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Petrel


E&P SOFTWARE PLATFORM

Version 2015
WHAT’S NEW GUIDE

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This work contains the confi

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Security Notice
The software described herein is configured to operate with at least the minimum specifications set out by Schlumberger. You are advised that such minimum specifications are merely recommendations and not intended to be limiting to configurations that may be used to operate the software. Similarly, you are advised that the software should be operated in a secure environment whether such software is operated across a network, on a single system and/or on a plurality of systems. It is up to you to configure and maintain your networks and/or system(s) in a secure manner. If you have further questions as to recommendations regarding recommended specifications or security, please feel free to contact your local Schlumberger representative.

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Contents
Welcome to Petrel 2015 ............................................................................................................... 14 Geophysics .................................................................................................................................... 15
Geophysics: General ......................................................................................................................... 15 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 SEG-Y toolbox 2D ........................................................................................................................... 15 Merge SEG-Y utility....................................................................................................................................... 15 Horizon stratigraphy ...................................................................................................................... 15 Horizon metadata ........................................................................................................................... 16 Horizon rendering .......................................................................................................................... 17 Inspectors ...................................................................................................................................... 18 Horizon inspector .......................................................................................................................................... 18 Probe inspector.............................................................................................................................................. 18 Seismic composite......................................................................................................................... 19 Seismic overlay .............................................................................................................................. 19 Seismic Mixer ................................................................................................................................ 19 Flip/Roll............................................................................................................................................................ 20 RBG/CMY Blend ............................................................................................................................................. 20 Masking ........................................................................................................................................................... 21 Volume attributes........................................................................................................................... 21 Generalized Spectral Decomposition ....................................................................................................... 21 Trace AGC (iterative) and RMS (iterative) attributes ............................................................................ 22 Horizon interpretation ................................................................................................................... 23 3D Autotracking ............................................................................................................................................. 23 Interpretation mode switches .................................................................................................................... 23 Interactive Mesh Editing ............................................................................................................... 25 Velocity modeling .......................................................................................................................... 27 Robustness and performance ..................................................................................................................... 27 Velocity points to cube................................................................................................................................. 27 Min/max functions velocity cube .............................................................................................................. 27 3
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Simple velocity model .................................................................................................................................. 28 Advanced velocity model ............................................................................................................................ 28 RPT transfer velocity model made from velocity cube/property......................................................... 28 Depth convert horizon interpretation for all sub grids .......................................................................... 29 Depth convert seismic cube ....................................................................................................................... 29 Performance .................................................................................................................................. 29 Geophysics: Quantitative Interpretation .......................................................................................... 30 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 30 Lithology Classification ................................................................................................................. 30 Crossplotting of surfaces, horizons and point attributes ........................................................... 31 Create classification data using multiple selections in the QI Crossplot .................................. 32 Options to show/hide the symbol legend and color tables in the QI Crossplot ........................ 33 Rock physics operations of the Workflow editor ........................................................................ 33 Storage options for the AVO modeling output files ..................................................................... 34 Productivity enhancements in the QI tools .................................................................................. 34 Geophysics: Seismic Well Tie ........................................................................................................... 35 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 35 Interactive bulk shift ...................................................................................................................... 35 Continuous alignment .................................................................................................................... 36 Well Section Windows (WSWs) temporary Time Depth Relationship (TDR) for wavelet deterministic extraction ................................................................................................................ 37 Interpretation display on seismic track ....................................................................................... 38 Assigning a temporary TDR as active in the well........................................................................ 39 Selecting TDR input ....................................................................................................................... 40 WTB Scale factor .......................................................................................................................... 41 Standard wavelet phase convention ............................................................................................ 41 Synthetics in depth ........................................................................................................................ 43 Multi-well extended white wavelet extraction (MWEW) ........................................................... 44
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Geology .......................................................................................................................................... 46
Geology: Geology & Modeling .......................................................................................................... 46 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 46 Stratigraphic charts user experience implementation ............................................................... 46
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Extend age info to surfaces .......................................................................................................... 50 Link age to surface, well tops, and seismic horizon using workflow editor ............................. 51 Conformal gridding in Make/edit surface .................................................................................... 51 Saved search (Well list) ................................................................................................................ 53 GIIP output for MBV ...................................................................................................................... 57 Make surface from continuous polygon attributes ..................................................................... 57 Other enhancements ..................................................................................................................... 58 Geology: Well Section Window ........................................................................................................ 58 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 58 XY hinges ........................................................................................................................................ 58 Curtain section ............................................................................................................................... 59 Background wells .......................................................................................................................... 60 Swap well ....................................................................................................................................... 62 Background surfaces .................................................................................................................... 62 Major and minor grid lines ............................................................................................................ 63 Raster logs ..................................................................................................................................... 65 Well tops mini toolbar ................................................................................................................... 65 True horizontal length ................................................................................................................... 65 Show and hide the 3D grid ............................................................................................................ 66 Collapse vertical well .................................................................................................................... 67 Well correlation ghost curve ........................................................................................................ 68 Find well ......................................................................................................................................... 68 Number of hinges .......................................................................................................................... 68 Number of tracks ........................................................................................................................... 68 Using Polysection in Studio Find .................................................................................................. 69 Geology: Structural Geology ............................................................................................................. 69 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 69 Volume calculation of Structural Framework model zones ........................................................ 69 Isochore calculation between Structural Framework model horizons ..................................... 70 Geology: Modeling ............................................................................................................................. 71 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 71 Data analysis discrete properties – Declustering option ........................................................... 71
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Data analysis continuous properties – Declustering option ...................................................... 72 Facies modeling – Use proportion from data analysis................................................................ 73 Scale up well logs - Continuous log weighting ........................................................................... 74 Facies tool palette ......................................................................................................................... 75 New geological brushes for Interactive facies editing ........................................................................ 75 Undo/Redo button .......................................................................................................................................... 75 Quality Assurance maps ............................................................................................................... 76 Data Analysis – Interactive Vertical Proportion Curve editing .................................................. 76 Modeling Input Parameters – New reporting option in the Workflow editor ........................... 78 Make surface – use input inside boundary only ......................................................................... 78 Performance improvement for Facies and Petrophysical modeling methods .......................... 79 Truncated Gaussian with trends (behavioral changes) .............................................................. 79 Together option .............................................................................................................................................. 79 Modeling trend in section view ................................................................................................................. 79 Geology: Fractures ............................................................................................................................ 80 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 80 Fracture density ............................................................................................................................. 80 Generate fracture density logs per fracture set ..................................................................................... 80 Extension of fracture data type for Natural Fracture Prediction (NFP)..................................... 81 Assignation of fracture type for any fracture data file and ability to use it in the Tectonic Model process ............................................................................................................................................................ 81 New permeability upscaling method ............................................................................................ 84 Introduction of a new method for upscaling permeability based on ODA method and taking into account the connectivity of fracture network ........................................................................................ 84 Geology: Wells ................................................................................................................................... 85 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 85 New well model ............................................................................................................................. 85 Sidetrack / Lateral wells ............................................................................................................... 87 Create XYZ trajectory plan from polygon ..................................................................................... 91 Multi-trajectory surveys and plans .............................................................................................. 93 Enhancements ............................................................................................................................... 94 Well operations ............................................................................................................................................. 94
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Well label visualization improvement ...................................................................................................... 95

Reservoir Engineering .................................................................................................................. 96
Reservoir Engineering: General ........................................................................................................ 96 2015.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 96 Behavioral changes ....................................................................................................................... 96 Assign a different start date to an open-hole side track (lateral) well ............................................. 96 Segmentation uses data from the current active case ......................................................................... 96 Observed data created by converting a simulation case ..................................................................... 96 Grid property modification .......................................................................................................................... 96 Importing multiple Left hand grids no longer require individual confirmation of coordinate system change ............................................................................................................................................... 96 Changes to the way PI well tests are displayed .................................................................................... 97
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Changes to hydraulic fracture functionality ............................................................................................ 97 Complete the support for the INTERSECT grid-edits workflow through Petrel ............................... 97 VFP manager ................................................................................................................................................... 98 Improved simulation export performance.................................................................................... 98 Reservoir engineering unit settings ............................................................................................. 98 Change the reservoir engineering unit system ....................................................................................... 99 Change units for individual measurements ............................................................................................. 99 Define the available units for a measurement ...................................................................................... 100 Visualization and analysis of simulation results ....................................................................... 101 3D results analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 101 Select results data for an ECLIPSE case ................................................................................................ 102 Select simulation results using presets ................................................................................................. 103 Initialization using initial condition sets .................................................................................... 104 Initial conditions.......................................................................................................................................... 105 Initialize from maps ..................................................................................................................................... 109 Visualize an initial condition equilibrium region property ............................................................ 114 Add an initial condition set to a simulation case................................................................................. 115 Reservoir Engineering: Well Engineering ...................................................................................... 116 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 116 Assign a different start date to an open-hole side track (lateral) well ................................... 116
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Display completion and simulation data in a Well section window ........................................ 116 Display well completion data in vertical and deviated tracks ......................................................... 117 Display simulation results data in vertical and deviated tracks ...................................................... 120 Model hydraulic fractures using logarithmic local grid refinements ...................................... 124 Add hydraulic fractures and perforations to a well ........................................................................... 125 Well completion design ............................................................................................................................. 125 Completions design tool palette ............................................................................................................... 125 Build logarithmic local grid refinements to represent fractures .................................................... 125 Control where refinements are made ...................................................................................................... 126 Plane selection (I or J) ............................................................................................................................... 126 Translate connected cells to the central row of refined cells........................................................... 127 Useful information ....................................................................................................................................... 127 Potential issues with ECLIPSE 100 ........................................................................................................... 127 Check the created local grid refinements ............................................................................................ 127 Calculation of fracture properties ............................................................................................... 128 Connected cell transmissibilities ........................................................................................................... 128 Pore volume multipliers ............................................................................................................................ 128 Cell based transmissibility multipliers .................................................................................................. 128 Export a simulation case with fractures .................................................................................................. 129 Visualize the effects of a hydraulic fracture........................................................................................... 129 Well connection transmissibility factor and connection KH ........................................................... 129 Dynamic transmissibility properties ...................................................................................................... 130 Example ......................................................................................................................................................... 131
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Exploration Geology ................................................................................................................... 132
Exploration Geology: General ......................................................................................................... 132 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 132 Petroleum system settings .......................................................................................................... 132 Exploration Geology: Petroleum Systems 3D................................................................................. 132 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 132 Simulation case ........................................................................................................................... 132 Geotime player ............................................................................................................................. 133 Exploration Geology: Petroleum Systems 3D and 1D .................................................................... 133
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2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 133 Time maps and Time trends ........................................................................................................ 133 Basal heatflow, sediment water interface temperature, paleo water depth, and source rock burial history (1D) ........................................................................................................................................ 133 Exploration Geology: Petroleum Systems 1D................................................................................. 134 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 134 Well log input ............................................................................................................................... 134 Well log input in Create 1D model process ........................................................................................... 134 Simulation case ........................................................................................................................... 134 Geotime Window.......................................................................................................................... 135 Improved geotime window flexibility..................................................................................................... 135 Exploration Geology: Play to Prospect Risk ................................................................................... 135 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 135 Play to prospect risk processes were (re)moved (behavioral change) .................................. 135 Exploration Geology: Petroleum Systems Quick Look .................................................................. 136 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 136 Map and time trend input in the Make generation process ..................................................... 136 Lithology database available for PSQL processes .................................................................... 136 Split worksteps in Workflow editor for Make generation, Make reservoir, and Make seal properties processes .................................................................................................................. 136 Exploration Geology: Lithologies in Petroleum systems modeling and Petroleum systems quick look ................................................................................................................................................... 137 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 137 Temperature template changed (behavioral change) .............................................................. 137
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Drilling ......................................................................................................................................... 138
Drilling: General ............................................................................................................................... 138 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 138 Drilling structure and slots ......................................................................................................... 138 Drilling: Well Design ........................................................................................................................ 139 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 139 Interactive well path design tools .............................................................................................. 139 Add design points tool................................................................................................................................ 140 Edit design points tool ................................................................................................................................ 142

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Searching well plans ................................................................................................................... 143 Lateral well plans ........................................................................................................................ 143 Go to surface (behavioral change) ............................................................................................. 145 Drilling: Real Time ............................................................................................................................ 146 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 146 Real-time connect ....................................................................................................................... 146 Streaming real-time survey data (behavioral change) ............................................................. 146 Drilling: Well Positioning ................................................................................................................. 146 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 146 3D travelling circle ...................................................................................................................... 146 Refresh Anti-collision result ....................................................................................................... 149 Well positioning for lateral wells ............................................................................................... 149
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Survey program (behavioral change) ......................................................................................... 149 Drilling structure uncertainty in Anti-collision and No-go zone computation (behavioral change) ......................................................................................................................................... 150

Production ................................................................................................................................... 151
Production: General ......................................................................................................................... 151 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 151 Production modules license consolidation ................................................................................ 151 Production: Production Interpretation ........................................................................................... 151 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 151 Find wells based on production attributes via Studio search .................................................. 151 More user-friendly Production Interpretation ........................................................................... 152

Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 153
Studio: Modeling .............................................................................................................................. 153 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 153 3D Grid: Collaborate & Find ......................................................................................................... 153 Studio: Microseismic ....................................................................................................................... 154 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 154 Microseismic & Treatment data: Collaborate & Find................................................................ 154 Studio: Foundation ........................................................................................................................... 156 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 156 Geopolygon: Collaborate & Find ................................................................................................. 156
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Studio: Drilling.................................................................................................................................. 157 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 157 Find ............................................................................................................................................... 157 Risk URL ........................................................................................................................................ 157 Studio: Production ........................................................................................................................... 158 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 158 Find ............................................................................................................................................... 158 Studio: Geology ................................................................................................................................ 159 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 159 New Well Model .......................................................................................................................... 159 Raster Log .................................................................................................................................... 160 Stratigraphy Association ............................................................................................................ 161
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Studio: Geophysics .......................................................................................................................... 161 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 161 Horizon Metadata ........................................................................................................................ 161 Studio: General ................................................................................................................................ 162 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 162 Time Zone ..................................................................................................................................... 162 Transfer Performance ................................................................................................................. 163

