语法复习十二：非谓语动词（一）——动词不定式 动词不定式、分词(现在分词，过去分词)和动名词统称为非谓语动词。现代英语 将现在分词和动名词合为一大类叫作 v + ing 形式。这些动词的形式不能在句中单独 作谓语用，因而没有语法主语。但可以有逻辑主语。由于没有语法主语，也就不受 人称和数的限定，因为不是谓语，也就没有时态和语态，但这些词仍能表示动作和 状态，所以仍有表示与其他动词
相对时间关系的形式。由于与其它词有逻辑上的主 谓关系，因此也有表示主、被动的形式，同时也有自己的宾语和状语，一起构成非 谓语动词的短语(动词不定式短语，分词短语，动名词短语)。非谓语动词在英语语法 中占有特殊且重要的位置。非谓语动词形式多样，应用广泛，且在句中起着很活跃 的作用，也是语法项目中的重点和难点，学好非谓语动词，才能正确进行口语和书 面的交流。 动词不定式、过去分词及 v-ing 形式在句中均不能作谓语用，所以叫做非谓语动 词。 （一）动词不定式： 动词不定式由“to+ 动词原形”构成，如：to study, to play，动词不定式虽然不能 作谓语动词用，但仍留着动词的特征，它可以带有所需要的宾语或状语而构成动词 不定式短语，如：to study hard, to play table tennis。 1、动词不定式的形式变化：动词不定式有下列时态和语态的形式变化。 语态式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 to have been 主 动 to build to have built to be building building to have been 被 动 to be build build 2、动词不定式的基本用法：动词不定式能起名词、形容词和副词的作用，可在 句中作主语、表语、宾语补足语、定语和状语用，如： （1）作主语：To help each other is good.（动词不定式作主语时，一般可用 it 作形式主语，而将作主语的动词不定式置于句末，如：It is good to help each other. （2）作表语：My job is to drive them to the power station every day. 动词不定 式在系动词 be 之后作表语，与表示将来时的 be + 动词不定式结构有所区别，如： Our plan is to set up another middle school for the peasants’ children.我们的计划是 给农民子弟再成立一所中学。 （句中的谓语动词为 is，动词不定式 to set up… 为表 语，主语为 plan，但 plan 并不是动词不定式的逻辑主语，即动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作不是主语 plan 产生的。 ）We are to set up another middle school for the peasants’ children.我们将为农民的子弟再成立一所中学。 （句中的 are to set up 整个 结构为句中谓语，主语为 we，同时也是动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作的逻辑主 语，即动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作是由 we 产生的） 。 （3）作宾语：① 作及物动词的宾语，如：She wishes to be a musician.；② 作某 些形容词的宾语：可以有动词不定式为宾语的形容词一般有 glad, sorry, afraid,
pleased, determined, willing, eager, anxious, ready, sure 等，如：I am determined to give up smoking.；③ 动词不定式一般不作介词的宾语，但动词不定式之前如有疑问 词时，就可作介词的宾语，如：Can you give us some advice on what to do next? （4）作宾语补足语，如：Tell the children not to play on the street. 如果句中的 谓语动词为 see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let 等，作宾语补足语的动词不定式 须将 to 省去，如：I saw a little girl run across the street. （5）动词不定式在句中作宾语，如带有宾语补足语时，须先用 it 作形式宾语， 而将该动词不定式后置，如：I don’t think it right to do it that way. （6）作定语：动词不定式作定语时，须位于被其修饰的名词或代词之后，如： Is this the best way to help him? 和定语用的动词不定式如果是不及物动词，不定式 后面就要用必要的介词，如：He is the man to depend on. 如果被不定式修饰的名词 为 place, time, way， 不定式后面的介词， 习惯上可以省去， The old man is looking 如： for a quiet place to live. （7） 作状语： 动词不定式可以作下列的状语： 目的状语： Every morning he gets ① up very early to read English. 为了强调不定式表示目的的作用，可在不定式前加 in order to 或 so as to（以便或为了） ，但应注意 in order to 位于句首或句中均可，而 so as to 不能位于句首，如：She reads China Daily every day in order to (so as to) improve her English. 将表示目的的不定式置于句首，也可强调目的的作用，如：To master a foreign language, one must work hard at it. ② 结果状语：They lived to see the liberation of their home town.他们活到亲眼见到了他们家乡的解放。 too + 形容 ③ 词或副词 + 动词不定式， 表示“足能…”的结果， 如： You are old enough to take care of yourself now. 3、复合结构不定式：由 for + 名词（或代词宾格）+ 动词不定式即构成复合结 构的动词不定式。 其中 for 本身无意义。 后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语， for 这种不定式在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语或状语，如：It is very important for us to get everything ready for the harvest. 当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主 语的性质或特征时，就用介词 of 而不用 for 引出不定式的逻辑主语，这些形容词一 般有 good, nice, kind, wise, silly, stupid, foolish, right, wrong, careless, impolite 等， 如：It is very kind of you to help him every day. 4、疑问词 + 动词不定式：疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式 短语， 在句中可作主语、 表语或宾语， How to prevent them from swimming in this 如： river is a problem. 5、动词不定式的否定式：动词不定式的否定式是由 not + 动词不定式构成，如： It’s wrong of you not to attend the meeting. 6、动词不定式的时态形式所表示的时间关系： （1）一般式：动词不定式一般式 所表示的动作是和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生，但在多数情况下，是在谓语动 词所表示的动作之后发生，如：We decided to plant more trees this spring.（其后） ， They often watch us play table tennis.（同时）（2）完成式：动词不定式完成式所表 ； 示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前， I am sorryto have kept you waiting. 如：
