Unit 2 English Around the World
教学重点、难点： 重要性： 典型例题：
本次教学评价：非常满意 ○ 本节课回访记录： 较满意 ○ 一般 ○ 家长或学生签字 共 小时
Unit 2 English Around the World
导读： Learning English is really a must！ Let's take a look around us： the latest information around the world is written in or translated into English. English is one of the most important required subjects for the university and high school entrance exams. Frankly, my English is not good. But I have to improve my English to pass the College Entrance Examination. As for me, I would force myself to memorize at least a few new words every day because a large vocabulary is essential in learning English well. Second, I would review some grammar rules every week, which helps me make fewer mistakes in written English. Third, I'd like to read short articles and then write an English composition every other day. I hope in this way I can realize my dream. ●重点单词 1．offical adj.官方的；正式的；公务的→office n．办公室→officer n．官员 2．voyage n. 航行；航海→journey n. (尤指长途)旅行；行程 3．actually adv.实际上；事实上 词组：in face=in actual fact=as a matter of fact=actually 事实上，实际上 4．gradual adj.逐渐的，逐步的→gradually adv.逐渐地，逐步地 5．identity n．本身；本体；身份→identical adj.相同的，一样的→identify v．确定；认出；鉴定 6．fluent adj.流利的；流畅的→fluently adv.流利地，流畅地→fluency n．流利，流畅 7．frequent adj.频繁的；常见的→frequently adv.常常；频繁地→frequency n．频率；频度 Eg: 除非你常常说英语，你不可能很流利地说英语， _______________________________________________________________ 8．usage n．使用；用法；词语惯用法→useful adj.有用的→use n. & v．使用，利用 9．expression n．词语；表示；表达→express v．表达→expressive adj.富于表情的；有表现力的 10．accent n．口音；腔调；重音 11．straight adv.直接地；挺直地 adj.直的；笔直的；正直的 12．native_adj.本国的；本地的 n．本地人；本国人 词组：be native to... 原产于某地 Eg: Pandas are native to China. native place/language 出生地/本国语，母语 a native of 当地人/产于……的动/植物 Eg: He is a native of Nanchang. 13．base vt. 以……为根据 base sb./sth./oneself in 以……为据点(或总部等)，把(总部等)设在 base sth. on/upon sth.以……为基础(或根据),通常用被动语态（sth be based on) Eg: After all, the doctorpatient relationship is_based_on trust, and therefore honesty is essential. 毕竟，医患之间的关系是建立在相互信任的基础上，所以诚实尤其重要。 The board has decided to base the new company in New York. 董事会已经决定将新公司设在纽约。 n.基部；基地；基础 a military/naval base 军事/海军基地 the base of glass 玻璃杯底座 14. command n. & vt.命令；指令；掌握→commander n．指挥员，司令员 词组：[归纳拓展]
(1) at sb.'s command 听某人的支配，服从某人的支配 in command of 指挥；控制 ——under one's command 由……指挥 take command of 担任……的指挥 have a good command of 很好地掌握；精通=have a good knowledge of (2) command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事 command that...(should)do... 命令……做…… [点拨： ]command 后面引起的从句要用虚拟语气。 谓语动词形式是 should＋动词原形， should 可以省略。 一坚持：insist 二命令：order, command 三建议：advise, suggest, recommend 四要求：require, request, demand, desire Eg: BCI technology could help people with disabilities send commands to machines. BCI 技术能帮助残疾人向机器发布命令。 The armed police arrived and took_command_of the situation. 武装警察到达后就控制了局势。 The general command that the task (should) be completed before dusk. 将军命令天黑之前完成任务。 15. request n. & vt.请求；要求 词组：request sth. of/from sb. 向某人请求某物 request sb. to do sth. 请求某人做某事 request that sb. (should) do sth.请求…… at one’s request/ at the request of sb.应某人之请求 be in request 有需要，受欢迎 Eg: ① was there at_the_request_of his manager/at_his_manager's_request. He 他按照经理的请求到了那里。 ② club members are requested to attend the annual meeting. All 所有的俱乐部成员都被要求参加年会。 ③ She requested that no one be_told of her decision until the next meeting. 她要求下次开会前不要向任何人透露她的决定。 16．recognize vt.辨认出；承认；公认→recognizable adj.容易认出的；易于识别的→recognition n．认出；认识；识别 词组：recognize sb. /sth. by /from...根据……认出某人/事(物) recognize sb./sth. as/to be...承认某人(物)是……，认为……是…… It’s recognized that...人们公认…… out of/beyond recognition 认不出来 Eg: Saleha came home so thin and weak that her own children hardly recognized her. 赛莉娅回家时又瘦又弱，连她自己的孩子都几乎认不出她来了。 It_is_recognized_that environment pollution has become one of the most serious problems that people face. 人们一致认为环境污染已经成了人们面对的最严重的问题之一。 The man was officially recognized_as the new record holder after he managed to put on 245 different Tshirts in less than two hours. 男选手成功地在不到两个小时的时间里穿上了 245 条不同的体恤衫而被认为新纪录保持者。 17 . direction n. 方向；指导；(常用复数)指示；说明书
?a sense of direction 方向感 ? (1)?in/from the direction of 朝着/来自……方向 ?in all directions＝in every direction 向四面八方 ?
