2011-2012 寒假海洲讲坛英语预学案 参考答案
第一讲 句子的分类(一) A. 1. 陈述句是人们用来传递信息、提供情况，诸如描述事实、表达思想、发表意见等等的句子。 2. (1) 去北京的所有准备工作都已经做好了。 (2) 除了开会的时间以外，我什么也没跟他说。 3. 如果划线部分去掉，说话人原来委婉、客套的语气就缺失了。 4. 谓语动词增加了其他意义的表达方式
，以达到不同语气的效果。 B. 1. 疑问句包括一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句和反意疑问句。 2. 一般疑问句是将谓语动词的第一个助动词或情态动词、be 动词放置到主语前面。通常用 yes 或 no 回答，或能够表达 yes 或 no 的表达方式。 3. 说话人没有直接用 yes 回答。从所回答的句子来看，应该是必须早点儿去。 4. 回答的表达形式相同，但翻译成汉语时受汉语表达习惯的影响而有所差异。 Is he not a student? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t. 5. C。 C. 1. 疑问代词有 what，who，whom，which；疑问副词有 when，where，how，why 等。 2. 特殊疑问句由特殊疑问词+一般疑问句的语序构成， 如果特殊疑问词作主语则使用陈述句的语序。 3. (1) Which do you suggest I should take? (2) How far do you suppose they have gone? 4. BA D 1. (1) Do you like to play football or basketball? (2) Shall we go there, or will they come here? 2. 选择疑问句一般是根据问句中提供的选择进行回答，但不绝对。 E. 1. 反意疑问句是由陈述句+省略的一般疑问句构成，通常陈述句肯定，疑问部分否定或者陈述句否 定，疑问部分肯定。 2. 祈使句的反意疑问句的疑问部分通常是 will you。 (1) will you (2) will you 3. (1) 否定词有 never，not，no，no one，nobody，nothing，none，neither 等；半否定词有 few，little， seldom，hardly，scarcely 等。 (2) 1) does he 4. (1) are they 2) did he (2) isn’t it 3) wasn’t he 4) isn’t it 5) didn’t it (3) did they/did he 不，他是学生。 是的，他不是学生。 Is he a student? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t. 是的，他是学生。 不，他不是学生。
5. 反意疑问句的中疑问部分的助动词根据陈述句部分的助动词确定。 They didn’t have to take the early train.
They had to take the early train, didn’t they? 6. (1) needn’t (2) may (3) didn’t (4) hasn’t he (5) aren’t (6) did (7) haven’t (8) isn’t F. 1. 是由陈述句表达的疑问语气。 2. 虽然是疑问句式，但却不表达疑问。 G. 1. Do be…；Don’t be… 2. Don’ t you open the door. 3. 第 1 句带有呼唤语；第 2、3、4 句主语为第三人称；第 5 句为省略的祈使句。 4. Would you be kind to open the door for me? H. 1. what 修饰名词，how 修饰形容词、副词。 (1) it is (2) they are (3) it is 2. What a lovely boy he is! / How lovely a boy he is! 3. 必须根据上下文去理解其褒贬的语气，通常为赞叹。 第二讲 句子的分类(二) A. 1. 主语、谓语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 2. (1) 主语、定语、谓语、状语 (2) 主语、谓语、宾语、状语 (3) 主语、谓语、间接宾语、直接宾语、状语 (4) 状语、主语、谓语、形式宾语、宾语补足语、真正的宾语 (5) 主语、复合谓语(连系动词+表语) 3. 都是同位语。 B. 都只一个主谓结构。 C. 都是并列关系，不存在主次之分。 D. 1. 主语从句 7. 状语从句 2. 宾语从句 3. 介词宾语从句 4. 表语从句 5. 同位语从句 6. 定语从句 8. 宾语从句；从句中的定语从句
E. 1. 第 1 句是否定句，第 2、3 句不是。 2. (1) 1) All my friends don ’t smoke. 2) Both of them are not right. 3) A foolish man doesn’t always make mistakes. 4) Such a person is not to be entirely trusted. 5) None of my friends smoke. 6) Neither of them is right. 7) A wise man never makes such mistakes. 8) Such a person is not to be trusted at all. (2) 1) do we 2) does he 3) do you 4) don’t you 3. (1) 巧妇难为无米之炊。 (2) 这件事他颇费了点儿力气。