（3）进行式：动词不定式进行式所表示的动作正在进行中，而且与谓语动词所表示 的动作同时发生， She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in. 如： 7、动词不定式的被动语态用法：如果动词不定式的逻辑主语为这个不定式所表 示的动作的承受者时，不定式一般就用被动语态形式，如：What is to be done next hasn’t been decided yet. 练习、非谓语动词（一） 1. ---- Can you ride a horse? ---- No, I never had the chance ____. A. for learning it B. for learning how C. how to learn it D. to learn how 2. Paul said, "Give me a chair _____." A. to sit B. sit C. sit on D. to sit on 3. I ran too fast ______ where I was going. A. to notice B. for me to notice C. to notice for me D. and notice 4. ---- Have you enjoyed your visit here? ---- Yes, I'll be very sorry______ . A. for leaving B.of leaving C. to leave D. with leaving 5. ---- I'll help you whenever you need me. ---- Good. I'd like _____me tomorrow. A. you helping B. that you will help C. you to help D. that you help 6. ---- I didn't hear you come in last night. ---- That's good. We tried_____ noisy. A. not be B. not to be C. to be not D. to not be 7. Because of air pollution being greatly reduced, this city is still ______. A. a good place which to be lived in B. lived as a good place C. a good place to live in D. living in as a good place 8. ---- Why was the official meeting called? ---- ______ new officers. A. Select B. Selecting C. To select D. For selecting 9. ---- Where did he go? ---- He went to another store ______. A. to buy pencils B. for buying pencils C. buy pencils D. buying pencils 10. ---- My baby has a heart trouble. ---- Did the doctor find it difficult ______ ? A. in treating B. treating C. for treating D. to treat 11. ---- Did the judge ask you many questions? ---- Yes, and ______.
A. they were difficult to be answered B. to answer them was to be difficult C. they were difficult to answer D. they had difficulty in answering 12. That beggar seems _____ anything yesterday. A. not to have eaten B. not to eat C. didn't eat D. to not have eaten 13. The lost child desired nothing but _____ home. A. go B. to go C. going . D. went 14.That box is____. A. too heavy for me to carry B. too heavy for me to carry it C. so heavy for me to carry D. very heavy for me to carry 15. Would you be ______ to do me a favour, please? A. so kind as . B. too kind C. as kind as D. enough kind 16. To learn to speak English well,_____. A. much practice is needed B. one needs much practice C. much practice is needed by one D. one is needed much practice 17. Tom kept quiet about the accident ______ lose his job. A. so not as to B. so as not to C. so as to not D. not so as to 18. Last summer I took a course on ______ . A. how to make dresses B. how dresses be made C. how to be made dresses D. how dresses to be made 19. The house is not large enough ____ . A. to live in B. to be lived in C. to live D. for living 20. Nobody likes ______. A. to speak ill of B. to be spoken ill of C. speaking ill of D. spoken ill of 21. I know him ______ a good football player while in college. A. to have been B. to be C. was D. had been 22. I was surprised______. A. watching him to eat so quickly B. watch him eat so quickly C. watching him eat so quickly D. to watch him eat so quickly 23. Mr. White was seen ______ the Palace Museum. A. enter B. to enter C. entered D. to entering
24. I saw Mary ____ the house. A. open the door and go into B. to open the door and to go into C. open the door and to go into D. open the door and went into 25. Paul does nothing but _____ all day long. A. play B. to play C. playing D. played 26. Now we could not do anything but ______ for him here. A. waited B. waiting C. to wait D. wait 27. I don't know her and I don't ______ . A. want B. want to C. want it D. to want 28. ---- Go to the theatre with me, will you? ---- I should like ______, but I don't have time. A. to B. too C. to do D. to go to 29. To play fair is as important as ______. A. to play well B. play well C. we play well D. playing well 30. It is the greatest happiness on earth ______. A. loving and to be loved B. to love and being loved C. to love and to be loved D. love and be loved 31. _____ is better to love than _____ . A. That, to be loved B. That, be loved C. It, be loved D. It, to be loved 32. It's very foolish _____ it? A. for you to say B. of you to say C. with you saying D. in your saying 33. It ______ me two hours to find your new house. A. cost B. took C. spent D. used 34. We did not expect our offer _____ so quickly. A. rejected B. to reject . C. to be rejected D. rejecting 35. He told her ______ there at once. A. get B. gets C. should get D. to get 36. We all think it most foolish ______ this mistake. A. for you making B. of you to make C. you to make D. for you to make 37. I really don't know ____ .
A. to swim B. how to swim C. to swim how D. how swim 38. ---- What do you think about English? ---- It's a difficult language _____. A. speaking B. to be spoken C. to speak D. spoken
语法复习十二：非谓语动词（一）——动词不定式 1~5 DDACC 6~10 BCCAD 11~15 CABAA 16~20 BBAAB 26~30 DBAAC 31~35 DBBCD 36~38 BBC 21~25 ADBAA