?under one's direction＝ ?under the direction of sb. 在某人指导下 (2)? according to one's directions 根据某人的指示 ?follow/obey/listen to one's directions 听从某人教导 ?
Eg : I have a poor sense of direction. 我方向感很差。 The plane flew in the direction of Beijing.飞机朝北京方向飞去。 As we fired at the enemy's position, they fled in_all_directions. 当我们向敌军阵地开火时，他们四处逃窜。 We finished the experiment under the teacher's direction.在老师的指导下我们完成了试验。 18. latter adj.（两者之间）后者的；后半期的，后面的 Eg：Of the two girls the former studies well, but the latter doesn’t study well. We should work hard in the latter half of the year. 区别：late, later, lately, latter 1) late adj/ adv. 晚的（地） ，迟的（地） Eg: I’m sorry. I’m late./ He often goes to school late. 2) later adv. 后来（一般跟数词连用） later on 后来，以后 Eg: Three minutes later, he came back. 3) lately adv. 近来，最近（常与现在完成时连用，常用在否定或疑问句） Eg: Have you seen him lately. ●重点短语 1．because of 由于；因为. 后跟名词、代词或动名词。而 because 是连词，后跟从句。 Eg: (1) He was absent not because of his illness, but because his father died. (2) It was because of her that he had gone abroad. 2．come up 走近；(植物)长出地面；(太阳)升起；被提及，被讨论
Eg: ①The trees are just beginning to come_up. ②We watched the sun come_up. ③The question is bound to come_up at the meeting. ④He came_up to me and asked for a light. [拓展]：come up with 想出；提出 come about 发生 come across 偶遇；偶然发现 come along 一道来；一起去；进行，进展 come on 加油，赶快；得了吧 come out 出版；出来，出现；结果是 come to 苏醒；总计；达到；谈到 when it comes to (doing) sth. 当谈论/涉及(做)某事时 How come...? ……怎么发生的？……怎么回事
3．at present 现在；目前 present adj. 现在的，当前的（前置定语） ；出席的，到场的（表语、后置定语） n. 礼物，相当于 gift v. 呈现，提交， 赠送 Eg: I’m not satisfied of the present government. How many people are present at the meeting？ The number of people present is only 50. About 300 papers were presented at the conference. 4．make use of 利用--make full/ the best/good/little use of 充分/尽量/好好/没有好好利用 5．such as 例如……；像这种的 6．play a part in 扮演一个角色；参与 7．more than 1) more than + 数字 超过，多于=over 否定形式：not more than=at most 至多，不超过 Eg: People more than 18 years old have the right to vote in China. 2) more than + 名词 不仅仅=not only Eg: Both of them are much more than classmates. They are close friends. 3）more than + adj/ adv 非常，十分 Eg：The play is more than good; it is wonderful. 4) more A than B 与其说……倒不如…… Eg；He is more brave than wise. / He is more a friend than a teacher. [难点]区分 no more+adj.adv than 和 not more+adj.adv than Eg: He is no more wise than Tom=He is as foolish as Tom 他和汤姆一样笨。 He is not more wise than Tom=Tom is more wise than him. 他不如汤姆聪明。
8．even if/though 即使 9．expect sb to do sth 盼望/期待某人做某事 10．communicate with sb 与某人进行交流 11．instead of 代替 Eg: Will you go to the meeting instead of me?/ She never studies. Instead, she plays tennis all day. 12．the same as 相同于 13 . believe it or not 信不信由你 14 . the number of / a number of 15 . such as 例如；像这种的 Eg: I have many friends, such as Tom and Clerk. (例如) I don’t like such a person as John. (such+名词+as … 意为“诸如…之类的…) He is such a teacher as we all like. (as 后面接的是定语从句） 语法专题--定语从句初见 在复合句中，修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句所修饰的词叫做先行词。 定语从句放在先行词的后面。引导定语从句的词叫做关系代词（that, which, who, whom, whose） 或关系副词(when, where)，关系代词和关系副词放在先行词与定语从句之间，起联系的作用，同 时又作定语从句的一个成分。
关系代词、副 词 that，who， whom( 只 做 宾 语)
作用 主语、宾 语、表语
人 物、时 间、地 点、原 因 人物
Do you know the girl who／that is standing under a tree?