(3) 这种事情并非不常发生。 (4) 雷达的屏幕绝非不同于电视屏幕。 (5) 忘羊补牢，为时未晚。 (6) 谁都难免会出差错。 (7) 这一成功简单就是奇迹。 4. (1) 1) I don’t think t hat I know you. 2) I don’t find the story interesting. 3) I don’t expect so. 4) We thought he wouldn’t like it. 5) 看来他们不知道要去哪里。 6) 看样子我们明天不会有好天了。 7) 我印象中以前没见过这么个人。 8) 这地方没人料想到会有陌生人。 (2) 1) 主语不第一人称单数； 5)-6) 疑 问 句 2) 主句不是现在时； 3)-4) 谓语有其他并列的动词； 10)-11) 动 词 被 副 词 所 修 饰 7)-9) 表 示 认 为 意 义 的 词 语 出 现 在 插 入 语 位 置
12)-14) 从句中的否定词与强调意义的词语搭配。 语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 2. (1) 主语、定语、谓语、状语
15)-17) 从句的否定词不是 no A. 1. 主语、谓
(3) 主语、谓语、间接宾语、直接宾语、状语 (4) 状语、主语、谓语、形式宾语、宾语补足语、真正的宾语 (5) 主语、复合谓语(连系动词+表语) 3. 都是同位语。 B. 都只一个主谓结构。 C. 都是并列关系，不存在主次之分。 D. 1. 主语从句 7. 状语从句 2. 宾语从句 3. 介词宾语从句 4. 表语从句 5. 同位语从句 6. 定语从句 8. 宾语从句；从句中的定语从句
E. 1. 第 1 句是否定句，第 2、3 句不是。 2. (1) 1) All my friends don ’t smoke. 2) Both of them are not right. 3) A foolish man doesn’t always make mistakes. 4) Such a person is not to be entirely trusted. 5) None of my friends smoke. 6) Neither of them is right. 7) A wise man never makes such mistakes. 8) Such a person is not to be trusted at all. (2) 1) do we 2) does he 3) do you 4) don’t you
3. (1) 巧妇难为无米之炊。 (2) 这件事他颇费了点儿力气。 (3) 这种事情并非不常发生。 (4) 雷达的屏幕绝非不同于电视屏幕。 (5) 忘羊补牢，为时未晚。 (6) 谁都难免会出差错。 (7) 这一成功简单就是奇迹。 4. (1) 1) I don’t think that I know you. 2) I don’t find the story interesting. 3) I don’t expect so. 4) We thought he wouldn’t like it. 5) 看来他们不知道要去哪里。 6) 看样子我们明天不会有好天了。 7) 我印象中以前没见过这么个人。 8) 这地方没人料想到会有陌生人。 (2) 1) 主语不第一人称单数； 5)-6) 疑问句 饰 第三讲 主 语 A. 1. 句中作主语的名词包括事物、专有名词以及动作意义的名词等。 2. 指示代词：this，that，these，those 等；人称代词：I, we, you, he, she, it, they 等，以及其对应的 名词性的物主代词 mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs 等；疑问代词：what，who，which；不定代词： something, somebody, someone, anything, anybody, anyone, everything, everybody, everyone, nothing, nobody, no one, all, none, both, neither, either, each, another, the other(s), others, much, many, few, a few, little, a little, one 等。 3. (1) Two-thirds of the workers are women. (2) 10 years of hard work changed her a lot. (3) 2 hours doesn’t seem enough for his preparation. 4. (1) Living on that island 5. (1) To translate 6. (1) What has happened 7. (1) It is certain (2) Linda’s coming (2) To say; to act; (2) What little she said (3) It’s no use arguing (3) It; to achieve (3) Whatever was said (6) Whichever you take (4) It occurred to him that 2) 主句不是现在时； 3)-4) 谓语有其他并列的动词； 10)-11) 动词被副词所修 15)-17) 从句的否定词不是 not 7)-9) 表示认为意义的词语出现在插入语位置
(4) Whatever measures we take
(5) Whoever fails to see this (3) Isn’t it strange
(2) It doesn’t seem that
8. that 引导的主语从句，本身没有意义，在从句中不作任何成分。 9. (1) whether we will go or not (2) who will go on our behalf to send