Technology .................................................................................................................................. 164
Technology: Shale: General ............................................................................................................ 164 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 164 Petrel modules ............................................................................................................................. 164 Technology: Shale: Geosteering ..................................................................................................... 164 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 164 Geosteering in the vertical track ................................................................................................ 164 Create a tie-in point on a curtain section .................................................................................. 164 Straighten the block while removing a hinge ............................................................................ 165 Display multiple wells in a curtain section ................................................................................ 165 Display 3D property of a model in a curtain section ................................................................. 165 Display a curtain section in a 3D window.................................................................................. 166 Explicit grouping of well logs ...................................................................................................... 166 Reset curtain section input dialogs ............................................................................................ 166
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New curtain section style settings ............................................................................................. 166 Annotation for the realtime well in a curtain section ............................................................... 166 Geosteering report includes new information ........................................................................... 167 Convert points/polygon set now with realtime well name as suffix ........................................ 167 Keyboard shortcuts ..................................................................................................................... 167 Geosteering Tool palette ............................................................................................................. 168 Geosteering window default tracks (behavioral change) ........................................................ 169 Cursor tracking in 3D Window .................................................................................................... 169 Technology: Shale: Pad Well Design ............................................................................................. 169 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 169 Pad Well Design now generates advanced plans .................................................................... 169 Technology: Shale: Pad Placement ................................................................................................ 169 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 169 Geopolygons as a restriction data type ..................................................................................... 169 Technology: Shale: Microseismic .................................................................................................. 169 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 169 Microseismic event data ............................................................................................................. 169 Microseismic stages and folders ............................................................................................... 170 Event filter editor ......................................................................................................................... 171 Time player and real time display .............................................................................................. 171 Pumping data ............................................................................................................................... 172 Treatment stages and intervals .................................................................................................. 173 Spreadsheet QC for microseismic events and pumping data .................................................. 174 Time zone conversion .................................................................................................................. 174 RPT, Studio, and Studio Find support ......................................................................................... 176 Technology: Foundation .................................................................................................................. 178 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 178 Add licenses while Petrel is running.......................................................................................... 178 License settings ........................................................................................................................... 178 Companion file support ............................................................................................................... 179 Cursor tracking ............................................................................................................................ 179 Project Time Reference .............................................................................................................. 179
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Geopolygons ................................................................................................................................ 180 Shapefile loader ........................................................................................................................... 180 Dynamic point labeling ................................................................................................................ 180 RPT preview ................................................................................................................................. 180 Make/edit polygons process dialog ........................................................................................... 180 Petrel Search ............................................................................................................................... 180 Players .......................................................................................................................................... 181 Full screen mode.......................................................................................................................... 181 Data management perspective ................................................................................................... 181 Technology: Guru ............................................................................................................................. 181 2015.1 .................................................................................................................................................... 181 Petrel Guru ................................................................................................................................... 181 Accessing Petrel Guru ............................................................................................................................... 182 Petrel Guru features .................................................................................................................................... 183 Guru Quality reporting ................................................................................................................. 183 Accessing Guru Quality reporting ........................................................................................................... 183 Guru Quality reporting features................................................................................................................ 184
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Welcome to Petrel 2015
Finding, characterizing, and exploiting new and existing reservoirs is increasingly complex. To overcome these challenges, we must continually improve and innovate the way we work. With the Petrel* E&P Software Platform, Schlumberger revolutionized the oil and gas industry by bringing disciplines together with best-in-class science in an unparalleled productivity environment. Our commitment to Petrel resulted in dramatic strides forward in the way we develop and deliver a software platform, and with the Petrel 2015 Platform and update releases, we continue to deliver on our promise of better integration, deep science, and productivity. Today we support an engineering team unrivalled in size and expertise, empowered by the Ocean software development framework. More than ever before, we are positioned to help you develop critical insights into reservoirs throughout the oilfield lifecycle. This document is created for the 2015.1 release. The following sections are organized, as far as possible, by domain. Within each section you will find the new features and any significant behavioral changes listed, grouped by the release in which they first appeared; with the newest release appearing first. Note that not all domains will have new features in every release. Refer to the companion documents, Petrel E&P Software Platform 2015 Release Notes and Petrel 2015 Installation Guide, for information on licensing and system requirements. Documentation for all prior Petrel releases is available from the Software Integrated Solutions (SIS) Support Portal.

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Geophysics
Geophysics: General

2015.1
SEG-Y toolbox 2D
Merge SEG-Y utility
The SEG-Y merge utility can be found under the Utilities tab in the SEG-Y Toolbox (2D). This utility allows you to merge two or more contributing SEG-Y files (e.g., containing partial lines) into a single SEG-Y file, and optionally pad with empty traces where two line segments do not quite join up. The contributing files are typically partial 2D lines acquired at different periods in time, or long 2D lines previously split to optimize storage or handling performance.

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The merged file will have: ? The EBCDIC and binary headers taken from the first input SEG-Y file. ? The default filename taken from the first input file, with the suffix “_merge.sgy”. Merged files can be subsequently imported via the main Toolbox tab.

Horizon stratigraphy
Stratigraphic information about a seismic horizon can now be managed in the Stratigraphy tab in the horizon Settings dialog. ? A seismic horizon can be linked to an existing stratigraphic event to inherit attributes such as stratigraphic name, geologic age and horizon type. ? Multiple horizons can be initialized from a stratigraphic column. ? The geologic age and horizon type attributes can also be manually assigned. When these seismic horizons are used as input to processes like Make/Edit Surface and Horizon Modeling, their stratigraphic attributes will be inherited by the resultant surfaces and model horizons while facilitating cross-domain integration.

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Horizon metadata
The dataset on which a horizon has been last interpreted on is now captured in Metadata tab in the horizon interpretation Settings dialog box. 3D or 2D interpretations are automatically linked to a Primary interpreted seismic, capturing key dataset properties of such as vintage, acquisition date, stack type, angle, offset and azimuth. The linked dataset can be manually assigned should a different dataset be a better representative of the interpretation source. Updates to the linked seismic can be tracked in the History sub-tab in the Info tab.
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Tagging seismic horizon interpretation with stratigraphic and seismic metadata allows for easy management and quick access to data for different workflows. For example, you can use Find for the following queries: ? Filter for all 3D interpretation interpreted on ‘Near’ volume. ? In 4D workflows, filter by Acquisition date.

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Horizon rendering
The Points style for horizon interpretation is now rendered on the GPU in 2D and 3D windows. Additionally, a new Simplified sphere style is introduced which is also rendered on the GPU. This gives fast performance and interactivity when working with large regional scale interpretations.
Figure 1: New Simplified sphere style display for 3D horizon interpretation

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Inspectors
Horizon inspector
The readout of the inline and crossline numbers for 3D horizon interpretation is now available from the Seismic Horizon Inspector.

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Probe inspector
Box probes can be manipulated via the Inspector. Using slider bars for the inline, crossline and vertical direction, the center point of a box probe can be moved interactively. Using the up/down arrow keys, this allows for interactive movement typically needed when one of the faces of the box probe is aligned orthogonally to the camera.

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Seismic composite
A seismic composite line now keeps its digitized length when the section is manipulated or played, using the intersection player. The composite length no longer automatically extends to meet the edges of the survey.

Seismic overlay
In the Interpretation window, the displayed foreground vintage (i.e., the overlay object) now supports: ? A user-defined opacity function ? A color legend

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Seismic Mixer
The Mixer is a powerful, intuitive, and interactive visualization tool, which allows you to compare and evaluate multiple seismic cubes simultaneously and synchronously, using RGB/CMY blend and mask workflows. Analyzing the attributes or volumes effectively and efficiently is a critical component of any seismic processing, interpretation and modeling phase of a project. These workflows can be performed on an intersection (inline/crossline/time or depth slice/random line/arbitrary polyline) in a 3D window or a 2D window. Distinctive features of the Mixer ? Easy to use ? Allows you to blend seismic attribute data with different geometry ? GPU-based allowing you to get high performance while running various interactive workflows even with virtual attributes ? Convenient workflow across multiple windows You can choose from three types of workflows: Flip/Roll , RGB/CMY Blend and Mask .

On the Ribbon, on the Seismic interpretation tab, in the Attributes group, click Mixer then click the specific workflow. This will create a Mixer object in the Input pane. You can directly display the intersection inline/crossline/time slice/random line from the Mixer Visibility settings callout . To reopen the Mixer dialog box at any time, right-click on the Mixer object in the display and select Mixer Parameters .

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Flip/Roll
Flip/Roll is a very powerful tool to quickly compare multiple input datasets. You can smoothly adjust the opaque/transparent rate between them using the blend cubes option at the same time. The Flip mode allows you to switch between two or more seismic cubes. The Roll mode allows you to analyze both the seismic cubes at the same time by clipping their intersection lines at a given position, which you can adjust by using the roll along inline/crossline/Z. All these operations can be performed either on single or different seismic cubes.

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RBG/CMY Blend
RGB/CMY color blending is a common technique and a very intuitive way to combine information of more than one input for visual analysis. Quite often more than one seismic attribute is required to completely characterize geological features in an area of interest, as different attributes convey different information.

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Masking
Using the Mask Mixer, you can mask the display of one input based on the data values of another input. The masking workflow is helpful in quickly establishing and understanding the relationship of one seismic attribute with the other attribute for example, correlation of discontinuities/porosity with the corresponding seismic signatures.
Figure 2: A porosity section being masked by low seismic amplitude values. We can clearly notice that the high seismic amplitude around and above progradational features are related to high porosity.

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Volume attributes
Generalized Spectral Decomposition
The new “Generalized Spectral Decomposition” (GSD) volume attribute provides a hybrid method of existing STFT and CWT techniques in the industry, allowing the interpreter to better control both the vertical and the frequency resolution simultaneously. Better temporal and spectral resolution controls are accomplished by a set of flexible natural parameters which enables you to design any wavelet shape in the continuum between the STFT and CWT methods. Two algorithms are provided with the attribute: 1. Correlation (Default): Correlation of the wavelet designed at a specific frequency with the input seismic. 2. Convolution: Convolution of the wavelet designed at a specific frequency with the input seismic. To design the wavelet, you can set frequency, number of cycles and phase interactively. The two available calculation methods, Sample by Sample and Full trace calculation, provide identical results. The former is more performant when working with time slices, while the latter is more performant for vertical intersections.
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Figure 3: Volume attributes dialog for Generalized Spectral Decomposition using the Correlation algorithm

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Three outputs from GSD can be easily combined in the new Mixer for RGB blending workflows.

Trace AGC (iterative) and RMS (iterative) attributes
The new “TraceAGC (iterative)” volume attribute automatically scales the instantaneous amplitude samples with the local Root Mean Square (RMS) amplitude level, computed over a user-specified vertical window, and has the option to apply multiple RMS iterations, in order to get a more well-behaved (smooth) scaling function.

The new “RMS Amplitude (iterative)” volume attribute computes the Root Mean Square (RMS) of single-trace samples, over a user-specified vertical window with a length of n samples, for each sample in an input trace.
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Horizon interpretation
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3D Autotracking
A new live trace diagram corresponding to the wavelet cross correlation diagram has been added. This diagram also supports the display of random lines.

Interpretation mode switches
With the introduction of keyboard modifiers to the horizon interpretation modes, you can now select to work in a single (favorite) interpretation mode, while easily accessing the other three modes. For example, you can select the Manual tracking mode [U] as your base mode, and when in this mode use Ctrl to switch to autotrack 3D-seeded, or Ctrl+Shift to switch to Seeded 3D tracking. As all four interpretation modes have been enabled for mode switching, you now have the option to use any one of these as a favorite or base mode. You can refer to the tooltip of each interpretation mode for details.

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When in a horizon interpretation mode, you can use SHIFT+ALT+Drag to erase all points vertically below the cursor position. When in any of the Seismic interpretation tool palette mode, you can interactively rotate a random line section using the following modifiers: CTRL+roll mouse wheel = default rotation step (7.5 degrees) SHIFT+roll mouse wheel = low rotation step CTRL+SHIFT+roll mouse wheel = large rotation step
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Interactive Mesh Editing
Triangle meshes, typically used in salt interpretation workflows, can now be interactively edited using a variety of tools. This enables workflows for rapid structural model updates in seismic velocity modeling in Petrel as part of depth imaging scenarios, which tend to be iterative in nature.

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The workflow: 1. Convert a triangle mesh to an editable triangle mesh. 2. Edit the editable triangle mesh. 3. Convert the editable triangle mesh back to the triangle mesh. Tools available for interactive editing – including push, pull, smooth, select, refine, undo and redo – can be accessed either via the new Mesh editing tool palette or editable triangle mesh mini-toolbar. Users can also create a submesh by selecting an area of interest on the editable triangle mesh and choosing ‘Detach’ from the mini-toolbar. After editing of the sub-mesh, it can be merged back into the original editable triangle mesh.

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Figure 4: Mesh editing tool palette

Figure 5: Editable triangle mesh mini-toolbar

Parameters such as to control the speed of editing and strength of smoothing can be set in the Mesh control tab of the Settings dialog box for the editable triangle mesh.
Figure 6: Mesh control tab that includes parameters that control the speed of editing and strength of smoothing

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This triangle mesh can be integrated within a Structural Framework using the Seismic Velocity Modeling plug-in.
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Velocity modeling
Robustness and performance
The overall robustness in velocity modeling has been improved. This includes improvements in validation and stricter checks of input data, better error messages and warnings, and significant performance improvements in some cases, especially when using high resolution surfaces as input and correction.

Velocity points to cube
Velocity (e.g. stacking) points can now be converted directly into a velocity cube. From the Operations tab of the Settings dialog box of the points, under the Velocity conversion folder, select Convert points to cube.

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Min/max functions velocity cube
This option is available on the velocity cubes and allows extracting of the min/max values of the cube as a function of the vertical position and displaying it in the Function window. It can be used for the preliminary QC of velocity seismic data imported or created in Petrel.

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Simple velocity model
You can create a velocity model with only a single velocity cube as the input, using the new Simple velocity model dialog box. Use this dialog box to build a model geometry based on a velocity cube and a velocity function, interval/instantaneous velocity cube or average velocity cube to be used for domain converting data objects. On the Seismic interpretation tab, in the Depth group, click the arrow next to Velocity model, and then click Simple velocity model.

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Advanced velocity model
The Make Velocity Model dialog box has been renamed to Advanced velocity model and now also accepts interval velocity cubes directly.

RPT transfer velocity model made from velocity cube/property
When velocity models are made using a velocity cube or property, all relevant data objects are now transferred via the Reference project tool to ensure the model can be fully utilized in another project.

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Depth convert horizon interpretation for all sub grids
Horizon interpretations including all sub interpretation grids can now be depth converted together from the parent level.

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Depth convert seismic cube
You can now specify output parameters, such as sample interval and samples per trace when depth converting seismic cubes.