主语、宾 语、 表语
She got a computer which／that her parents bought for her．
whose (…的) when
The boy whose father is a doctor studies very hard． The classroom whose window is open is mine I still remember the day when you leave for beijing．
This is the school where my mother works．
Could you explain the reason why you were late?
二、关系代词在定语从句中的用法(关系代词作宾语时可省略)： 1．that 指人或物，在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。 this is the pen that you are looking for. 这是你要找的那支钢笔。(宾语) the girl that has long hair is my sister.留着长发的那个女孩是我妹妹。 （主语） 2．which 指物，在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。 the bike which is made in tianjin sells well.天津产的自行车销售很好。 （主语） the fish which we bought were not fresh.我们买的鱼不新鲜。(宾语) 3．who, whom 指人，在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。 the boy who broke the window is called tom.打碎窗户的男孩叫 tom. （主语） the person to whom he is talking is my father.正在和他谈话的那个人是我父亲。(宾语) 4．whose 指人或物，在定语从句中作定语。 the girl whose bag is new is called ann.新书包的那个女孩叫 ann。(指人) he lives in a house whose widows open to the south.他住在窗户朝南的那所房子。(指物) 三、只用 which 不用 that 的情况： 1．在介词后只用 which，不能用 that。 this is the bank in which the robbery happened.这是那所发生抢劫案的银行。 2．先行词本身是 that 时，只能用 which，不能用 that。 the clock is that whichtells the time.钟表是用来报时的。 四、只用 that 不用 which 的情况： 1．先行词被形容词最高级修饰时只能用 that。 this is the most beautiful mountain that i have seen. 这是我所见过的最美丽的山。 2．先行词被序数词修饰时只能用 that。 the first english novel that i read was thirty-nine steps.我读的第一本英文小说是《39级台阶》 。 3.先行词前有 all, any, no, little, much, many, the only, the very, the last 等修饰词时只能用 that。
here are all the books that i have.
this is the only book that i like.这是我唯一喜欢的一本书。 4．先行词是 everything, something, anything, all, none, much, little, many, few 等不定代词时，只 能用 that。 finally, the thief handed in everythingthat he had stolen.最后小偷交出了他所偷的东西。 5．先行词同时含有“人”和“物”的名词时，只能用 that。 i can remember the people and some pictures that i saw in the room.我能记得我在房间里看到的人和 一些图画。 6．先行词是 the one 时，只能用 that。 this is the one that you want. 这就是你想要的。 7．在以 who 引导的疑问句后，为了避免重复，只能用 that。 who is the girl that is standing there? 站在那边的那个女孩是谁？ 五、在介词后只能用 whom，不能用 who。 the girl to whom i talked just now is from america. 我刚刚与之谈话的那个女孩是来自美国的。 六、定语从句中主谓一致的问题： 当关系代词在定语从句中作主语时，定语从句中的谓语动词要与先行词的人称和数保持一致(我 们要知道，关系代词所代指的就是先行词，这里有一个等量关系)。 tom is one of the boys who are from the usa. tom 是众多来自美国的男孩中的一个。 tom is the only boy that is from the usa. tom 是惟一从美国来的男孩。 七、定语从句中的介词与副词的问题： 当关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时，如果定语从句中的谓语动词是不及物动词时，要加介词或副 词。(定语从句中的不及物动词加介词或副词构成固定的及物动词短语后，不能把介词或副词提 前到关系代词前。) he is the old man who/whom we looked after last year.他是我们去年照顾的那个老人。 that is the book which i am looking for.那就是我要找的书。 八、关系副词 when 与 where 的使用： 1．when 指时间： i will never forget the time when we worked on the farm.我将永远不会忘记我们在农场劳动的那段 时光。 2．where 指地点(where=in 等介词＋which)： this is the house where(=in which) he lived last year.这是他去年住的房子。 九、定语从句与作定语的① 动词不定式、② 介词短语、③ 现在分词短语、④ 过去分词短语的转换： she has much work that she must do.=she has much work to do.她有许多要做的工作。 the man in the car is mr. green.=the man who is in the car is mr. green.在车上的人是格林先生。 the girl watering flowers there is my sister.=the girl who is watering flowers there is my sister.在浇花的 女孩是我妹妹。 the boy saved in the river has come back to life.= the boy who was saved in the river has come back to life.从河里救起的男孩苏醒过来了。