形容词是用来修饰名词的，常被放在名词前作定语，或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词 则用来修饰形容词、 动词、 其他副词或者句子， 一般位于形容词之前， 动词之后或句子之首。 以下属几种特殊情况，须牢记： (1)形容词短语作定语，定语后置。 a task
difficult to finish (2)表语形容词(afraid， alike， alone， asleep， awake， alive 等)作定语， 定语后置。 如 a man alive。有些表身体健康状况的形容词如 well，faint，ill 只作表语。sick 既可作表语又可作定 语，ill 如作定语意为“bad”。 (3)用作定语，修饰由不定代词 one，no，any，some 和 every 构成的复合词如 anything， something 等时，通常后置。 I have something important to tell you. (4)else 常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。 (5)enough 修饰名词前置或后置，修饰形容词、动词或副词时，必须后置。 (6)几个副词并列作状语时，其顺序较灵活，但一般是：方式→地点→时间。 We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday. (7)频度副词如 often，always，usually 等在 be 动词后，行为动词前。 (8)副词作定语，定语后置。 The person there is waiting for you. (9)几个并列的形容词作定语，其语序通常为：限定词(包括冠词、所有格、人称代词、 指示代词、数词等)＋观点词(品质、状态，即表示好、坏、美、丑等的词)＋形状或样式词＋ 大小、 长短或高低词＋年龄或新旧词＋颜色词＋产地或来源词＋材料或种类词＋用途词＋名 词。 a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella (10)以ly 结尾的词性辨析。 ①下列单词以ly 结尾， 但却是形容词而非副词： lively， lonely， lovely， deadly， friendly， ugly，silly，likely，brotherly，timely 等。 ②表原意(无ly)和引申意(有ly)的副词： ?deep深 ?
? ?deeply深入地 ?
? ?wide宽广 ? ?widely广泛地 ? ? ?high高 ? ? ?highly高度地 ?low位置低 ? ? ?lowly地位卑微 ?
③有无ly 意义大不相同的副词： ? ?dead完全，绝对 be dead asleep
? ?deadly非常 ?
be deadly tired
?pretty相当 be pretty certain that... ? ? ?prettily漂亮地 be prettily dressed ? ? ?close近 Don’t sit close. ? ?closely密切地 Watch closely！ ? ?late晚，迟 arrive late，come late ? ? ? ?lately最近 I haven’t seen him lately?recently?.
题组训练 1 选词填空 sharp，occasionally，thankfully，optional，particular，besides，transparent，permanent，steady， quite 1．It is one thing to enjoy listening to good music，but it is quite another to play it well yourself. 2．The old engineer’s eyes still shone bright in the wrinkled brown face and his step as he came across the room was steady，though slow. 3． An unhappy childhood may have some negative effects on a person’s character; however， they are not always permanent. 4．The staterun company is required to make its accounts as transparent as possible for its staff to monitor the use of money. 5．The house was too expensive and too big.Besides，I’d grown fond of our little rented house. 6．She has already tried her best.Please don’t be too particular about her job. 7．In that school，English is compulsory for all students，but French and Russian are optional. 8．Thankfully，I managed to get through the game and the pain was worth it in the end. 9．I’ve been writing this report occasionally for the last two weeks，but it has to be handed in tomorrow. 10． Nowadays， there is a sharp increase in children’s creativity， for they are greatly encouraged to develop their talents. 2．形容词和副词的比较等级 (1)原级的构成和用法。
构成：形容词、副词的原级即本身。 用法：表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时，用“as＋原级形容词/副词＋as” 的结构；表示双方不相等时，用“not so(as)＋原级形容词/副词＋as”的结构；表示一方是另 一方的若干倍时，用“倍数＋as＋原级形容词/副词＋as”的结构。 Xiao Wang is as tall as Xiao Yu. This building looks not so(as) high as that one. Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you. This room is three times as large as that one. (2)比较级和最高级的构成。 掌握比较级和最高级的变化规则，熟记少数不符合规则的特殊形容词和副词。 (3)比较级的用法。 ①表示一方超过另一方时，用“比较级＋than”的结构表示。 This picture is more beautiful than that one. ②表示一方不及另一方时，用“less＋原级＋than”的结构表示。 This room is less beautiful than that one. ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时，可在比较级前加表示程度的状语，如 even，a lot，a bit，a little，still，much，far，yet，by far 等修饰。 He works even harder than before. 注意：(A)英语的比较级前如无 even，still 或 yet 等时，译成汉语时可用“较”或“?? 一些”或不译出，一般不可用“更”。 She is better than she was yesterday. Please come earlier tomorrow. (B)by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时，一般放在比较级的后面，如在前面，应 在二者中间加“the”。 He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers. ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时，用“the＋比较级(主语＋谓语)，the＋比较级(主 语＋谓语)”的结构(意为“越??越??”)。 The harder he works，the happier he feels. ⑤不与其他事物相比，表示本身程度的改变时，用“比较级＋and＋比较级”的结构。 The weather is getting colder and colder. ⑥某些以ior 结尾的形容词进行比较时，用 to 代替 than。这些词有 inferior(劣等的，次 的)，superior(较好的，优于??)，junior(资历较浅的)，senior(资格较老的)，prior(在??之 前)等。