Performance
Significant performance improvements have been made in the following areas: ? Amplitude scanning of 2D and 3D seismic SEG-Y data can be up to 30x faster. ? Amplitude scanning of virtual volume attribute data can be up to 10x faster. ? Realize 3D seismic SEG-Y data to ZGY can be up to 6x faster. ? Prefetching 2D SEG-Y data to cache can be up to 15x faster. ? Exporting 2D and 3D seismic data in SEG-Y format can be up to 8x faster. ? Displaying partially interpreted horizons from very large survey extents can be up to 5x faster. ? Displaying a single large fault interpretation can be up to 7x faster. ? Horizon storage - size of internal ZHZ file has been minimized. ? The geobody extraction algorithm has been optimized such that all available CPU cores are now 100% utilized, significantly reducing the time to extract a geobody from seismic data. Due to the improvements made, the performance of the above activities is now limited by the available storage and network configurations.
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Geophysics: Quantitative Interpretation

2015.1
Lithology Classification
This new set of Quantitative Interpretation (QI) processes performs lithology classification by defining the elastic signature of lithology and fluid types using rock physics analysis and well data through the Bayesian estimation theory. The signatures are applied to seismic inversion attributes to generate 3D maps of reservoir properties (e.g., porosity and saturation) with associated probabilities and uncertainties. The aim of the lithology classification is to build a 3D volume of reservoir properties that can highlight and quantify the pay as hydrocarbon pore volume versus the nonproductive sections. Typical reservoir properties considered for lithology prediction are volume of sand, porosity, and fluid saturations. Lithology classification involves analysis of the well data for lithology and fluid class groups, and in order to perform it, you need to follow three main steps: ? Lithology analysis: Input well data is prepared through the well data conditioning functionality, and relationships are established between elastic measurements and physical rock properties using rock physics modeling. Petrophysical logs are used to define lithology, porosity, and fluid classes, each with associated compressional velocity, shear velocity, and density attributes. Distribution analysis: The rock property class units are projected into 3D space, as defined by seismic attributes, such as compressional impedance, shear impedance, and density. Nonparametric probability functions (PPFs) are derived from the cluster analysis as a representation of the variability in the formation properties given by the wells. The most likely attribute is calculated given the seismic attribute or combination of attributes based on the maximum posteriori rule. Lithology prediction: PPFs are applied to the elastic attribute cubes from the seismic inversion to produce a lithology prediction volume and its associated uncertainty. The interactive environment for analysis and quality control (QC) of the lithology classification enables rapid visualization and data interrogation throughout the workflow.
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?

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Crossplotting of surfaces, horizons and point attributes
The QI Crossplot gives you the crossplotting of new datasets, such as: ? ? ? Point attributes Horizon interpretation attributes Surfaces attributes

In addition to the data supported since the previous version of Petrel 2014, this new functionality adds value to the existing QI workflow by enabling the comparison of data clouds coming from different sources, and enriching workflows such as lithology classification.

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Create classification data using multiple selections in the QI Crossplot
One of the key steps when the data is analyzed in a crossplot is being able to interpret the data by generating multiple selections, and then to classify the information. In this release, a multi-classification tool has been introduced in the QI Crossplot that gives you the generation of classification data for each data type supported by the QI Crossplot window: ? ? ? ? ? Well logs: The operation generates a discrete log that is stored at the well in study and inside the global well logs folder. Post-stack seismic data: Crossplot collections, which display post-stack seismic data, generate a virtual volume that is stored as a child of the seismic data volume. Horizon interpretation attributes: A discrete attribute will be created under the active interpretation grid. Surface attributes: A discrete attribute is created under the active surface. Point attributes: Generates a discrete attribute under the active point set.
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Options to show/hide the symbol legend and color tables in the QI Crossplot
As part of the continuous improvements of the QI Crossplot window, new functionality has been introduced to show or hide displayed elements. From the QI Crossplot window toolbar or in the QI Crossplot window tab, it is now possible to show or hide the symbol legend or the color table for the crossplotted collections.

Rock physics operations of the Workflow editor
The Rock physics operations can be found in the Workflow editor. These operations are: ? Elastic parameters estimation ? Shear velocity estimation ? Log blocking Backus ? Fluid substitution The Rock physics operations enable multi-well calculations by using the different functionalities of the Workflow editor. Take advantage of this process to execute and test different scenarios with a single click (n-amount of times) at different well locations.

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Storage options for the AVO modeling output files
The main difference with the previous version of AVO modeling, is that you had the option to define the locations of the modeled pre-stack data. A new field has been introduced in the user interface, where you can select the directory where the synthetic prestack data will be stored.

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Productivity enhancements in the QI tools
The QI tools in Petrel 2015.1 contain small features that have the objective of improving productivity. The following is the small set of changes introduced in each tool: ? QI Crossplot window: Crossplot collections, containing a multiple set of wells, can generate classification data for all the wells in a single operation. ? AVO Modeling process dialog box: A reset parameters option is now available and can be used to reset all the parameters in the AVO modeling process dialog. It is very useful when changing the mode from Edit to Create, if the remaining parameters from the previous study are not going to be used. ? AVO Reconnaissance process dialog box: o The Auto-update check box helps you autocalculate the Effective angle every time the metadata information of the input seismic cube is updated. It will help to keep any virtual volume attribute updated. o The Shuey and Gidlow methods, for a standard fitting mode, enable the calculation of the primary AVO attributes by using a minimum of two cubes as input. ? Z-level: With a Z-level displayed at the Well section window, you can generate a single QI crossplot of Amplitude versus Offset, or Amplitude versus Angle, for the gathers displayed in the Well section window. ? Modeless access: The new modeless access to features and tools allows multiple dialog boxes to be opened simultaneously for a productive workflow, for example, a combination of fluid substitution with the Rock Physics dialog and AVO Modeling. This allows for continuous Quantitative Interpretation tasks to be performed, while engaged with other simultaneous activities, without the need to change a process.
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Geophysics: Seismic Well Tie

2015.1
Interactive bulk shift
In the seismic to well tie process, after the synthetics is generated from the logs, an interactive bulk shift is performed to get the closest match between the synthetics and the seismic. If the quality of the data is good enough, then, a stretch and squeeze will not be necessary and therefore, is not recommended as a first approach. Petrel Basic interactive bulk shift workflow steps (Time domain) are, as follows: 1. Open the SWT tool palette by clicking the Well tie editing button.

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2. 3. 4. 5.

Click Add bulk shift line Click on the position where the alignment point needs to be added (in the seismic track or the synthetic track). Drag and drop the line to the corresponding event (in the seismic track or the synthetic track). In step 4, the synthetics is not yet aligned with the corresponding position in the seismic. To apply the bulk shift, Apply bulk shift from the SWT tool palette needs to be active edited with the Apply bulk shift state being active. . This bulk shift alignment point can be

The interactive bulk shift will be synchronizing with the time shift tab in the study; any change made graphically will be updated on the fly into the bulk shift box. Important: It is recommended to perform the bulk shift before the stretch and squeeze. Any change in the bulk shift will be added to the alignment points, but no change to the alignment will affect the bulk shift. Another operation available in the tool palette for the bulk shift is Delete bulk shift is applied, all the values will be reset. . When Delete bulk shift

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Continuous alignment
In the seismic to well process, sometimes small adjustments have to be made to match the synthetics with the seismic after the bulk shift is implemented. To perform these adjustments in Petrel, use the alignment functionality. In Petrel 2015.1, the process became interactive. Petrel Basic alignment workflow steps (time domain) are, as follows: 1. Open the SWT tool palette by clicking the Well tie editing button.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Click Edit mode Click on the position where the alignment point needs to be added (in the seismic track or the synthetic track). Drag and drop the line to the corresponding event (in the seismic track or the synthetic track). In step 4, the synthetics is not yet aligned with the analogous event in the seismic. To apply the alignment, Align points from the SWT tool palette needs to be active edited with the Align points state being active. . In Petrel 2015.1, the alignment points can be

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Note: As many alignment points can be added, as is required. The default for Edit mode will be to add new alignment points. To perform any edits on the alignment points, the Edit mode has to be activated. Use Delete alignment point during a study if an alignment point needs to be deleted. If it is activated, the alignments points can be deleted by using a mouse click over the alignment point line. In the case where the study needs to be reset, Delete all alignments points can be used. However, it must be used very carefully, as this option will delete all the alignments points at the moment it is selected. The continuous alignment in the depth domain works the same for the tool palette, except the option to add new alignment points is not accessible; the alignment points are tied to an existing well top into the Well top folder selected in the study. The depth for the markers are considered as real; then, the drag and drop function needs to be performed just in the seismic tracks.

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The values of the alignments are reported through the alignment line, the format of the alignment line can also be modified from the Style tab in the study.

Interval velocity cannot be manipulated during the alignment.

Well Section Windows (WSWs) temporary Time Depth Relationship (TDR) for wavelet deterministic extraction
A temporary TDR from an active WSW can be used to extract a deterministic wavelet. In the older versions of Petrel, the TDR had to be assigned to the well in order to perform the deterministic extraction. If a study WSW is active, the temporary TDR from that window will be considered for the deterministic wavelet extraction. Any change from the bulk shift or stretch and squeeze process in the study will be listed by the WTB and used for the extraction. The name of the TDR or temporary TDR used for the extraction will be reported at “TDR from” in the interface.

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Interpretation display on seismic track
There are many references to be used as a guide during the seismic to well tie process. Usually, the main reference will be markers and horizons; while, in some other cases, it could be faults or other types of identified interfaces. In Petrel 2015.1, horizon interpretations and fault interpretations can be posted in the seismic track, which helps to use them as reference during the tie process. The workflow to add an interpretation to the Seismic track is, as follows: 1. Add a track from the WSW settings. 2. Right-click to add a Seismic. 3. Select this seismic object on the Interpretation tab, which contains the tools to add the interpretation in the track. 4. Use the blue arrow (Horizon or Fault) to add the interpretation.
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5. The format can be edited at bottom of the Interpretation tab. The interpretation needs to be present in the line selected in the track. If there is no interpretation corresponding to the traces posted in the track, the interpretation will not be posted (there is no projection performed). The only Petrel objects accepted are seismic horizons and fault interpretations.
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Assigning a temporary TDR as active in the well
Usually, the TDR can be saved from the study and after the seismic to well tie process is complete, this TDR must be assigned to the well for the tie to be reflected in all Petrel canvases. In Petrel 2015.1, the TDR generated in the synthetic generation or integrate seismic well tie studies can be directly assigned to the well from the Output tab of the study itself.

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Selecting TDR input
The seismic to well tie process needs to be, in many cases, very interactive, and different kinds of TDRs need to be selected as input in the study. In Petrel 2015.1, any TDR, sonic log, or velocity log contained by the well can be selected as “TDR” input for the synthetics generation study. For those cases where the sonic log or velocity log are selected, the synthetics seismogram will be posted from 0 TWT. So, it will be out of place and the Bulk shift will be a forced step in the seismic to well tie process.

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A particular case will be to use the same TDR as input from the one saved in the study (usually when a TDR output is set as active from the Output tab and the auto save option selected). This workflow will have an implicit loop for the changes generated in the same study. For those cases, a “synchronize button” will be activated , so any change performed in the study (stretch & squeeze or bulk shift) will not be implemented on the fly in the study (Warning: It will be implemented by the well at the Petrel project level, but not in the study). At the moment, the synchronize state is activated and all the alignments and bulk shifts will be set to “0”.

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WTB Scale factor
For the analytical and statistical normalized method of wavelet extraction in Petrel, the amplitude range varies from -1 to 1. Normally, this range does not match the seismic volume’s amplitude range. In Petrel 2015.1, in the WTB operation on the Scale factor tab, an escalation of the wavelet is performed in the time domain.

Standard wavelet phase convention
With the aim to be consistent with a generic wavelet phase convention used in the oil industry, a new “Standard phase convention” option has been introduced in the Wavelet toolbox under the Wavelet display options. This is the default display convention.
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The figure below shows the new Standard phase convention, when you apply different Phase manipulations (Zero phase, -90 degree phase and +90 degree phase) to a 30 HZ, Ricker wavelet.

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The Wavelet display convention used in previous releases can be achieved by toggling off the Standard phase convention option. The figure below shows the phase convention used in previous SWT versions achieved by toggling off the Standard phase convention option shown above when the user applies different Phase manipulations.

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Synthetics in depth
The synthetics used to be a time domain object. In Petrel 2015.1, the synthetics that is generated can be saved with depth as the vertical index.

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Multi-well extended white wavelet extraction (MWEW)
One of the key elements for the inversion process is the wavelet. There are different ways to extract wavelets from the seismic volumes. In Petrel, one of these ways is the Deterministic method, extended white, and it can be used to extract wavelets for a specific borehole. It works fine when you are only interested in just one well, but in many cases, for inversion, more than one well is used to perform the extraction. To solve this issue, in Petrel 2015.1, a multi-well deterministic wavelet extraction is available. To perform the MWEW, an individual deterministic wavelet extraction has to be done for every well selected. ? Inputs: Extended White wavelets, where the reflectivity and seismic trace will be retrieved. Additionally: ? They should be extracted from the same seismic cube; ? We will get the reflectivity, seismic trace and time lag used for these wavelets as input in the multi well extraction; ? The input wavelets amplitudes will not be used by this algorithm. Output: Multi well wavelet extracted

?

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The Algorithm The algorithm uses the extraction window for each one of the input wavelets to get the reflection coefficient (RC) from the logs, and the seismic trace from the seismic for all wells. All pieces from all wells are used to generate one RC log and one seismic trace log. Between the pieces, a zero interval is added with a length equivalent to the biggest wavelet length. This pseudo log and pseudo seismic trace is used to extract a wavelet, using extended white, with the result of one wavelet representing the combination of RCs and seismic traces from all input wells.

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Petrel multi-well wavelet extraction basic workflow steps: 1. Extract the deterministic wavelet for the wavelets of interest. 2. From the Wavelet toolbox (WTB), the available wavelet can be selected and inserted by using the blue arrow. There are some considerations to be made in this step: a. The wavelets can be added from the input tree or from the Wavelets list in the WTB. b. Only wavelets extracted by using the Deterministic method can be used for the computation. c. The wavelets have to be extracted from the same seismic volume. The operation will not accept wavelets originating from a different volume.

d. If the Auto-calculate check box is selected, the resultant wavelet will be automatically posted in the graphic area of the WTB (Wavelet, Power spectrum, and Phase spectrum). 3. To save the resultant wavelet, either click Apply or OK or select the Auto save check box.

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A - Input wavelets: The defined parameters used to create the pseudo RC log and the pseudo seismic trace (RC
window, RC window scan, wavelet length, length of extraction, etc.). B - Visual results. By default, the resultant wavelet will be posted; additional wavelets can be posted from the wavelet list. C - The predictability computed from the pseudo RC and the pseudo trace.

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Geology
Geology: Geology & Modeling

2015.1
Stratigraphic charts user experience implementation
You can powerfully visualize, edit labels and symbols on continuous curves in densely populated charts with tools in the Window toolbar and stratigraphic charts editing tool palette. The interpretation of charts column and geo-time data in the Stratigraphic chart window are improved by adding stationary horizontal age line to extend the event line to Geo-time curves. In the chart window, display a strat chart column to activate the window tool bar tools.
Figure 7: Window toolbar showing command tools

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Click New horizontal line in the red border, and hover the cursor in the chart window to insert a horizontal line and age value posted on the top left corner. Several horizontal lines can be inserted. ? To modify the line style: From the windows tab, click the Stratigraphic chart window and then, the Horizontal tab. ? To change the display, you can clear the Show check box and edit the color, line width, and style. ? To add new lines, use the append tool and to delete lines, use the delete icon. ? To refresh the display, click Apply or OK.

