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高一英语语法定语从句的优质课件


高三英语第一轮复习

Complex sentence 复合句:
由连词连接两个或多个主谓结构的句子,其中一个主谓结构是句子 的主要部分(主句),另一个或一个以上的主谓结构只在句子中作 某个成分(如主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、同位语)。 复合句 = 主句 + 定语从句 另一个或一个以上的主谓结构 只在句子中作某个成分(定语)

一个主谓结构是句子 的主要部分(主句)

The students (who do not study hard )will not pass the exam.

主句主语 从句主语 从句谓语结构

主句谓语结构

Attributive clause:
在句子中作定语,修饰名词或代词的从句。这种从句由关系代词 或关系副词引导,并作句子成分。 定语从句还叫做嵌入句, 因形容词定语,所以又称之为形容词性从句。
定语从句的位置:通常在先行词(在主句中)后。 who(主语、宾语),whom(宾语), that(主语、宾语), whose(定语) that(主语、宾语),which(主语、宾语) whose(定语)

定 语 从 句 的 引 导 词

关系 代词

指人
指物

where (地点状语) 关系 副词 when (时间状语)

why (原因状语)

先行代词和关系词的关系
1.A plane is a machine that can fly.
the machine = that

2.The boy who broke the window is called Tom.
the boy =who

关系代词实际上是先行词的复指

3.The boy whose parents are dead was brought up by his grandfather. the boy’s =whose
关系词whose实际上是先行词的所有格

4.The school where I study is far from my home.
in the school = where 关系副词实际上是介词+先行词

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine the machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine that /which can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl we saw her yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl

we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her is Mary.

we saw

yesterday

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl that/who/whom is Mary.

we saw yesterday

注意避免重复

关系副词和先行词的关系

I still remember the day when I came here.
on the day =when

This is the house where I lived last year.
in the house= where

There are many reasons why people like traveling.
for the reasons =why

I don’t like the way that you speak.
in the way =that 关系副词实际上是介词+先行词

The man that helped you is Mr White.

This is the person ( that) you want to see.

A dictionary is a useful book that tells us the meaning of words.

The film that we just talked about is very interesting.

A dictionary is a useful book which tells us the meaning of words.

The film which we just talked about is very interesting.

Tom is late again, which makes his teacher very angry.

Eric received training in computer for one year, after which he found a job in a big company.

1.that 与which
that can be done has 1.Nothing ______ been done. that you 2.Do you have anything ______ 先行词是 everything, nothing, don’t understand ? anything,
something, much, little, none等不定代词,引 导定语从句用that

1.that 与which
1.This is the best TV _______ that is made in China. that he 2.The first museum _______ visited in China was the History 先行词被形容词最高级 Museum.
或序数词修饰时,引导 定语从句用that 。

1.that 与which
I’ve read all the books ________ that you lent me.
先行词被any, some, no, much, few, little, every, all, very, only, last 修饰时,引导 定语从句用that 。

1.that 与which
1.The famous writer and his works that _____ the radio broadcast have aroused great interest among the students. 2.A victim is a person, animal or thing ______ that suffers pain, 先行词中既有人又有事物时, death, harm, etc.
引导定语从句用that .

1.that 与which
1.Who that _______ you have ever seen can do it better ?
Who做先行词时, 引导定语从句用 that

1.that 与which
1.Her bag ,in ________ which she put all her money, has been stolen. which she 2.This is the ring on ________ spent 1000 dollars. 3.Xiao Wang ,with ________ whom I went to the concert, enjoy it very much . 在介词后面,指事物
用which,指人用whom

? 2.

关系代词that,which 和关系 副词when,where的区别

1)、找出定语从句中是否主语和宾语都齐全。如齐全用关系副词。 用什么关系副词看先行词。 _

when )I ___ I will never forget the days (______ stayed with you). ___

where ________ Do you remember the library _____ (you first met your girlfriend?)
why Please give me the reason _____ _____ (you ___ made such a great success).

2)定语从句没有宾语
?

Yesterday we went to visit the house _____ (the great writer used to live). where

The house ______ (they built in 1987) that/which stayed up in the earthquake.

I’ll never forget the day _________ we first met in the park.

3)、如定语从句中谓语结构是被动结构,有主语,则用关系副词。
Kunming is a beautiful place where ______ ( flowers are seen all the year round). October 1st is the day ________ when ( new China was founded). Which was opened this morning) has been broken. The window ( ______ that Which will be held next week) is very important. The meeting ( ______ that

2(2) that,which与why 指时间,地点或原因的先行词在定语从句 的区分 中作主语或宾语,用which或that引导定
语从句。

This is the reason ___________ why/that ( = for which ) I didn’t come here. The reasonwhich/that __________ she gave was not true.

This is the reason why he did not came to the meeting.

We are not satisfied with the reason that/which he gave us.

Exercise:
2.I’ll never forget the days ___________ we spent together. which
及物动词

when /in which we worked toget 1.I’ll never forget the days______________

3.I went to the place

where/ in which I worked ten years a
及物动词

4.I went to the place _____________ I visited ten years ago. which why/ for which 5.This is the reason _____________________ he was late.
that/which 6.This is the reason _____________________ he gave.
及物动词

介词+关系代词的情况 1

The man

whom you spoke to was a scientist.