10. （略） 11. (1)-(2)指代上文中所提及的事物； (3) 指语境中所提及的事物； 作； (6) 指语境中所提及的事物 12. (1) -谁在敲门？ -是我。 (2) -谁这么吵？ -一定是孩子们。 (3) 一定是男生们来了。 (4) 风吹着窗户。 13. (1) 指气候 (2) 指天气 (3) 指天色 (4) 指季节 (5) 指时间 14. (1) It’s about an hour ’s journey to the place by train. (2) How far is it from the Zoo to the Summer Palace? (3) It was very quiet at the moment. (4) It’s very lovely in the park today. (5) It will be a blow to her if the plan fails. 15. It was they that held a League meeting in the meeting room yesterday. It was a League meeting that they held in the meeting room yesterday. It was in the meeting room that they held a League meeting yesterday. It was yesterday that they held a League meeting in the meeting room. 16. (1) What a mistake it is to have rejected the plan! (2) What time will it be convenient for me to call again? (3) It’s foolish of you to be still worrying about it. (4) It is hard work keeping the grass green at this time of year. (5) Is it worthwhile making such an experiment? 17. (1) Must there be a definite article here? (2) There are lots of people in favor, aren’t there? (3) There happened to be nobody in the room. (4) There are likely to be more difficulties than expected. (5) Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 第四讲 谓 语 A. 1. People’s living standards are improving steadily. 2. Recently, he has been considering changing a job. 3. It is said that he will go abroad next month. 4. The children didn’t leave the school until the rain had stopped. 5. Only by making efforts can we make greater progress. 6. He happened to have read the novel. 7. He used to work on a farm.
8. He has to work long hours every day. 9. He proved / turned out to be an honest man. 10. Her voice does sound sweet. B. 1-5 BDDAD 6-10 CDDBD C. 1. He is a real hero. 2. He remains a news reporter. 3. 那是我们应当牢记的。 4. Already sixty! You don’t look it. 5. The surface of the table feels very smooth. 6. The meeting was over at eight o’clock. 7. 他是第一个知道这事的。 8. 时间很紧迫。咱们得赶快。 9. His dream is to become an actor. 10. He remains in hospital. 11. This is where his interest lies. 12. My suggestion is that you (should) stick to your original plan. D. 1. is 2. is 3. were; was; was 4. am 5. is; have 6. have; has 7. has; are 8. were; has E. 1-5 AACAB 第五讲 宾 语(一) A. 1.（1）He has made great progress in English. （2）It takes great patience to do the job well. 2.（3）He changed so much that I didn’t recognize him. （4）I gave him a dictionary. 3.（5）We need five. 4.（6）Recently he has been considering going abroad. （7）I am looking forward to hearing from you. 5.（8）I decided to accept you as my student. （9）He is now learning to play the violin. 6.（10）I have already got the work done. (11) I heard him singing next door. （12）There is no possibility of the film being tried out. 7.（13）I believe you will succeed some day. （14）He suggested we (should) not hold the meeting. 8.（15）She died a heroic death.