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Figure 8: Stratigraphic chart showing drawn horizontal lines and active window style settings for Horizontal tab

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Stratigraphic chart editing tool palette: You can edit and resize continuous curves and resize columns directly on the stratigraphic chart. To open the Stratigraphic chart editing tool palette, on the Stratigraphy tab, in the Stratigraphic charts group, click Chart editing and edit mode activates the pick mode. . To use Edit continuous curve , the default color is black

Point value is modified by dragging the symbol left / right. To resize a column: Click Resize column width and hover the cursor over the column line until it changes from pick select to resize arrow and you can drag (widen/narrow) the width. The operation updates the column width in the Style tab. There are enabled stratigraphic chart style settings to support display changes to header orientation and store resized column width. Each column and geo-time curves now support style settings, which can be enabled from the Window toolbar by clicking the column and geo-time curves header label. In the tree, right click on the individual column to select settings. From the Style tab, the header label orientation can be changed to Vertical, Horizontal or Automatic.

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Figure 9: Individual column (e.g., Epoch) chronostratigraphy style settings

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The width can be updated manually or by interactive dragging the column. The interactive column width is not updated until you close and reopen the column style settings. Selecting the Lock check box stops you from accidentally editing the column width.

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Geo-time curves style: You can modify the width manually or interactively and lock the width to avoid editing. Common style settings for the line type, such as color, width, and type can be modified. Symbol type, color, and size can be modified when the Show line symbols check box is selected.
Figure 10: Continuous curve style settings

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The Inspector for continuous and discrete curves: With the Inspector open, you can view and modify settings and general information about the continuous curve displayed in a Stratigraphic chart window. If the Inspector is not already open, on the Home tab, in the View group, click Inspector. To modify more advanced settings, continue to use an object's Settings dialog. The most commonly used continuous curve settings are organized in four collapsible groups.

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Figure 11: Geo-time curve inspector showing line style tab.

Extend age info to surfaces
Stratigraphic metadata (event and age) can now be stored in the Stratigraphy tab of a surface.
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Event info is automatically updated in the Stratigraphy tab as event info changes in the column spreadsheet/event settings tab.
Figure 12: Stratigraphy tab to store stratigraphy metadata

? ? ? ?

The event can be manually updated with the blue ‘arrow’ button from the chart column. Upon project upgrade, all surfaces will have the Stratigraphy tab in the Settings dialog. Surfaces generated from seismic horizon as input automatically updates the result surface with stratigraphic info. Event info is retained on RPT transfer.

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Link age to surface, well tops, and seismic horizon using workflow editor
The automatic link of an event to: surface, well tops horizon, and seismic horizon are available in stratigraphic folder of workflow editor operations tab. Three different commands can be accessed; specifically, link surface, link well tops horizon, and link seismic horizon: ? Each command only accepts the object type referenced in its Info tab. ? A variable/reference list can be used as input in the Workflow editor. ? Use the setup as shown in the snapshot and click Run to execute.
Figure 13: Workflow editor setup to link events to surfaces in a reference list

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Conformal gridding in Make/edit surface
To promote 2D mapping workflows, conformal gridding, using the CPS-3 algorithm, has been introduced in the Make/edit surface process: ? It supports a simple isochore stacking. ? Fault center lines or polygons are not also supported. You can now generate a regular surface that conforms to one horizon (above or below) or two horizons (above and below) with high level of confidence in Petrel. In the Settings sub-tab: Three different surface combinations are accepted for input:
? ? ?

Both conformal surfaces (above and below) One conformal surface (above or below) One conformal surface and the isochore

Simultaneous usage of both of the conformal surfaces and isochore is not possible.

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Figure 14: Conformal gridding dialog settings

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Figure 15: Before (left) and after conformal gridding (right)

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Build along performs zone thickness calculation (TVT) and (TST). Expert tab sub-tab: uses default CPS-3 settings and requires expert knowledge before adjusting the settings: ? Specify initial coarsening factor It specifies the ratio of the grid cell size created during the first pass of the gridder to the final size. Each successive gridding pass divides the grid interval by 2. The default value gives full extrapolation. The algorithm autocomputes the coarsening factor if this option is not chosen. ? Number of smoothening operation Specifies the maximum number of smoothing operations allowed before a model is deemed finished. It applies CPS-3 equivalents: None (0), Low (1), Medium (2), High (4), Very high (8). ? Range of influence Creates an isochore based on the spread between the input data points and the conformal surface. The setting is applicable only if the input to conformal gridding consists of exactly one conformal surface without the isochore. This parameter constrains the isochore to have zero values at all nodes of the target grid, located outside of the specified influence range of all input data points. Ensure all nodes get a value: Fills in holes in the output surface using a linear algorithm. This may be useful if the coarsening factor is small. In the Workflow editor, you can use well tops as the main input and above or below conformal surfaces in a loop to generate a conformal surface.
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Saved search (Well list)
The Petrel Well list/Saved search is now a very powerful filtering tool to support well data management and control visualization. ? You can filter and group wells based on multiple criteria. ? Saved search filter can be dynamic or static. ? Search criteria can be defined in a table with columns to represent filter type, property and criteria value. To access the Saved search tool, right-click the Saved searches folder in the Input pane or from the Stratigraphy tab in the Wells group and click New search. The filtering is done with: the selection of a source, a property from that source, start and end dates, the value to compare against, the desired operator, and the frequency with which the comparison needs to meet the criteria. With Dynamic saved searches, the given units are for reference only and cannot be changed. Use a dynamic saved search to filter and group wells, based on input data from development strategies, observed data, and simulation cases. To create a dynamic saved search: 1. In the Input pane, expand the Wells folder. 2. Right-click the Saved searches folder, click New search, and then click Dynamic saved search. Setting the static toggle on makes Search behave as a user-defined well list and disables all the filters.

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Figure 16: Well list set to dynamic and all well that met the criteria

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3. In the Settings dialog box, on the Search criteria tab, define the filter criteria for your search. You can add, modify, reorder, and remove comparison rows to form the search criteria.
Figure 17: Group search set up to make complex saved search

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Use Logical or Operator on saved search: This allows you to filter the wells that have at least one of the selected logs, rather than all selected logs. This improves organization of well data in the presence of several versions of the same measurement. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click New search. Click the Search criteria tab Add a new row and set the Filter type to 'Well log data'. In the Property column, select a log. In the Operator column, select Exists. In the Combine column, select OR.

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Figure 18: Logical /Operator setup on saved searches

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Search for completions: You can create a saved search that contains all completions logs for horizontal wells. Search for horizontal wells: You can create a saved search for all horizontal wells that contain a particular completion log.

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GIIP output for MBV
The Map-based volume calculation result has been enhanced to also report gas volumes. You can now report gas volumes by selecting the Gas check box, located in the Contact area on the Input sub-tab of the Map-based volume calculation dialog.
Figure 19: Check box to report gas volumes

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? ? ?

Accepted N/G and porosity as properties used to apply uncertainties and used report gas volumes. Generated gas HCPV, STOIIP, GIIP and recoverable gas. Accepted rotated surfaces.

Make surface from continuous polygon attributes
Continuous polygon attributes can now be used as input data in the Make/edit surface process to create a regular surface: ? Open the Polygon editing tool palette from the Utilities group in the Stratigraphy tab. ? Digitize the polygon with many polylines ? Create a continuous attribute from the right-click menu ? Assign values to the attribute in the spreadsheet. ? Use continuous attribute as input in the Make/edit surface to create. Additional input data is also supported.
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Other enhancements
Other enhancements include: ? Convergent interpolation: The algorithm has been improved with a check box in the Expert tab to ensure the fixed sample interval to be 0.5 of the cell diagonal to refine input polylines, no matter the line type. It splits each segment in a polygon into sections equal to the sample interval with the last section shorter than the interval. ? Use of Geopolygons as a boundary in: o Eliminating data inside/outside geopolygons in the surface operations. o Using as a boundary in the Make/edit surface process, quick volume calculations in the Inspector and surface operations. ? Improvements to the blue arrow in Make simple grid process dialog: o The orange (blue) arrow implementation makes it easy to insert a boundary manually or click on the magnifier icon to search and select from a list of polygons and surfaces in the tree. o Text can be entered in the box to facilitate the search.

Geology: Well Section Window

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2015.1
XY hinges
You can now select an XY location as a hinge point when you are creating and editing a cross section. The cross section can be created with XY hinges, Well hinges, or a combination of XY and Well hinges. You can display XY hinges in a cross section, and configure the XY hinges style settings in the Settings for Xsection dialog box. .
Figure 20: XY and Well hinges displayed in a Well Section Window

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Curtain section
A curtain section allows for the well path to be followed within the cross section. After you have created a cross section and posted it in the Well section window, right-click an individual well header when Select/Pick mode is enabled, and then click Toggle curtain. The cross section will be updated to follow the path of the well. You can configure the direction of the curtain section in the Settings for X-section dialog box. A cross section can contain multiple curtain sections.
Figure 21: Settings for X-section dialog box showing the Curtain display options

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Background wells
Wells can be displayed in the background of a Well section window. The background well can be user defined or identified by the distance from the cross section.
Figure 22: Cross section with background wells posted with well logs and markers

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Background wells are orthogonally projected onto the nearest cross section plane, and continuous/discrete logs can be displayed on the left and right side of the well path. Markers can also be posted on background wells when a background log is displayed. You can specify the color, label, and symbol for background wells in the Settings for X-section dialog box.

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Figure 23: The Settings for X-section dialog box showing the Background well settings

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Swap well
Swap well allows you to create a single-well cross section that can be used to check the quality of your data. The well can be displayed as vertical, deviated, or curtain. You can select a well to create the single well cross section in a 2D, 3D, or Map window. Once the cross section is created, click another well within the 2D, 3D, or Map window, the cross section is updated automatically to show only the most recently selected well.
Figure 24: Example of single-well cross section created from a 2D window

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Background surfaces
Surfaces that reflect the true intersection of the surface of the cross section plane can now be displayed in the background of the cross section. On the Input pane, right-click the surface, and then click Add to global template > Add to the background. The surface color and line width settings can be configured in the Settings for Well section template dialog box.

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Figure 25: Background surfaces displayed in a cross section

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Major and minor grid lines
Major and minor gridlines can be displayed on the background of a cross section when background items are posted. The line style increment and label settings are set in the Grid lines tab, in the Settings for Well section window dialog box. A readout on the cursor position is available.

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Figure 26: Horizontal minor and major grid lines displayed in a Well section window

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Figure 27: Grid lines tab in the Settings for Well section window dialog box

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Raster logs
The raster log functionality has been moved from the Shale plug-in, and has been incorporated into Petrel. The raster log functionality is included in the Well correlation license. To load Raster logs, right-click the well or the well folder, and click Import (on selection), and then select the raster file types.

Well tops mini toolbar
The well tops mini toolbar is now available in the Well section window. Right-click the well top to display the mini toolbar and context menu when Select pick mode is enabled.

True horizontal length
True horizontal length (THL) is now a supported depth domain in the Well section window. THL can be useful for highly deviated or horizontal wells.
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Figure 28: Completion track being displayed in THL Completion track displayed in SSTVD

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Show and hide the 3D grid
Individual 3D grid horizons and faults can be displayed or hidden in the background by adding a 3D grid object in the Background template node in the Settings for Well section template dialog box. The horizons and faults in the selected grid are listed in the Definition tab of the Settings for Well section template dialog box with individual check boxes. The color and line size of the horizons and faults can be configured in the Style tab. It is also possible to right-click a horizon or a fault, and click Add to global template > Background.
Figure 29: Horizon and fault check boxes in the Settings for Well section template dialog box

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Collapse vertical well
For easier viewing of the deviated and curtain section wells, and the background objects, vertical tracks can be collapsed to a line. ? Click Vertical tracks on the window toolbar to collapse all the wells. ? Right-click the well head to expand or collapse a single well. ? You can also collapse a well in the Definition tab, in the Settings for X-section dialog box.
Figure 30: Vertical and deviated wells displayed in a Well section window

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Figure 31: Deviated wells with vertical well tracks collapsed in a cross section

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Well correlation ghost curve
It is now possible to create a single log, multi-log single track, and multi-log multi-track ghost curves. It is also possible to display the well and log name on the ghost curve header. You can include an index track in the ghost curve, and add additional control points to the ghost curve. Additionally, you can enable and disable markers within the ghost curve to control which markers will be placed on the well.
Figure 32: A well correlation ghost curve with the well and log name created on well C3 that contains all applicable logs and markers

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Find well
A well can be centered within an active Well section window by right-clicking the well of interest in the Input pane, and clicking Find in active well section.

Number of hinges
The total number of Well and XY hinges defined within the cross section can be viewed in the Definition tab, in the Settings for X-section dialog box.

Number of tracks
The total number of vertical and deviated tracks can be viewed in the Settings for Well section template dialog box.

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Using Polysection in Studio Find
It is now possible to use the Polysection tool within Studio Find by interactively drawing an area of interest in a 2D window. The area of interest coverage can be interactively adjusted in the Settings for x-section creation via polysection dialog box, and the wells that are within the area of interest can be loaded into the Petrel project and used to create a new cross section.

Geology: Structural Geology

2015.1
Volume calculation of Structural Framework model zones
The calculation of zone volume can be performed using Structural Framework models and specified contacts. The volumetric operations include gross rock volume and fluid volumes, such as hydrocarbon pore volume and in-place oil and gas volume. The volume of structural framework model zones can be calculated. Zone volumes can be calculated for individual zones (in the Operations tab of zone settings) or for all zones at once (in the Operations tab of the zone folder settings).The volume calculation operations are split into Gross rock volume (GRV) and different fluid volumes (oil and gas HCPV, STOIIP, GIIP, solution gas, condensate oil, recoverable oil and gas). A contact is required (two contacts for the oil and gas volumes). Contacts are flat and uniform all over the model area (single value per zone), and the default value corresponds to the deepest point of each zone (or of the model when calculated for all zones at once). The volumetric operations only apply to models created with the volume based modeling (VBM) method in depth domain (TVD). All structural framework volumetric operations are workflow-enabled. Open the Settings of any structural framework model zone (or the zone folder). Open the Operations tab. In the Volume calculation group, select Gross rock volume or any Fluid volume operation. In the case of Fluid volume, specify reservoir volume parameters (Net/Gross and Porosity) Specify Contact depth(s). In the case of Fluid volume, specify fluid volume parameters for gas (Gas saturation, Gas formation volume factor, Recovery factor (gas), Oil-gas ratio) and/or oil (Oil saturation, Oil formation volume factor, Recovery factor (oil), Gas-oil ratio) 7. Click Run. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The result will appear in the message log. Volume calculation results in the message log are reported in project units; the option “In-place volumes in additional units“ reports the results for STOIIP and GIIP in additional volume units. Important: All parameters, except contact depth, are not unit-sensitive, i.e., they are hardcoded to the units as displayed and do not react to changes in project units.
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Isochore calculation between Structural Framework model horizons
The calculation of true vertical thickness isochores between two horizons of Structural Framework models can be performed. True vertical thickness (TVT) isochores can be calculated for structural framework model zones. The isochore operations can be found in the settings of individual horizons and the horizon folder of a refined structural framework model. TVT can be calculated for single zones or multiple zones (one TVT value for several adjacent zones). Calculated TVT isochore values are stored as attributes on a point set with a specified XY increment along the extended selected top horizon. The isochore operations apply to refined models created with the volume based modeling (VBM) method in depth (TVD) and time (TWT) domain. All structural framework isochore operations are workflow-enabled. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open the Settings of any refined structural framework model horizon. Open the Operations tab. In the Isochore modeling group, select True vertical thickness. Specify Base horizon if multiple-zone TVT is required. Specify XY increment. Click Run.

