 2 The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached

a stage where we have almost no rights at all.过去 30 年来所出现
的大量法律剥夺我们的权利,阻挡我们的进步,一直到今天我 们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。 (1) see, find 等动词的主语有时可以是物,若用得恰当, 语言会显得很生动形象。

(2)where we have almost no rights at all 是定语从句,修饰先
行词 stage。当先行词是 stage, situation, position, case 等 词时,定语从句常用 where 来引导。

原句3.I felt bad the first time I talked to a group.

第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我的心情很不好。
句中的the first time用作连词,用来引导时间状语从句, 意为“第一次……”。 ①The first time I interviewed him, he looked a bit nervous. 我第一次去采访他时,他看起来有点紧张。

引导时间状语从句的还有:

(1)the moment/the minute/the instant? ? ?一……就…… immediately/instantly/directly ? ? (2)each/every time next time any time last time 下次……时 任何时候 上次……时 到……为止 每次……的时候

by the time

②Be careful! The machine starts the moment you press the

button.
小心点!你一按电钮机器就运转。 ③ Every time I see the old man in the park, he is absorbed in

reading papers.
每次我在公园里看到这位老人时,他都在专注地读报。 [名师指津] for the first time在句中只能用作状语,不具有

连词功能,不可用来引导状语从句。
④I'll never forget meeting the headmaster for the first time. 我将永远不会忘记第一次见校长的情形。

精练

根据中文提示,完成下列句子

(1)在该体育场进行过许多激动人心的足球比赛。
The stadium has seen many exciting football games. __________________ (2)贫困导致最贫穷的人们处于养不起孩子的境地。 a situation where the poorest can't afford Poverty has led to ________________ to have children.

(3)事情已发展到双方家长必须被叫来的程度。 a stage where The accident had reached to ________________ both their parents are to be called in.

根据课文内容语法填空: I was living hard __1__ I met Nelson Mandela. It was he __2__ gave me advice and helped me keep my __3__.I was very __4__(thank) to him. At that time, we black p eople were not treated __5__(equal) as the white. And M andela did lots of things to help us. First, we broke t he law __6__ a peaceful way. __7__, it didn’t work. We had to turn to __8__(violent). I was happy to do help _ _9__it would help us achieve the dream of _10_(make) black and white people equal.

运用所学语言基础知识,补充完整下面短文,并背诵之
had good qualities/of good Tom was an active boy and (1)_________________________ qualities (拥有好品质).But now his family was (2)_________ in trouble __________ out of work ( 陷 入 困 境 ) because his parents were (3)________________ (失 业).So he was worried that his family would be unable to pay his lose heart school fees.However, Tom didn't (4)________________ (失去信心) and was willing to make his own money.One day, a man asked Tom fight against ( 对付 ; 与 …… 作斗争 ) Jack. to help him (5)_______________

Although Tom was full of fear and knew it would break the law, he
agreed in order to realize his dream of making some money. (6)__________________________ (事实上), Tom not only fought As a matter of fact/In fact blew up with violence, but also (7)____________ (炸毁) Jack's house.As a

sentenced to result, Tom was put in prison and (8)________________ (被判处)
five years of hard labor.


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