9. was; were
11. is; are
(16) They are living a simple life. （17）他勉强地笑了笑。 （18）He dreamt a sweet dream. B. 1-5 ACCBA 6-8 ACC 3. I am looking forward to the winter vacation. 4. I will return you the book tomorrow. I will return the book to you tomorrow. 5. Can you spare me a few minutes? Can you spare a few minutes for me? 6. He set up his own company. D. 1-5 ACBAC 6-10 DAADA 11-12 DC
第六讲 宾 语(二) A. 1. They made the girl director of the factory. 2. What made her so angry? 3. The government called on us to protect the environment. 4. He saw a thief enter the room. 5. He had her working many hours every day. 6. The boy was brought in with his hands tied back. 7. The noise outside made it impossible for me to go on with my work. 8. Would you mind the money being spent? 9. I find it hard to learn English well. 10. When he came to himself, he found himself in hospital. B. 略 C. 1-5 CCAAA 6-10 ACDBA D. 1. John said that he liked reading adventure stories. 2. The teacher told the students that the earth is round. 3. Peter asked Ann if she had seen his blue notebook. 4. He asked whether I was interested in English. 5. Mary asked Ann how she could do that. 6. Peter asked Jim what difference it made. 7. He asked me to go there the next day. 8. The teacher told us not to talk any more. E. 1-5 CCADB 第七讲 定语
A. 1. (1) 1) B (2) 1) D (4) 1) B important happens.
2) A 2) C 2) B 3) Please write down my phone number. You can call me in case anything
(3) 1) 约二百万工人去年冬天因为经济危机而失业。 2) A
(5) 1) 我正准备出演一部新电视剧， 所以我在服用一种名叫 Fat-Less 的减肥药片， 这种药片在这 里很受年轻女性的欢迎。 2) C (6) 1) have a house to live in (8) 1) B (9) 1) A 3) B 2) A 3) to be held tomorrow evening 2) A
(7) 1) of older Americans moving there 2) these so-called reforms 2) D
3) (that) I can give you
2. (1) 1)我知道我就要到营地了， 因为我听到了收音机的声音和食物发出的味道。 2) those of England (2) 1) 你希望有机会去中国西南部发现一个神秘又美丽的地方吗？ 2) a man of good temper (3) 1) the development of this new type of English (5) 1) D 2) both of them are doctors 2) C (4) 1) 工会已丧失了许多权利。即便如此，他们仍具有很大的政治影响力。 2) D 3. (1) 1) 侦探坐在靠窗的一张桌子旁监视着那个年轻人。2) the hotel opposite the station (2) 我们假期中的活动如下：…… (3) 那位手里抱着孩子的妇女 / 穿棕色夹克的男子 (4) Present at the meeting were experts from all over the world. 4. (1) 1) C (2) 1) C (3) 1) A B. 1-5 CDBBC 2) B 2) D 2) C 6-10 BCCDB
第八讲 状语（一） A. 1. (1) 1) B (2) 1) A (4) 1) B (6) 1) A (8) 1) D 2) C 2) A 2) A 2) A 2) That being the case 2) C 3) A 2) C 2) Having carefully observed the environment many years
3) C 3) D 2) C 3) B 3) Different from many other countries in the world 3) A
(3) 1) to have troubled you
(5) 1) eager to help us 2) tired and hungry
(7) 1) 因为是星期天，我们都去超市购物了。 4) C 2. (1) 1) doing nothing (2) 1) Asking around
(3) 1) Not knowing what to do 3. (1) 1) followed by his students (2) 1) Encouraged by her teachers (3) 1) A (4) 1) B 2) C
2) B 2) C 2) D
2) Once published, the dictionary will be quite popular.