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The operation generates a point set (with a specified XY increment) along the extended selected top horizon with an attribute containing the calculated true vertical thickness at each point. The same operation can also be performed for all horizons at once (Operations tab of the horizon folder settings). The point set generated by the operation can be optionally restricted to complete zones only (“Restrict to complete zones” toggled on). In that case, no points will be created at locations where top and base horizons do not overlap, e.g., due to truncation by erosional/discontinuous horizons or faults, or due to onlap or downlap onto base/discontinuous horizons.

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Geology: Modeling

2015.1
Data analysis discrete properties – Declustering option
A new Use declustering weights toggle is now available in the Proportion tab and Thickness tab of the Data analysis dialog. When toggled on, declustering weights pre-computed in the new Declustering tab will be used to compute histograms, proportions and statistics of the input facies data. Horizontal and clustered wells, preferentially sampled on high quality part of the reservoir, might bias the estimated global facies proportions and histograms. ? A new Use declustering weights option is now available in the Proportion tab and Thickness tab of the Data analysis dialog box. When you switch on Use declustering weights, you can now use declustering weights, pre-computed in the new Declustering tab, to correct for the sampling bias in the facies proportions and histograms caused by horizontal and clustered wells. A new Declustering tab has been added to the Data analysis dialog box. The Declustering tab can be used to change the settings and re-compute the declustering weights for the input data. The optimal declustering grid geometry for a selected facies can be also automatically estimated.

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Data analysis continuous properties – Declustering option
You can now alleviate the spatial bias in the properties distribution caused by spatially clustered and horizontal well data using the new Declustering option for Normal score transformation. Checking the Decluster option will weigh the input data with declustering weights such that data in densely sampled areas receive less weight and data in sparsely sampled areas receiving greater weight. Directional (horizontal or highly deviated) wells and preferential drilling targeting pay intervals might cause the log data to be spatially biased and therefore no representative of the spatial distribution of the petrophysical properties over the volume of interest. The new Decluster option allows you to alleviate the spatial bias in the property distribution caused by clustered wells or horizontal wells data. Checking the Decluster option will weigh the input data with declustering weights such that data in densely sampled areas receive less weight (shrinking the histogram bars for the preferentially sampled values) and data in sparsely sampled areas receiving greater weight (expanding the histogram bars for the sparse data values). When the Declustering option is ticked on, ? ? The declustering settings are shown in the top right of the dialog. This allows you to select the declustering settings, estimate the optimal geometry and re-compute the declustering weights for the input data. The declustering weights will then be automatically applied to the data. A new histogram window will appear on the bottom showing the input data histogram and the weighted (declustered) data histogram.

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Facies modeling – Use proportion from data analysis
In Facies modeling, a new Use estimated facies proportions from data analysis option allows you to fetch estimated global facies proportions computed in data analysis from the upscaled and well log input data. When the TG, SIS, or MP facies simulation algorithm is selected, a new Use estimated facies proportions from data analysis button is available in the Facies modeling dialog. This allows you to fetch the estimated global facies proportions computed in data analysis from the upscaled and well log input data for the selected facies: ? ? If you switch on Use declustering weights in Data analysis, then the ‘declustered’ global fractions computed in Data analysis will be fetched. If you switch off Length weighted in Data analysis, then the cell-count based global fractions computed in Data analysis will be fetched.

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Scale up well logs - Continuous log weighting
You can now use one or more continuous logs are weights to compute the average of continuous properties during the upscaling process. This allows you to preserve pore and fluid volumes when upscaling petrophysical properties. When upscaling some petrophysical properties such as net-to-gross, porosity and saturation, it is essential to preserve pore and fluid volumes. This means that the input log samples might need to be weighted by auxiliary log data in such a way that the respective volumetric properties are preserved when moving from the fine to the coarse scale using average methods. ? ? ? The Use weighting option is now available for continuous properties. This allows you to use one or more continuous logs are weights to compute the average of continuous properties during the upscaling process. When a continuous property is being upscaled, and Use weighting is selected, the Weighted tab will allow you to select one or more continuous logs to be used as weights. Once the upscaling settings have been set, the upscaling process will calculate the average of the target log samples weighted by the samples of the selected weighting logs.
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Facies tool palette
New geological brushes for Interactive facies editing
You can now directly paint channels as well as geometric and geologic bodies on the 3D facies property, by using the new geological brushes added to the facies tool palette. New tools have been added to the set of tool in the Facies tool palette that allow you to direct and interactively paint geological features on the 3D facies property. ? ? Channel brush: allows you to iteratively paint a channel (with or without levee) directly on the 3D facies property. The tool settings allow you to select the facies code, initial orientation and dimensions of the channel section and levee. Geometric body tool: allows you to add a geometric body directly on the 3D facies property. The tool settings allow you to select the body shape, orientation and dimensions of the geometric body.

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Undo/Redo button
The Undo/Redo functionality is now available for the Iterative facies editing tools in the different windows (2D and 3D). Similar to the existing undo/redo for other editing functionality (surface, polygon, points), full undo/redo is now available during each Iterative facies editing session.

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Quality Assurance maps
You can now display simultaneously attribute values from different data types (well logs, upscaled data, map) and well names, when displaying Quality assurance (QA) maps on a Map window. Also, you can quickly and automatically create plot windows with several map viewports upon creation of the QA maps, and list in the output sheet the attribute values for all the data types (well logs, upscaled, map) per zone and per well. You can now simultaneously display and compare the QA attribute map values against the equivalent attribute values computed from the input well logs and upscaled data along the well tracks. Additionally, a Highlight non-matched wells option allows you to define a difference threshold in percent and highlight well points for which the map value differs of more than the specified percentage from the calculated well log value. Also, a new Create map/zone plot option has been added to the QA map settings dialog to allow you quickly and automatically create plot windows with several map viewports upon creation of the QA maps: ? ? ? ? In each plot window, multiple map viewports will be automatically created and the layout will be automatically organized in a grid so they do not overlap. The new plot windows (with respective map view ports) will display the QA map on each one of the zones existing in the grid. You can use a single common color table for all the map viewports, with the limits set from the property template. You can set the maximum number of map viewports to be created per plot windows.

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And a new Output attribute values option allows you to write a report in the QA map report tab of the output sheet. The report will list the computed values for the selected attribute for all data types (well log, upscaled, map) for all wells and for all the existing zones in the grid.

Data Analysis – Interactive Vertical Proportion Curve editing
Workflow productivity when working with Vertical Proportion Curves (VPC) in the Data analysis process is greatly improved with the new interactive editing functionality for those curves and the ability to edit only a selected part of the curve. Vertical Proportion Curves can now be interactively edited quickly and easily by clicking once in the graph and dragging the mouse cursor. This allows, for example, to add easily vertical trends to the selected facies curve. Additionally, the options “Fit active/all curve(s) to a constant / a linear regression / histogram / the specified fraction” as well as the “Smooth active/all curve(s)” are now editing only the selected points of the active curve.

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Modeling Input Parameters – New reporting option in the Workflow editor
A new reporting option is available for the Modeling Input Parameters (MIP) in the Workflow editor. Three options are now available for the workflow commands, Facies modeling and Petrophysical modeling: ? Run only (identical behavior as pre-2015.1): The process will run and no report will be created. ? Run and report: The process will run and a MIP report will be created according to the parameters selected in the MIP. ? Report only: The process will not be run and a MIP report will be created according to the parameters selected in the MIP.

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Make surface – use input inside boundary only
When selected, all input points located outside the boundary, whether from the main input or from any additional input, are ignored by the gridding algorithm. When the specified boundary is made of several closed polygons, the gridding will also be performed independently in each polygon, ignoring the data lying outside of each polygon in turns. In cases where the seismic interpretation is either patchy, or presents large fault throw without corresponding fault polygons (often in large regional interpretations), or with salt bodies, it is critical to restrict the gridding of surface inside a boundary.

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Performance improvement for Facies and Petrophysical modeling methods
Performance is improved when using a combination of sequential and parallel algorithms in the Facies and Petrophysical modeling processes. In addition, performance of the Object modeling algorithm, when simulating fluvial channels, is greatly improved. Most methods of Facies and Petrophysical modeling processes have been parallelized in the last years. Nevertheless, few methods are still sequential. In Petrel 2015.1, when using a combination of sequential and parallel methods during simulation of several Zones/Facies, the performance has been optimized. In addition, the performance of the Object modeling method of Facies modeling dialog has been specifically improved when simulating fluvial channel objects.

Truncated Gaussian with trends (behavioral changes)
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Together option
For the Truncated Gaussian with trends algorithm, since the trend model shown in the section view when the Use Zones button is toggled off correspond to the output trend of the entire model, the Together option will be automatically ticked on and disabled. When the Truncated Gaussian with trends algorithm is selected in Facies modeling and Use Zones switched off, the trend model shown in the section view will correspond to the output trend of the entire model. When opening the Facies modeling dialog for legacy models created with the Zones button untoggled and the Together box unchecked, the Zones button will be automatically toggled on and the common settings (Geometry, Variogram, Settings) previously specified for all zones will be copied to ALL the existing zones in the model. This way, legacy projects can be preserved with no changes.

Modeling trend in section view
A better approximation algorithm has been implemented for displaying the trend model in section view in the Geometry tab of the Truncated Gaussian with trends algorithm. No changes will be observed in the output facies model. For the Truncated Gaussian with trends algorithm, a better approximation algorithm has been implemented for displaying the trend in section view. Changes in the facies transition lines in map view are now better reflected in the facies transition lines in section view. The new algorithm will only improve the model display in section view so no changes will be observed in the output facies model.

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Geology: Fractures

2015.1
Fracture density
Generate fracture density logs per fracture set
Since the introduction of the dedicated process to estimate fracture density log on fracture modeling workflow, it is now possible to take into account any discrete attribute to produce a density log per class (fracture set, fracture type, etc.).

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New checking options have been added in the window or the Fracture density process. It gives access to the list of any discrete attribute linked to the fracture data of a point well data file. In the end, a fracture density log per discrete attribute for each well will be produced.

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Figure 33: Example of Fracture density log per fracture set

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Extension of fracture data type for Natural Fracture Prediction (NFP)
Assignation of fracture type for any fracture data file and ability to use it in the Tectonic Model process
The prediction of natural fractures with the Tectonic model process can be performed now with any kind of fracture data. Previously, the process could only consume point well data, assuming the assignation of a fracture type. Now, the Panel fracture data contains two sub panels , Wells and Other allowing the use of Point well data and /or the use of fault patches (Ant tracking, Discrete Fracture Network [DFN]), or Point sets.

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Consequently, the Assign fracture process is able to consume these types of fracture data to create the mechanical fracture type, mandatory to use the NFP workflow (Tectonic Model and Generate fracture driver).

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Filtering option and Decimation
You can filter the fracture to use for the simulation, by selecting any kind of discrete attribute in a select list. Prior to this, a discrete attribute needs to be created, based on any property of the fracture (Surface area, Dip Azimuth, length, etc.). Note that any filtering option used with the stereonet or histogram on the fracture data will be automatically taken into account on the Tectonic model. To avoid too high a number of fractures, you can limit the amount by entering a decimation number. This number represents the maximum number of fractures used for this simulation.

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New permeability upscaling method
Introduction of a new method for upscaling permeability based on ODA method and taking into account the connectivity of fracture network
In order to produce a new permeability upscaling method that takes into account the true connectivity of the fracture network, you can now choose the Oda corrected method in the corresponding select list. The aim is to be as close as possible to the Flow based permeability upscaling method, but faster. This option is currently only available for discrete fractures (and not on the implicit fractures).
Figure 34: Linear color scale used to compare the upscaled permeability

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This process computes connectivity outputs used to correct the Oda upscaling method and can be exposed and used for a further analysis. Note that these connectivity outputs can be computed for a further analysis even when choosing the classical Oda upscaling method.

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Geology: Wells

2015.1
New well model
The New model wells implementation provides a more efficient structure to support all wells with multiple surveys and plans on upgrade. This will effectively support internal domains, such as Drilling, Reservoir Engineering (RE), Real-time workflows, etc., with multiple trajectories in surveys and plans as needed in all wells. Clients will have an easy way to quality control (QC) a plan with a drilled survey in a well bore, especially when survey data varies from the original plan. The first time a Petrel project (from prior leases with single/branch well trace) is upgraded, you will see that: ? The well upgrade report sheet shows a total number of wells.
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? ?

Wells are listed in a table that has differences in the TD location for you to QC XYZ & MD before and after the upgrade. Messages at the bottom section of the table list sidetrack wells that failed trajectory computation.
Figure 35: Well upgrade report sheet

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? ? ? ? ?

In the Messages log, there is a message to see the output sheet in the windows pane for the well upgrade report. If text is missing, drag the second column to see more text. Wells already in the new model from 2012.2 to 2014.x will not be affected. Old (single) well trace will be upgraded to explicit survey and set as definitive. The spreadsheet is read-only and preserves the geometry of the old well trace. The Surveys and plans folder is initially hidden and clicking “Show trajectory providers” on the Well/well folder from the right click menu; makes it visible.
Figure 36: Well A10 showing the Surveys and plans folder with explicit survey as definitive

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Proposed wells will no longer be supported and will upgrade to explicit and automatic plans. o Proposed wells generated with the standard spline algorithm (simple, standalone and sidetrack) are upgraded to explicit plan and set as active.