The city

which she lives in is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 2
Are these two sentences right?

The man

who/whom you spoke to was a scientist.

The city

that/which she lives in is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 3
Are these two sentences right?

The man to who/whom you spoke ×

was a scienti

The city in that/which she lives ×
可见,who、that 不能用与介词之后

is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 4
下面两句中的介词能提前吗?

Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better . 在固定短语中介词不能提前

介词+关系代词的情况 练习
on which ? 1. Do you like the book she spent $10? for which ? 2. Do you like the book she paid $10? from which she learned ? 3. Do you like the book a lot? ? 4. Do you like the book about which she often talks? ? 5. He built a telescope through which he could study the skies.

? 6. There is a tall tree outside, under which stands our teacher. ? 7. China has a lot of rivers, the second longest _______ of which ? is the Yellow River. from which people can have a good view ? 8. The tower _______ ? is on the hill. ? 9. The man ________ to whom I spoke on the phone last night ? is very good at wrestling. ? 10. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, ? most ______ of which hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.

4 as 的使用
The earth is round,___ as we all know. ___ As is known to all, the earth is round ___ It is known to all that the earth is round.
定语从句在句首时只能用as, as 具有正如之意,与之搭配的动 词一般是固定的

as 的使用
1. It is very useful to master a foreign language,_____ which has been said before. 2 As ___ everyone hoped, Mary as引导定语从句可放在句首,句中, has won the first prize.
句末,而which 引导定语从句不能 放在句首.as译为正如,好像。, which 则没有此义。

He married the girl,as (which) was natural. He seemed a foreigner, as (which) in fact he was. As was natural, he married the girl. Tom is late again, which makes his teacher very angry. The earth travels around the sun, as is well known to us all.

as 的使用
? This

is the same book as I lost.

这本书和我丢的那本一模一样。
? This

is the same book that I lost.

这本书就是我丢的那本。

as 的使用
This is such an interesting book ____ as we all like. This is so interesting a book _____ as 定语从句 we all like. 这是大家都喜欢的如此有趣的一 本书。

as 的使用
This is such an interesting book ____we all like it. that This is so interesting a book ____we all like it. that 结果状语从句

这本书如此有趣,大家都喜欢。

We are facing the same problems as we did years ago. Some people have no doubt that their cat understands as/so many words as a dog does. We hope to get such a tool as he is using. He’s such a good student as everyone likes . He’s such a good student that everyone likes him.

定 语 从 句

The Restrictive Attributive Clause 限制性定语从句 The Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause 非限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别
类别 意义 限定性 定语从 起限定作用。 句 若省略,原句 意义不完整。 功能 修饰 先行 词 形式 关系代词
1.有that 无逗 2.作宾 号隔 语时可 开 以省略 有逗 号与 主句 隔开 无that 不可以 省略

非限定 性定语 起补充说明作 修饰先 用。若省略, 行词 / 从句 原句意义不受 整个句 影响。 子

只用非限制性定语从句的情况:
He was late again, which made his teacher very angry. 当关系代词指代整 个主句内容时。

只用非限制性定语从句的情况:
The moon, which is 384,400 kilometers away from the earth, goes around the earth. 当先行词指的是世界上 独一无二的事物时。

Yesterday he left America, where he had stayed for two years.

先行词是人名、地名、 国名、建筑物等专有 名词时。

区别 : I have a son who is a doctor. 我有一个是医生的儿子(还有其他儿子)

I have a son, who is a docotor. 我有一个儿子,他是医生。 (意指:我只有这一个儿子。)

Correct the sentences:
1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday. to 2. The man whom I spoke is ∧ from Canada. 3. July 1,1999 is the daythat when we’ll never forget.

Correct the sentences:
4. I’m going to work in the hospital where needs me. which 5. Those that haven’t been to the West Lake will gather at the school gate. who

Correct the sentences:
6.This is the last time when I’ve given you lessons. that ? 7. The reason which he explained it sounds reasonable. why
?

Correct the sentences:
9. Taiwan, that we know, belongs to China. as

10.The bike by which I travelled was his.

on

Correct the mistakes

1.Under the big tree are 34 students,many of ——— them come from class two. whom 2. My mother has a good book, which ——— cover looks terrible. whose 3. This is the very pen that you gave it \ to me before. it \ 4. There is an old woman, that —— is holding who a stick.

根据下列句子,完成短文。
众所周知,2008年北京将举办奥运 会。英语作为一种国际语言,将会在 交流中起着重要作用。作为一名高三 学生,我们应抓住现在的学习机会努 力学好它。只有这样,才能为奥运贡 献自己的力量。 注意:要使用定语从句.

As is known to all, Beijing will host the 2008 Olympic Games . English, which is an international language , plays an important part in communicating with foreigners. We Senior Three students should catch this opportunity to learn it well, by which we can make our contribution to the Olympic Games.

Thank you
Goodbye


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