(5) 尽管被对手队打败了，但他们并没有泄气。 4. (1) 1) 他谦虚随和，所以他跟同学相处得很好。 2) 因为急于提高英语水平，我们每天花大量时间进行说的练习。 (2) 1) 女主人满怀歉意朝我们走过来。 (3) 这种苹果熟了之后很甜。 B. 1-5 ABDAB 6-10 ACBBA 11-12 CD 2) free of charge
第九讲 状语（二） A. 1. (1) 1) 我在墨西哥还要待上两个月。 (2) 1) five months ahead of schedule / time 2) two days before the deadline 3) The air tickets will be much cheaper if you book them one month in advance. (3) 1) A 2. 1) D 2) B 2) B 2) 33 centimeters long / in length 2) C 3) D (4) 1) 日子一天天过去，所有事情似乎都是不同的，可又都是一成不变的。2) D 3. (1) 1) 婴儿有 9 磅重。2) We’ll have to walk a long way to the station. (2) 1) 今天气温是零下 5 度。 4. (1) 1) 他双手枕头仰面躺着。 (3) 1) B (4) 1) C 2) D 2) book in hand 2) to last (for) a week
(2) 1) 他进了屋，鼻子冻得通红。 2) C
(5) 放学了，学生都回家了。 5. (1) When all the guests were seated, they began their dinner. (2) Since there was no taxi at midnight, they had to walk all the way home. (3) If the weather permits, we’ll hold our yearly sports meet next week. 6. (1) 1) B (2) 1) C (3) 1) D (4) 1) D (5) B (6) 1) C 2)D
2) B 2) B 2) B 2) B
(7) 1) A (8) A
2) A 6-10 CBABD 11-12 DC
B. 1-5 CBABB 第十讲 语 序
A. 1. 自然语序（Natural Order） 2. 倒装语序（Inverted Order） B. 1. 全部倒装（Full Inversion） 2. 部分倒装（Partial Inversion） 3. (1) Here comes the bus. (2) Only in this way can we work out this problem successfully. C. 1. There have been many such uprisings in our history. 2. Now comes your turn. 3. Then followed eight years of the Anti-Japanese War. 4. Here are some presents for you. （以上四种情况中，句子的主语都必须是名词。 ） 5. John studies very hard. So does Tom. 6. The first one wasn’t good and neither was the second. 7. Had they not been working so hard, they wouldn’t have achieved so much. 8. Say what you will, I won’t change my mind. 9. May your country become prosperous and strong! 10. “They must be playing basketball on the playground now,” thought John. 11. Hardly had he got to the office when he began to work. 12. To the list may be added the following names. 13. At the end of the street is a new hospital built last month. 14. Standing inside were lots of strange creatures with white skin and large black eyes. 15. The door opened and in came a group of students in all sorts of fancy dresses. D. 1. (1) Will you please do me a favor? (2) Give it to him then! 2. (1) Who(m) are you talking about? (2) What fine work they are doing! (3) The points that you raised are very important. (4) That winter she got acquainted with a young man and this young man she was to work with in the coming ten years. E. 2. (1) There is something unusual in her voice. (2) This is the only reference book available here on the subject.
(3) When they heard the news, all the people present (= who were present) began to shout. (4) Sentences containing such clauses are called complex sentences. 3. (1) Mr. Brown had too small an income to support his family. (2) He bought a small round wooden table just now. F. 1. I made her acquaintance when I was working in Nantong. 2. The meeting is to be held in Room 402 tomorrow evening. 3. We shall start at 6:30 tomorrow morning. 4. He ran quickly to the station. 5. Here in China we won’t allow any form of discrimination against women. 6. We parted in 1998. Since then I haven’t seen him again. 7. In the first place, we are short of money. Secondly, this is not the most urgent thing to do. Besides, to do that would give rise to a series of difficulties. Therefore, I suggest not doing it for the time being. 8. Your suggestion, to be frank, will only get us into trouble. 9. She seldom makes spelling mistakes in her written work. 10. Several students, led by Professor Smith, entered the chemistry lab. 第十一讲 句型转换 A. 1. (1) She knew English very well. (2) She had a good knowledge of English. 2. (1) You are right to do so. (2) You are right in doing so. (3) It is right of you to do so. B. 1. The book reflects the Chinese society of his father ’s time. The book is a reflection of the Chinese society of his father ’s time. 2. He apologized for having broken his promise. He offered apologies for having broken his promise. 3. Your suggestions are very valuable to us. Your suggestions are of great value to us. 4. They purposely left the point out. They left out the point on purpose. 5. I have come to get the reference books. I have come for the reference books. C. 1. The word “news” is peculiar in that it is used only in the singular. One peculiarity about the word “news” is that it is used only in the singular. 2. She remained modest; no praise had any effect on her. She remained modest; no praise affected her in the least.