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Proposed wells generated with advanced algorithm (simple, standalone and sidetrack) are upgraded to explicit and automatic plans. The explicit preserves the geometry of the upgraded proposed well trajectory and set as active plan. The automatic plan preserves the original design points. o Proposed wells generated with the simulation trajectory algorithm are converted to the Explicit (preserves MDs and read-only) and XYZ (editable) plans. Explicit plan is set as the Active plan. Wells created by well path design process, specifically: o Best fit well are upgraded to the explicit and automatic plans. Explicit is set as the Active plan. o Optimized wells are upgraded to explicit and automatic plans. Explicit is set as the Active plan. o Lateral well path design Fork type wells are upgraded to Explicit (preserves MDs and read-only) and XYZ (editable) plans. Explicit is set as the Active plan. o

Sidetrack / Lateral wells
Sidetrack: ? Is sometimes referred to as a lateral well that is often drilled as part of an intentional or corrective measure to optimally intercept geological targets different from the mother bore. ? Has a defined relationship to the main bore and survey and always share the same surface location as their mother bore. ? Sidetrack/lateral well might be a drilled series of horizontal wells in a shale gas reservoir or drilled as a relief well or to avoid obstructions near a producing well. The following workflows will allow you to create, edit, and visualize sidetrack wells. Create a sidetrack well ? Right click on a well in the tree and click Insert new lateral well. The operation creates a sidetrack well with an empty Surveys and plans folder. Import well head file cannot create a sidetrack well. ? Right click on the sidetrack/lateral well and click Insert new lateral survey. ? The dialog from the operation will help you define the sidetrack well relationship with the mother bore and its kick off depth at the tie in MD. See the following figure, which describes the relationship.
Figure 37: Insert new lateral survey dialog

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? ?

The above operation creates MD, INCL & AZIM type lateral survey and tie into New well 1 explicit trajectory at tie in depth of 450m. In the Input pane, the main bore and sidetrack wells exist as separate objects in the tree. 87
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The tie-in MD can be specified by you or automatically calculated during import of the multi-well path/deviation survey. ? Import sidetrack surveys: Right click on the sidetrack/lateral Surveys and plans folder. Import a file by selecting the “well path/deviation for surveys (ASCII) (*.*)” format, and by default, MD, INCL & AZIM is selected and the columns defined. Other survey types can be selected, but you have to define the input data column. The Importer has a Lateral trajectory settings area to define the survey tie in depth.
Figure 38: Lateral survey path/deviation import dialog

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Multiple surveys can be imported into a lateral well. ? Sidetrack/lateral well spreadsheet: If not open, it can be launched from the survey right-click menu in the tree, lateral survey Inspector and MTB when visualized in the 3D/Map window. ? Note the following about sidetrack Trajectory spreadsheet: o Lateral survey spreadsheet UI has the following features: o Editable Tie in md field o Read-only Tie in trajectory and Tie in well fields o The Tie in trajectory field will not support invalid trajectory. o The Tie in md field has a collapsible drop-down button; click to display the tie-in MD and other calculated parameters. All grayed-out rows display and cannot be edited.
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o

o

Tie in md: Numeric precision is binding to the ‘Measured depth’ template. User can define value between Tie in md and TD of the well to update the spreadsheet. Precision is visible in the survey spreadsheet computation. The first MD of the input data must be greater than the tie in MD to participate in the survey spreadsheet calculation.
Figure 39: Lateral spreadsheet showing tie in MD, tie in trajectory and well

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The sidetrack/lateral survey promoted to well as definitive will be extended to the main well head position. Its survey spreadsheet data columns are read-only.

Note: The following are some behavioral changes in the trajectory spreadsheet when tie in MD is your lateral survey: ? If it is still in the range of the tie-in trajectory, then re-calculate the lateral trajectory. The range is defined by the start and end depth of the lateral trajectory. ? If the tie in MD value is greater than the first MD on the trajectory spreadsheet, for example, 3550m as against 3500.10m, the first value is skipped/ignored in the trajectory calculation. Hovering the mouse over the column in the first row indicates a pop-up message saying that the row will be ignored. The row in the first column will be blank and some of the spreadsheet attributes will not be calculated.
Figure 40: Message in the trajectory spreadsheet showing skipped depth

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

If tie in MD is out of range of tie in trajectory, then the lateral trajectory will fail (the icon is changed to an error icon with a red X to show the calculation failed). You can still change the tie in MD to make it valid. If you delete the tie in trajectory, all of the lateral trajectories will be deleted. There is a warning message when you delete a tie in trajectory that has a lateral survey. If you set an invalid definitive survey to a sidetrack well (the calculation fails or the tie in MD is out of range of the tie in trajectory), the sidetrack well spreadsheet displays a stub (0-10 project unit). Sidetracks wells in the Well manager cannot be edited. The X, Y, and well datum fields cannot be edited. Sidetrack well logs: Checkshots, point well data, and well tops are defined and loaded from the well head of the main bore to TD of sidetrack. No portion of the data is shared. Visualization in 2D, 3D, Map: Intersection and Interpretation window will present the same view, though, in WSW the well top horizon picking above tie in MD may result in duplicates on sidetrack wells. Sidetrack/lateral well settings dialog is read-only. It has inherited the mother bore well head position. The Inspector can be used to quickly view and edit some of the style settings and other data information about a sidetrack or lateral well and the associated survey. If the Inspector window is not already open, on the Home tab, in the View group, click Inspector. When you select a sidetrack or lateral well or a lateral survey, the Inspector organizes the information under five collapsible tabs: Pick information, Quality attributes, Info, Style, and Trajectory.
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Figure 41: Inspector readout for sidetrack survey

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Petrel Studio and RPT support for sidetrack/lateral well: Survey information for a sidetrack/lateral well can be transferred between Petrel projects by using the Reference project tool (RPT) and Petrel Studio: ? If you transfer a lateral survey, it requires (is dependent on) information about the main borehole trajectory survey and plan. If the main borehole's survey and plan do not exist in the target project, RPT will automatically copy the main borehole information to the target plan. If the target plan has the main borehole information, but it is not the latest version, RPT will not automatically refresh the target project's main borehole data. If you transfer the main borehole information to a project, this does not automatically transfer the lateral survey and plans to the target project.

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Branch well upgrade: Branch wells are upgraded to a sidetrack and marked as such in the Input pane. (Please see the upgrade document for details).

Create XYZ trajectory plan from polygon
A new Workflow editor command is implemented to create a well with an XYZ plan from a digitized polygon. Well planning involving reservoir engineers is a routine workflow in reservoir field development to achieve optimal well placement. The support for an object like a polygon that can easily be digitized and edited within a segment or connecting different segments to create an XYZ plan has become very necessary. Right-click a digitized polygon and select create XYZ plan. This operation creates a well with an XYZ plan. In the Workflow editor, click Polygon operations in the Operations tab by specifying the polygon and an existing well in the tree to create and append the XYZ plan to the well. The polygon can be created and edited with the Polygon editing tool palette. The input polygon must have at least two points, but not be closed. It uses variables to reference polygon and well.
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The workflow can be set up, as shown below.
Figure 42: Workflow editor command to create and append XYZ plan to New well 1

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? ? ?

In the polygon settings window, click polygon Operations and select Create trajectory from polygon. Update the input data field. Click Run to create the XYZ plan and append to the target well.

If the well does not contain a survey/plan, the XYZ plan from the polygon is set as active and used to visualize the well trajectory.

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Multi-trajectory surveys and plans
The DX, DY, TVD and XYTVD type surveys implementation completed work on trajectories in the new model well generated from secondary data started in Petrel 2014.1. The Well path/deviation for surveys importer now has four survey types MD, INC & AZIM, XYZ (details in the Petrel E&P Software Platform Release Notes for 2014.1), and DX, DY, TVD, and XYTVD from which to select. The input data fields can be edited in the trajectory spreadsheet. The Explicit type survey is a copy of the old well trace and is read-only. ? DX, DY, TVD survey type stores (DX DY, TVD) for each point on the trace. DX, DY is the offset from the well head. ? The survey inherits the Azimuth reference setting from the MD Inclination and Azimuth survey and the TVD properties from the X Y TVD survey, as described in the following spreadsheet.
Figure 43: DX DY TVD spreadsheet showing editable columns in white

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The X Y TVD type survey and its trajectory spreadsheet are read from the TVD elevation reference. Azimuth reference plays no role in X Y TVD survey.
Figure 44: X Y TVD spreadsheet showing editable columns in white

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The Inspector for DX, DY, TVD and X, Y, TVD provides a read out of trace information or pick information. The remainder of the gadgets are the same with the other trajectory survey types.

The Automatic plan loader is in drilling office trajectory (DOT) format and the trajectory spreadsheet is read-only. It has Inspector support to modify frequently accessed style settings in 2D, 3D and Map windows.

Enhancements
Well operations
The Well operations command in the Workflow editor has been modified to support translated and rotated well heads. New model wells with multi-trajectory surveys will move when a well head is translated/rotated, depending on the survey type set as the definitive survey. When running the Workflow editor command, open the well settings/trajectory spreadsheet from the well to QC changes, as you translate/rotate the well head. If a well trajectory is MD, INC & AZIM / DX DY TVD type survey is definitive, the Surveys and plans folder must have either the X, Y, Z or X, Y, TVD survey type to translate well head.

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To open the Workflow editor, on the Home tab, in the Insert group, click Object and then click New workflow: ? ? ? In the Workflow editor, click Operations and navigate to Well operations to select and insert the Translate well/Rotate well command. Update the Workflow editor as shown in the following figure. Click Run to execute.
Figure 45: Translate well operations in Workflow editor

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Note: ? The Explicit survey is neither translated nor rotated. ? Lateral/sidetrack well relationships are not handled, but the mother bore (main well) can be translated/rotated. ? Scale up operation is no longer supported.

Well label visualization improvement
The purpose to color wells by labels and symbols was to reinforce the saved search capability as an efficient filtering tool to control well visualization in 2D, 3D and Map windows. In the Settings dialog for a Wells folder, there is an option to show the well path color as DLS to visualize wells with surveys and plans. In the Symbols sub tab, click Label and Symbol in the Settings dialog for a main well folder and select As path and As attribute, respectively, from the Color drop-down list. ? ? ? If you set the label and symbol color As path, it will use the color set in the show well Path tab. In the well sub folder, the option to show the label color from the Symbols sub tab is disabled. The well label style can only be modified from main well folder.

Multiple well path/deviation format file loader: ? This has been enhanced to support data in a new well model. ? The symbol “%” declares the lateral/sidetrack relationship between wells ONLY in the dev file, but not necessarily in the tree. In the tree, the main well name might contain “%”, and a lateral/sidetrack well name may not. ? The MD option is available when the survey type is MD or INCL&AZIM.

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Reservoir Engineering
Reservoir Engineering: General

2015.1
Behavioral changes
Assign a different start date to an open-hole side track (lateral) well
You can now modify the date at which a well can first flow using a perforation in the open-hole lateral and assign the desired flow date to it. The perforation can exist anywhere in the lateral and will have no other effect on the flow within the lateral.

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Segmentation uses data from the current active case
The displayed segmentation uses data from the current-active case. This ensures that the displayed segmentation correctly matches the exported segmentation, taking into account cell connection activity and the grid and LGR set (if any) used by the active case. If no case is active, the previous behavior of assuming all cell connections are active and using the currently active grid and LGR set (if any) from the Models pane is used.

Observed data created by converting a simulation case
In 2015.1, observed data extraction from an imported simulation case has been modified. Extracted observed data from a simulation case will ignore the properties that do not contain any non-zero value.

Grid property modification
When an INTERSECT case (using the INTERSECT 2015.1 Connector) containing a property modifier set is exported, Petrel exports all case properties as if the case contains no property modifier set. It also exports property edit definitions to a separate file (equivalent to the edits defined in the property modifier set), and the simulator applies these property edits when reading the exported case.

Importing multiple Left hand grids no longer require individual confirmation of coordinate system change
Prior to 2015.1, when importing multiple cases' 3D simulation results with left hand grids, the coordinate system warning dialog would display for each case, requiring individual confirmation that the coordinate system can be changed. From 2015.1, an Ok for All button is added to the left-handed grid warning dialog allowing you to confirm the change to all imported cases once.

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Changes to the way PI well tests are displayed
A PI well test completion is used to represent the calculated productivity index of the well. Currently, a PI well test completion requires you to enter top and bottom measured depth (MD) that are effectively redundant. To remove confusion, the PI well test completion in Petrel 2015 has been changed to disable top and bottom MD settings. When visualizing a PI well test, the visual MD interval is calculated as the maximum extent of all flowing intervals (perforations/open hole) that are open at that time. As a result, when upgrading from Petrel 2014 to Petrel 2015, you may see the MD interval of a PI well test change when viewing in, for example, the WSW or 3D windows. This will have no effect on the resulting simulation deck or results.

Changes to hydraulic fracture functionality
? ? The ability to change the Cut off angle on an individual Hydraulic fracture object has been removed. All Hydraulic fracture objects now use the common value settable via the Properties dialog box of the Global completions folder (20 degrees by default). Hydraulic fractures no longer use the Correlation option by default. It is recommended to model hydraulic fractures using the Grid to hydraulic fractures option available via the Make local grids process. This process will, by default, grid to hydraulic fractures if they are present (and not using the Correlation option) in the process input. For all non-correlation fractures, fracture width is mimicked by reducing the fracture cells’ pore volume using MULTPV. MULTPV is now written to the GRID section, where both E100 and E300 simulators support it. Fractures are now supported in dual porosity dual permeability (DPDK) cases. The fracture is modeled to affect the fracture grid only, in the same way as a dual porosity case. Only connections to, and cells in, the fracture grid are affected by the presence of the fracture.

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Complete the support for the INTERSECT grid-edits workflow through Petrel
? You can now directly export GPM settings into an IXF file. Edits in GPMs are exported to the simulator as "editing instructions," and then INTERSECT applies these to the unedited grid properties after loading them from data files. This means that adding GPMs to a case and re-exporting requires just the export of the "editing instructions." The grid property files exported before the GPMs were added do not need to change, and are, therefore, not reexported. This change allows re-export to be much faster, and should encourage greater use of GPMs. Support on sparse region definition Prior to Petrel 2015, if any region property had discontinuous values or its lowest region value was not 1, Petrel compacted the values into continuous series starting at 1. In Petrel 2015.1, Petrel will export the region values as they are, with region name from the property name and region index from its code value. The 3D results display is consistent with input values. Well connections using cell I–J–K index Prior to Petrel 2015.1, in the exported “well to cell connections” node, the cell IDs represent a flattened 1D grid, making location of those cells very difficult in a 3D grid. In Petrel 2015, the cell global ID has been replaced with the correct I–J–K values.

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VFP manager
The “Compare two VFP tables” feature has been removed from Petrel 2015.1, as it was missing the ability to effectively merge curves from two or more tables, which resulted in a restricted ability to analyze.

Improved simulation export performance
? Intelligently exporting only changes in 3D grids and properties: During history matching, grid properties such as permeability and porosity are frequently edited. In these circumstances, when you re-export data, only changes will be re-exported rather than re-exporting the whole dataset. Base case sharing in U&O to save disk space: Petrel 2015 optimizes the disk space usage by sharing files between base case and its realizations. Grid properties are compressed when writing to a GSG file to save the disk space.

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Reservoir engineering unit settings
Define the simulation input data in Petrel for a particular oilfield using a unit system that is different to other domains by independently setting or customizing the unit system in supported dialog boxes and spreadsheets using the Reservoir engineering unit settings dialog box. The dialog boxes and spreadsheets supporting flexible units are: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Development strategy dialog box Field management dialog box Make fluid model dialog box Make rock physics functions dialog box INTERSECT tabs in the Define simulation case dialog box VFP manager Initial conditions dialog box Initialize from maps dialog box Settings for 'ECLIPSE network' dialog box Rock physics spreadsheet Fluid spreadsheet.

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Change the reservoir engineering unit system
Set the unit system in dialog boxes and spreadsheets supporting flexible unit settings differently from the project unit to enter and display measurement values in a more familiar unit system. To set the reservoir engineering unit system: 1. From the Default reservoir engineering unit system list, select the unit system that you want to use. The default unit system can be one of 'Project', 'ECLIPSE-METRIC', or 'ECLIPSE FIELD'. If the current unit system includes customized measurements, you will be asked if you want to clear these measurements. Click Yes to clear all customization, or No to retain your customized measurements. Units displayed in the supported dialog boxes and spreadsheets are automatically converted to the selected unit system. If the selected unit system differs from the Petrel project unit, an orange border is displayed around unit lists in supported dialog boxes and spreadsheets and in the Favorite measurements and All measurements tables in the Reservoir engineering unit settings dialog box. 2. Click OK.

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Change units for individual measurements
Customize the default units for individual measurements to use values that differ from the selected default Reservoir engineering unit system. To change the default unit for a measurement: 1. Locate the unit, either in the Favorite measurements table on the Basic tab or on the Advanced tab. 2. Select the required default unit from the Unit list for a measurement. The default unit is automatically updated in all supported dialog boxes or spreadsheets that use the selected unit. For example, changing the default unit for Pressure to 'Pa' automatically changes the units for Pressure values to 'Pa' on the General tab in the Make fluid model dialog box. Note: A measurement appears in the Customized measurements section of the Customize reservoir engineering unit display dialog box if you change the default value for the selected unit system. To restore this unit to its default value for the selected unit system, click Revert to default unit . 3. Click OK.

Change units from supported dialog boxes and spreadsheets
Units may be changed locally in supported dialog boxes and spreadsheets by choosing a different unit from the unit list next to a measurement. These changes are only saved if Synchronize default units with local unit changes is selected on the Advanced tab in the Customize reservoir engineering unit display dialog box. The default Reservoir engineering units for those measurements in all other supported dialog boxes and spreadsheets are also updated.

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Define the available units for a measurement
Use the Customize available units option to define the choice of units available for selected measurements in dialog boxes and spreadsheets supporting flexible unit settings. To define the available units for a measurement: 1. On the Advanced tab, click Customize available units . 2. Select the measurement that you want to change. Use the search box at the top of the measurement column to locate a measurement of interest. Note that changes to a selected measurement affect all equivalent measurements. Move the mouse pointer over a measurement label in the measurements table to display a list of all equivalent measurements.

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3. Select the check box next to a unit to include it in the choice of units for the measurement available in supported dialog boxes and spreadsheets. To remove a unit from the units list in a supported dialog box or spreadsheet, clear its check box. You cannot remove a unit if it is set as the default unit of measure.

To restore default unit selections, click Revert selected units to the original list . 4. If you want to change frequently the default unit for the selected measurement, click Add to favorites add the selected measurement to the Favorite measurements table on the Basic tab. 5. Click OK.

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Visualization and analysis of simulation results
3D results analysis
You can use the 3D results analysis dialog box to speed up the visualization and analysis of 3D simulation results for a selected case, and save the resulting views in the 3D results quick views folder in the Results pane. The 3D results analysis dialog box contains source (case) and property (3D results) selections, which allow you to create tiled plots of selected 3D results in camera-linked windows, with legends displayed and all properties scaled to their data range.

Create and display a 3D results quick view
Use 3D results analysis to quickly create and display tiled plots of multiple 3D properties for a selected case in camera-linked windows. To create a 3D results quick view: 1. On the Simulation tab, in the 3D results group, click 3D results analysis to open the3D results analysis dialog box. 2. Change the name of the new quick view, if required. 3. Select the simulation case, Sources and Properties that you want to view. 4. Use the search boxes at the top of each section to locate items of interest. To select all properties, click , to clear all selections, click . Note: To create plots using presets, select the preset that you want to use from the Use presets list. The properties associated with the selected preset are selected automatically in the Properties section of the 3D results analysis dialog box. 5. To display wells in each 3D window, select Show all wells. 6. Click OK. Tiled 3D windows appear displaying the selected properties, which are scaled to their data range. The quick view is saved to the 3D results quick views folder in the Results pane. Note: When multiple 3D windows are open, the Show all wells option (from the Show/hide wells list in the 3D results group on the Simulation tab) selects all the wells in the project for display in every visible 3D window. 7. To change the selections for the quick view, right-click on the quick view in the 3D results quick views folder in the Results pane, and then click Edit . The selected quick view is loaded into the 3D results analysis dialog box so that you can make changes. 8. To display a saved quick view, right-click on the quick view in the 3D results quick views folder in the Results pane, and then click Visualize or Visualize with wells .

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Use presets to view 3D simulation results
3D results presets speed up the visualization and analysis of 3D simulation results. Presets are available to target different types of analysis, including EOR schemes, as well as generally useful plots, such as saturations and pressure.

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To view 3D results using preset presentations: 1. In the Cases pane, select the case containing results that you want to view. 2. On the Simulation tab, in the 3D results group, click 3D results presets and then click the preset that you want. When a pre-set is selected, all existing windows in the project are hidden and replaced with a tiled presentation of the 3D results that the pre-set targets in camera-linked windows, with legends displayed and all properties scaled to their data range. The preset view is added to the 3D results quick views folder in the Results pane. 3. Click OK. Tiled 3D windows appear displaying the selected properties, which are scaled to their data range. The quick view is saved to the 3D results quick views folder in the Results pane. 4. To change the selections for a preset view for a particular case, right-click on the preset view in the 3D results quick views folder in the Results pane, and then click Edit . The selected view is loaded into the 3D results analysis dialog box so that you can make changes. 5. To display a saved preset view for a particular case, right-click on the quick view in the3D results quick views folder in the Results pane, and then click Visualize or Visualize with wells .

Select results data for an ECLIPSE case
Simplify the selection of the result data that is output when an ECLIPSE simulation case is run using identifier and property selections. The time-based results that you select here will appear in the Dynamic results data folder on the Results pane. Note: You can also use the property selection procedures described here to select the output properties on the Initial 3D grid properties, Recurrent 3D grid properties and PRT 3D grid properties tabs. To select summary vectors: 1. Open the Define simulation case dialog box and create a new ECLIPSE case or choose an existing case to edit. 2. Click the Results tab. To create a list of summary vectors, select the Identifiers and Properties and then generate Selections. 3. (Optional) Click to generate a number of default selections for your simulation case, then use steps below to modify the selections. 4. In the Identifier pane on the Summary Vectors tab, select the required identifiers. Click to select all identifiers or click to clear all selections. Note: When you select identifiers, incompatible property options disabled in the Properties pane. 5. In the Properties pane, select the required properties. You can categorize properties to make selection easier. To do this, click the Properties drop-down button, click Categorize, and then click the required category. Tip: Use the search box to locate the required properties. For example, type OPC to locate all properties containing 'opc', such as oil production cumulative. 6. Click to populate the Selections pane with the chosen identifier and properties. The time-based results that you select here appear in the Dynamic results data folder in the Results pane when the simulation case is run. Note: Selections can also be categorized. To do this, click the Selections drop-down button, point to Categorize and select the required category.
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7. Click Apply to save your selections.

Supported identifiers
The following identifiers are supported for ECLIPSE 100: All groups (*), All wells (*), All regions (*), All aquifers (*), All devices (*), All perforations (*), All aquifer lists (*), All completions (*), All inter-flow regions (*), All lumped completions (*), All lgr names (*), Field. The following identifiers are supported for ECLIPSE 300: All groups (*), All wells (*), All regions (*), All aquifers (*), All devices (*), All heaters (*), All perforations (*), All completions (*), All conductive faults (*). All inter- flow regions (*), All lumped completions (*), All lgr names (*), All separators (*), Field. The following identifiers are supported for FrontSim: All groups (*), All wells (*), All regions (*), All aquifers (*), All completions (*), All inter-flow regions (*), Field.

Select simulation results using presets
You can use the presets option to select default simulation results for enhanced oil recovery models such as brine, polymer, surfactant, foam. To select simulation results using presets: 1. Open the Define simulation case dialog box and create a new case or choose an existing case to edit. 2. Click the Results tab. 3. Click Presets, and then click the preset results selection that you want to use. The keywords associated with the selected preset are added to the default selections on the Results tabs.
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To reset your selections back to the default preset selections, click Reset to default presets 4. Click Apply to save your selections.

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Initialization using initial condition sets
Initialization of a model in Petrel forms the bridge between geological modeling and simulation; initializing a geological model with initial pressures and saturation and assuming that the fluids are in a hydrostatic equilibrium is the basis of a reservoir simulation workflow. An initial condition set represents the initialization of a fluid within the model, and is linked to the grid for the model. The set contains information about the equilibrium regions of the grid derived by using a discrete region property or fluid contacts of the grid, or by manual input of equilibrium information in the Initial conditions process or Initialize from maps process. The initial condition set also stores information about which fluid model each equilibrium region is mapped to. There are two ways to generate an initial condition set for a grid, by using the Initial conditions process or the Initialize from maps process. ? The Initial conditions process is used to create an initial condition set for a reservoir which is in hydrostatic equilibrium, by either manual input of equilibration data (for a single region), or by supplying a discrete region index property or contact sets (for multiple regions) and entering the necessary data. Each equilibration region is mapped to a valid fluid model. The Initialize from maps process is used in cases where the reservoir is believed to be in dynamic steady-state situation with spatially varying FWL and GOC, due to a regional hydrodynamic gradient. This process uses the spatially varying contacts and compositions (Rs/Pb and/or Rv/Pd) as inputs and discretizes it into thousands of regions and also associates the correct fluid model to each equilibration region, with the aid of a discrete PVT region index property. Using the Initial conditions and Initialize from maps processes ensure the accuracy of the defined equilibration regions at an early stage of input data preparation for building a simulation case. For example, you cannot create an equilibration region with a live oil fluid model that has its gas-oil contact defined at the bottom of the reservoir, which translates into a gas only system. The initial condition set is simulator specific. For example, a black oil fluid model with API tracking is supported by ECLIPSE 100 and INTERSECT, but not ECLIPSE 300. INTERSECT also has the concept of 'data type', which allows you to specify whether the gas-oil contact and composition data, or pressure at reference depth and composition data, or all three are to be honored during the equilibration process. The initial condition set is inserted into the Grid section of the Define simulation case dialog box, where it is validated against the selected grid and simulator. Since the initial condition set has the information related to both equilibration as well as fluid model, you must delete the default Black oil properties template from the Functions tab to validate the case, and then run it. When using INTERSECT, the initial condition set is valid only when used with a Field Management strategy. Note: The processes to create an initial condition set currently supports black oil cases, including black oil cases in ECLIPSE 300 mode. The initial condition set is not supported in the Workflow editor or Uncertainty & optimization process.

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Initial conditions
The Initial conditions process is used to create an initial condition set for a reservoir that is in hydrostatic equilibrium, by either manual input of equilibration data (for a single region), or by supplying a discrete region index property or contact sets (for multiple regions) and entering the necessary data. Each equilibration region is mapped to a valid fluid model. This process allows you to carry out your initialization in the context of the grid. The process provides validation against the grid, fluid model and simulator, to create a valid initial condition set for simulation. Once a 3D model is built and fluid models defined, you can use this process to create the equilibration regions and initial condition sets, which are then used in the Define simulation case dialog box. To open the Initial conditions dialog box, on the Reservoir Engineering tab, in the Initialization group, click Initial conditions . You can: ? ? ? Define a single equilibration region for the entire reservoir, consisting of a single fluid model. Use a region index property to define multiple equilibration regions.
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Use a contact set and populate data from the contact set to create an initial condition set.

Create an initial condition set for a single region
An initial condition set can be created for a grid with just one equilibration region. You will require: ? ? 3D grid Black oil fluid model(s) 1. On the Reservoir Engineering tab, in the Initialization group, click Initial conditions . Click Create new and enter a name for the new initial condition set. Choose the Target simulators. By default, all simulators are selected. Select a black oil model in the Fluids folder in the Input pane and insert into the Fluid box in the Initial conditions dialog box. Appropriate fluid phase behavior is detected based on the fluid model that is selected. A black fluid model will fall under one of the following phase behavior types: ? Water (water phase only - Not supported by INTERSECT) ? Dead oil (oil phase and/or water) ? Dry gas (gas phase and/or water) ? Live oil (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase and/or water - Not supported by INTERSECT) ? Wet gas (oil phase, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water) ? Volatile oil (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water) ? Gas condensate (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water). Select Volatile oil if the fluid is bubble point or Gas condensate if the fluid is dew point. Note: for INTERSECT, the fluid models must have a water phase defined, or you will get errors on export. If the fluid is saturated or super-saturated (Psat > Pres), select GOC. Note: if GOC is not selected, and Psat > Pres anywhere in the reservoir, then the exact behavior will be dependent on the simulator.
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To create an initial condition set for a single region: 2. 3. 4.

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6. If you select INTERSECT only, choose the Equilibrium input. ? Adjust Composition: This will respect the datum depth and pressure and gas oil contact depth that you enter, but will reduce the Rs and Rv values to ensure that Psat <= Pres. ? Adjust GOC: The depth of the gas oil contact is calculated to be the depth at which Psat = Pres where Psat is derived from the tabulated Rs or Pbub versus depth and/or Rv or Pdew versus depth and the PVT data. ? Adjust Datum Pressure: The datum depth is ignored/not required and the reservoir pressure is calculated by assuming Pres=Pbub at the gas oil contact. 7. Define values for the parameters outlined with a red border in the Initial conditions dialog box. 8. To specify the solution gas-oil ratio and/or bubble point pressure using a composition versus depth table (rather than a constant value), select 'Table' from the Rs/Pb type list. a. In the Versus depth tables for region table, enter the required depths and values. b. To insert a new row above an existing row in the table, click Insert a new row above this one and enter the required values. c. To add a new row at the bottom of the table, complete the last row in the table (marked with an *). Depths and values must be in order. Any errors in the table are indicated with a red border. d. To delete a row in the table, click Delete this row . 9. Click OK. The initial condition set appears in an Initial conditions folder under the grid in the Models pane.