D. 1. It worried her a great deal that her daughter should stay up so late. Her daughter ’s staying up so late worried her a great deal. 2. The question now is how and when we should cross the river. The question now is how and when to cross the river. 3. They suggested that we should start at once. They suggested our starting at once. 4. He hadn’t expected that they should arrive so early. He hadn’t expected them to arrive so early. 5. I am thinking of what I should do next. I am thinking of what to do next. 6. She insisted that I should stay in bed. She insisted on my staying in bed. 7. What are the main measures that we should take? What are the main measures to be taken? 8. The students who study there are mostly from the countryside. The students studying there are mostly from the countryside. 9. As she had forgotten his telephone number, she didn’t know how to get in touch with him. Having forgotten his telephone number, she didn’t know how to get in touch with him. 10. She hurried so that she might be in time for the lecture. She hurried so as to be in time for the lecture. 11. As soon as he reached the office, he started to work at once. On / Upon reaching the office, he started to work at once. 12. If weather permits, we’ll have the meeting outdoors. Weather permitting, we’ll have the meeting outdoors. E. 1. We should not only try to catch up with those who are ahead of us, but also help those who are behind us. 2. You can go either by train or by plane. 3. The meeting is scheduled for the third of June, that is, three weeks from today. 4. Leaving the office, Mr. Smith made his way to the station to meet one of his friends. 5. He must have gone to town to be back so late. 6. Everyone was surprised at her sudden appearance. 7. Long after the light had gone out, he still couldn’t go to sleep. F. 1. to begin with, I’ll begin by…, first of all, now, etc. 2. by the way, could I just point out, etc. 3. besides, furthermore, another thing, etc. 4. however, in spite of that, nevertheless, etc.
5. that is to say, in other words, for example, etc. 6. first(ly), second(ly), in the third place, lastly, etc. 7. in a word, in short, to sum up, etc. 第十二讲 独立成分和标点符号
A. 3. (1) Oh --- what a magnificent building this is! (2) Come on, boys! (3) This, I think, is a very good way to improve our English. B. 2. (1) We’ll have to book our tickets in advance, I’m afraid. (2) This, I suppose, will give you some idea of our stand on the question. (3) When do you think they will be back? (4) To tell you the truth, I’m not so willing to go. (5) Judging from your accent, you must be from Shanghai. (6) This, in my opinion, is only one of the minor issues. (7) Most important of all, these activities can broaden our horizons. (8) Strangely, he hasn’t been here lately. (9) You are not quite fit for the job, if I may say so. C. 3. (1) Go back to your seats, class! (2) 1) This medicine, taken in time, can be very effective. 2) The old man has three sons, all of whom are doctors. 3) When we started, the sky was clear; but before we had gone two kilometers, it began to rain. 4) There are in English two articles: the definite article and the indefinite article. 5) How happy the girls nowadays are! — They can go anywhere and say anything. 6 ) Have you read “A Tale of Two Cities”? (3) 1) Here is today’s homework. 2) How many A’s have you got? 3) I’d like to have another try. 4) They paid a five-day visit to the city. D. Dear Health Expert: Please help me! I am a teenager. My classmates laugh at me a lot, I don’t do sport, and my favourite meal is a hamburger; chips and soft drinks. Is this really such a problem? I don’t enjoy exercise; it makes me tired. Also. I’m hungry all the time and love to eat fast food. What should I do! Do you think I should take some weight—loss pills? What about exercise and food? Please don’t tell me to stop eating: Best wishes. Hu Bo!
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