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Create an initial condition set for multiple equilibrium regions (region index property)
The most common way of defining equilibration region is by using a region index property describing the equilibration regions in the model. You will require: ? ? ? 3D grid Black oil fluid model(s) Region index property describing the regions in your model

To create an initial condition set for multiple equilibrium regions using a region index property: 1. In the Models pane, select the grid. 3. 4. 5. 2. On the Reservoir Engineering tab, in the Initialization group, click Initial conditions . Click Create new and enter a name for the new initial condition set. Choose the Target simulators. By default, all simulators are selected. In the Models pane, select the region index property describing the regions in your model and insert into Region index property in the Initial conditions dialog box. The Region information table is populated with details of the regions in the selected region index property. In the Region information table, select one or more regions. a. In the Fluids folder in the Input pane, select a fluid and insert into the Fluid box in the Details table. Appropriate fluid phase behavior is detected based on the fluid model that is selected. A black fluid model will fall under one of the following phase behavior types: ? Water (water phase only - Not supported by INTERSECT) ? Dead oil (oil phase and/or water) ? Dry gas (gas phase and/or water) ? Live oil (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase and/or water - Not supported by INTERSECT) 106
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? Wet gas (oil phase, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water) ? Volatile oil (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water) ? Gas condensate (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water). Select Volatile oil if the fluid is bubble point or Gas condensate if the fluid is dew point. Note: for INTERSECT, the fluid models must have a water phase defined, or you will get errors on export. b. If the fluid is saturated or super-saturated (Psat > Pres), select GOC. Note: If GOC is not selected, and Psat > Pres anywhere in the reservoir, then the exact behavior will be dependent on the simulator. c. If you select INTERSECT only, choose the Equilibrium input. ? Adjust Composition: This will respect the datum depth and pressure and gas oil contact depth that you enter, but will reduce the Rs and Rv values to ensure that Psat <= Pres. ? Adjust GOC: The depth of the gas oil contact is calculated to be the depth at which Psat = Pres where Psat is derived from the tabulated Rs or Pbub versus depth and/or Rv or Pdew versus depth and the PVT data. ? Adjust Datum Pressure: The datum depth is ignored/not required and the reservoir pressure is calculated by assuming Pres=Pbub at the gas oil contact. d. Complete the Details table for the selected region(s). Fields that are mandatory are displayed with a red border. 7. To specify the solution gas-oil ratio and/or bubble point pressure using a composition versus depth table (rather than a constant value), select 'Table' from the Rs/Pb type list. a. In the Versus depth tables for region table, enter the required depths and values. b. To insert a new row above an existing row in the table, click Insert a new row above this one and enter the required values. c. To add a new row at the bottom of the table, complete the last row in the table (marked with an *). Depths and values must be in order. Any errors in the table are indicated with a red border. d. To delete a row in the table, click Delete this row . 8. Enter details for each of the other regions in the region index property. A appears in the Valid column for each row in the Region information table when definition of the regions is complete. 9. Click Apply or OK. The initial condition set appears in an Initial conditions folder under the grid in the Models pane.

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Create an initial condition set for multiple equilibrium regions (contact set)
If you already have a contact set defined for the model, which has all the fluid contacts information, you can use this in the Initial conditions dialog box to populate the initial condition set with the information from the contact set. After that, the fluid model can be provided to the individual regions, and other necessary details entered to create an initial condition set. You will require: ? ? ? 3D grid Black oil fluid model(s) Contact set (created using a region property) on the selected grid

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To create an initial condition set for multiple equilibrium regions using a contact set: 1. In the Models pane, select the grid. 3. 4. 5.
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2. On the Reservoir Engineering tab, in the Initialization group, click Initial conditions . Click Create new and enter a name for the new initial condition set. Choose the Target simulators. By default, all simulators are selected. In Fluid contacts folder in the Models pane, select the contact set (defined using a region property) and insert into Contact set in the Initial conditions dialog box. Click Populate from contact set. The Region information table is populated with details of the regions in the selected contact set. The process also creates a region index property corresponding to the regions defined in the contact set (via zones, segments or region index property). This appears in the Region index property box in the Initial conditions dialog box. In the Region information table, select one or more regions. a. In the Fluids folder in the Input pane, select a fluid and insert into the Fluid box in the Details table. Appropriate fluid phase behavior is detected based on the fluid model that is selected. A black fluid model will fall under one of the following phase behavior types: ? Water (water phase only - Not supported by INTERSECT) ? Dead oil (oil phase and/or water) ? Dry gas (gas phase and/or water) ? Live oil (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase and/or water - Not supported by INTERSECT) ? Wet gas (oil phase, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water) ? Volatile oil (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water) ? Gas condensate (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water). Select Volatile oil if the fluid is bubble point or Gas condensate if the fluid is dew point. Note: for INTERSECT, the fluid models must have a water phase defined, or you will get errors on export. b. If the fluid is saturated or super-saturated (Psat > Pres), select GOC. Note: If GOC is not selected, and Psat > Pres anywhere in the reservoir, then the exact behavior will be dependent on the simulator. c. If you select INTERSECT only, choose the Equilibrium input. ? Adjust Composition: This will respect the datum depth and pressure and gas oil contact depth that you enter, but will reduce the Rs and Rv values to ensure that Psat <= Pres. ? Adjust GOC: The depth of the gas oil contact is calculated to be the depth at which Psat = Pres where Psat is derived from the tabulated Rs or Pbub versus depth and/or Rv or Pdew versus depth and the PVT data. ? Adjust Datum Pressure: The datum depth is ignored/not required and the reservoir pressure is calculated by assuming Pres=Pbub at the gas oil contact. d. Complete the Details table for the selected region(s). Fields that are mandatory are displayed with a red border.

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8. To specify the solution gas-oil ratio and/or bubble point pressure using a composition versus depth table (rather than a constant value), select 'Table' from the Rs/Pb type list. a. In the Versus depth tables for region table, enter the required depths and values. b. To insert a new row above an existing row in the table, click Insert a new row above this one and enter the required values. c. To add a new row at the bottom of the table, complete the last row in the table (marked with an *). Depths and values must be in order. Any errors in the table are indicated with a red border. d. To delete a row in the table, click Delete this row . 9. Enter details for each of the other regions in the contact set. A appears in the Valid column for each row in the Region information table when definition of the regions is complete. 10. Click Apply or OK. The initial condition set appears in an Initial conditions folder under the grid in the Models pane.

Initialize from maps
Use the Initialize from maps process to create a new initial condition set for a reservoir with areal variation in the depth of the oil-water and gas-oil contacts. The Initialize from maps process is used where the reservoir is believed to be in dynamic steady-state situation with spatially varying FWL and GOC, due to a regional hydrodynamic gradient. This process uses the spatially varying contacts and compositions (Rs/Pb and/or Rv/Pd) as inputs and discretizes it into thousands of regions and also associates the correct fluid model to each equilibration region, with the aid of a discrete PVT region index property. The Initialize from maps process groups the cells in a reservoir into regions requiring similar initial conditions based on the discretization, which is the tolerance limit on the range of provided spatially varying inputs and generates appropriate equilibrium models for those cells. The net result is that the reservoir is approximated by multiple equilibration regions mapped to appropriate fluid models. This process only supports contact sets with one areally-varying map per contact. You must have a contact set with appropriate contacts for the current grid: ? ? ? ? ? Areally-varying water contact Areally-varying gas-oil contact Contact datum depth Constant datum pressure Pcow and Pcog are optional (default to 0)
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If the contact set does not have areally-varying maps, and has contact values only, then use the Initial conditions process to create the initial conditions set for the selected fluid type. The number of regions used to approximate the initial conditions of the reservoir, and hence the level of detail captured, is controlled by discretization of the oil-water and gas-oil contacts into different equilibration regions based on specified depth values. For example, if you specify a value of 1 m for the gas-oil contact discretization, all cells in any one equilibration region will have gas-oil contact depth values within 1 m of each other.

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Note: ? ? ? ? ? The Initialize from maps process does not support contact sets with areally varying contacts per zone or region. Grids with LGRs are supported: Structured LGRs, having values (PVT) different from the parent grid, will be honored. Unstructured LGRs will inherit the values from the parent grid For regions having water contact above the gas contact, the gas contact will be set to the same value as the water contact

Single fluid or multi-fluid models are supported. Single fluid model Use this option when there is only one fluid model associated with the entire reservoir model. The fluid model is validated against the selected simulator and phase behavior. Appropriate fluid phase behavior is detected based on the fluid model that is selected. If the fluid is volatile oil or a gas condensate, select the correct phase behavior. Multi-fluid model Use this option when the reservoir model has more than one fluid model associated with it, usually defined by a PVT region index property (discrete).

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Create an initial condition set for a single fluid model
When there is only one fluid model associated with the entire reservoir model, you can select the fluid model and the appropriate fluid phase behavior in the Initialize from maps dialog box. The fluid model is validated against the selected simulator and the phase behavior. To create an initial condition set for a single fluid model: 1. In the Models pane, select the grid. 2. On the Reservoir Engineering tab, in the Initialization group, click Initialize from maps . 3. Click Create new and enter a name for the new initial condition set. 4. Choose the Target simulators. By default, all simulators are selected. 5. From the Contact set list, select the contact set that you want to use. The contact set should have one areally-varying map per contact, and have the appropriate contacts for the current grid.

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6. Click Single fluid and select the fluid model from the Fluid list. Appropriate fluid phase behavior is detected based on the fluid model that is selected.

A black fluid model will fall under one of the following phase behavior types: ? Water (water phase only - Not supported by INTERSECT) ? Dead oil (oil phase and/or water) ? Dry gas (gas phase and/or water) ? Live oil (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase and/or water - Not supported by INTERSECT) ? Wet gas (oil phase, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water) ? Volatile oil (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water) ? Gas condensate (oil phase with solution gas, gas phase with vaporized oil and/or water). Select Volatile oil if the fluid is bubble point or Gas condensate if the fluid is dew point. Note: for INTERSECT, the fluid models must have a water phase defined, or you will get errors on export. 7. Enter the depth values that you want to use to discretize the gas-oil contact (GOC discretization) and water contact (Water discretization). Discretization defines the level of tolerance, which is the interval of values that will be grouped together into a single equilibration region. For example, if you enter a value of 1 m into each box, all the cells in any one equilibration region will have gas-oil contact and oil-water contact depth values within 1 m of each other. 8. To use a map providing spatially-varying bubble point pressure across the model, click Use pressure (Pb/Pd) maps. a. From the Bubble point pressure list, select the structured or regular surface map that specifies the oil bubble point pressure. This is used to determine the fraction of dissolved gas in the oil phase in conjunction with the associated fluid model. Alternatively, use a solution gas-oil ratio (Rs) map. b. In the Bubble point discretization box, enter the required interval. Values in the associated bubble point pressure map are discretized into groups based on their values. Each group specifies a different equilibration region. For example, if a value of 1 bar is entered, all the cells in any one equilibration region will have solution gas-oil ratio values within 1 bar of each other. 9. To use a map providing spatially-varying solution gas-oil ratio across the model, click Use ratio (Rs/Rv) maps. a. From the Solution gas-oil ratio (Rs) list, select the structured or regular surface map that specifies the solution gas-oil ratio. This is used to determine the fraction of dissolved gas in the oil phase in conjunction with the associated fluid model. Alternatively, use a bubble point pressure map. b. In the Rs discretization box, enter the required interval. Values in the associated solution gas-oil ratio map are discretized into groups based on their values. Each group specifies a different equilibration region. For example, if a value of 1 unit is entered, all the cells in any one equilibration region will have solution gas-oil ratio values within 1 unit of each other.

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10. Click Apply. The information panel at the bottom of the Initialize from maps dialog box summarizes the number of regions created, and also lists any warnings. The initial condition set appears in an Initial conditions folder under the grid in the Models pane. A region property is created and appears in an Initial conditions equilibration region properties folder in the Properties folder for the selected grid.

Allocate numbers to the fluids in a project
Identify fluids in your project using numbers. Fluid numbers are used to match fluids to the numbers in the Initialize from maps dialog box when your reservoir model has more than one fluid model associated with it, usually defined by a PVT region index property (discrete). To allocate numbers to fluids in a project: 1. In the Input pane, right-click the Fluids folder, and then click Fluid numbering . The Fluid numbering dialog box appears. All fluid models in the project are listed in the dialog box. The Fluid type column indicates the fluid type. 2. In the Fluid number column, enter a number for each fluid. If you duplicate an existing number, both cells are colored yellow. Fluid numbers do not need to be unique within a project; fluids with the same number are mapped to the same indexed PVT region.

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3. Click OK.

Create an initial condition set for a multi-fluid model
When the reservoir model has more than one fluid model associated with it, usually defined by a PVT region index property (discrete), used the multi-fluid option in the Initialize from maps dialog box. To create an initial condition set for a multi-fluid model: 1. In the Models pane, select the grid. 2. On the Reservoir Engineering tab, in the Initialization group, click Initialize from maps 3. Click Create new and enter a name for the new initial condition set.
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4. Choose the Target simulators. By default, all simulators are selected. 5. From the Contact set list, select the contact set that you want to use. The contact set should have one areally-varying map per contact, and have the appropriate contacts for the current grid. 6. Click Multi- fluid. 7. From the Pvt region index property list, select the appropriate discrete 3D property that distinguishes different PVT regions in the reservoir model. The fluid association table is populated with fluid numbers (the code linked to each region) and fluids. 8. From the Phase behavior list, select the phase behavior against which all the associated fluid models will be validated. A reservoir model should have all the associated fluid models belonging to one single-phase behavior, for simulation. 9. Associate the correct fluid model with each PVT region. All the selected fluid models will be validated against the selected phase behavior.

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10. Enter the depth values that you want to use to discretize the gas-oil contact (GOC discretization) and water contact (Water discretization). For example, if you enter a value of 1 m into each box, all the cells in any one equilibration region will have gas-oil contact and oil-water contact depth values within 1 m of each other. 11. To use a map providing spatially-varying bubble point pressure across the model, click Use pressure (Pb/Pd) maps. a. From the Bubble point pressure list, select the structured or regular surface map that specifies the oil bubble point pressure. This is used to determine the fraction of dissolved gas in the oil phase in conjunction with the associated fluid model. Alternatively, use a solution gas-oil ratio (Rs) map. b. In the Bubble point discretization box, enter the required interval. Values in the associated bubble point pressure map are discretized into groups based on their values. Each group specifies a different equilibration region. For example, if a value of 1 bar is entered, all the cells in any one equilibration region will have solution gas-oi

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