He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry. ⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复， 我们通常用 that(those)， one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。 that 指物，one 既可指人又可指物。that 可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词，而 one 只能代 替可数名词。 The book on the table is more interesting than that(或 the one) on the desk. A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. ⑧倍数表达法。 (A)A is three (four，etc.) times the size(height，length etc.)of B. The new building is four times the size (the height) of the old one. (B)A is three(four，etc.)times as big(high，long，etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe. (C)A is three (four，etc.)times bigger(higher，longer，etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上，两倍可以用 twice 或 double。 (4)最高级的用法。 ①三者或三者以上相比，表示最高程度时，用“the＋最高级”的结构表示。这种句式 一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。 Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three. He works (the) hardest in his class. ②最高级可被序数词以及 much， by far， nearly， almost， by no means， not quite， not really， nothing like 等词语所修饰。 This hat is by far/much/nearly/almost/not really/by no means/not quite/nothing like the biggest. ③表示“最高程度”的形容词，如 excellent，extreme，perfect 等，没有最高级，也不 能用比较级。 ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时，被修饰的词往往省略。 He is the tallest (boy) in his class. ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。 Of all the boys he came (the) earliest. ⑥否定词＋比较级＝最高级 He has never spent a more worrying day. (5)形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况。 ①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词，副词最高级前可不加冠词。 ②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词，或不加冠词，不表比较，表示“非常”。
He is a most clever young policeman.(a most＝very) The film is most interesting.(most＝very) ③表示两者间“较??的一个”，比较级前加 the。 Who is the older of the two boys? ④在“the＋比较级．..，the＋比较级．..”结构中。 The more，the better. (6)由 as 组成的形容词或副词短语。 ①as much as＋不可数名词 数量多达 Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons. She could earn as much as ten dollars a week. ②as many as＋可数名词 数量多达 I have as many as sixteen reference books. ③as early as 早在 As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island. ④as far as 远到；就??而知(论) We might go as far as(走到) the church and back. As far as I know(就我所知)，he has been there before. ⑤may(might，could) as well 不妨，不如 Then you might as well stay with us here. They are as unreliable as they can be. ⑥as...as one can 尽某人所能的?? He began to run，as fast as he could. ⑦as...as possible 尽可能??的 Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible. 题组训练 2 1．The longer you stay(你呆的时间越长)，the better it will be. 2．The new city is becoming more and more beautiful (变得越来越美丽了)． 3．China is larger than any other country in Asia (比亚洲任何其他国家都大)． 4．The taller of the two boys(这两个男孩中较高的那个) is my brother. 5．The road is five times as long as that one.(同义句改写) ①The road is five times the length of that one. ②The road is four times longer than that one. 3．几组重要的词语辨析 (1)very 和 much 的区别。
①可分等级的形容词和副词前使用 very 不用 much。 ②表示状态的过去分词前用 very。如 a very frightened boy，a very tired child，a very complicated problem。一般情况下，以ing，ed 结尾的分词多用 much，very much/greatly 等 修饰。 We were greatly shocked by the news about Tom. I was much amused by Jack’s attitude. ③已转化为形容词的现在分词前用 very。如：very interesting/worrying/exciting。 ④too 前用 much，a lot 或 far，不用 very。如：You are much/far/a lot too nice.另外，在 too many/much，too few/little 前用 far。 There’s far too little opportunity for adventure these days. We’ve got far too many eggs and far too few egg cups. ⑤关于原级形容词要记住下列固定的修饰结构： (a)修饰绝对意义的形容词，一般不用 very， 而用 quite， completely， well， entirely。 如： quite wrong(mistaken， sure)， completely dead， quite impossible， quite perfect 等。 (b)修饰以 a开头的形容词， 多有特殊的修饰词： quite alone， very much alone，wide awake，fast asleep，very much afraid。(c)修饰一些特殊形容词的修饰 语有：be well worth，much the same，freezing cold，quite different，terribly cold/frightening。 (2)so...that...与 such...that...的区别。 so＋形容词/副词＋that... ? ?so＋形容词＋a?n?＋可数名词单数＋that... ?so＋many/few＋复数名词＋that... ? ?so＋much/little?少?＋不可数名词＋that... such＋a?n?＋形容词＋可数名词单数＋that... ? ? ?such＋形容词＋不可数名词＋that... ? ?such＋形容词＋复数名词＋that... 注意：下列结构中只能用 so 不可用 such，当名词前有 many，much，little，few 等表示 “多、少”的词修饰时，如 so much progress，so many people，so little food，so few apples 等。但当 little 表示“小”时用 such。如：These are such little boys that they can’t dress themselves.下列 so 的用法是错误的：so a difficult problem，so difficult problems，so hot weather。 (3)其他几组词的辨析。 ①ago，before：ago 表示以现在为起点的“以前”；before 指以过去或将来的某时刻为 起点的“以前”。泛指“以前”用 before 而不用 ago。 ②already，yet，still：already 表示某事已经发生；yet 表示期待某事发生；still 表示某 事还在进行，主要用于肯定句。 ③too，also，either：too 和 also 用于肯定句，too 多用于口语，also 多用于书面语，either
用于否定句。 ④good，well：与 good 不同的是，well 作形容词，只能在系动词后作表语，表示“身 体状况好”，也作副词修饰动词。 ⑤quick，fast：作形容词皆表示“快”。fast 多指运动的物体，含持续的意思。quick 多 指一次动作的敏捷、突然，而且持续的时间较短。 ⑥real，true：作形容词皆表示“真的”。real 强调真实存在的而不是幻想的，在句中常 作定语；true 指与事实标准和实际情况相符合，在句中作表语或定语。 ⑦hard，difficult：均表示“困难”，但 hard 通常指体力上困难；difficult 则指智力或技 能上的困难，困难程度大于 hard。它们都可作定语和表语。 ◆语法与写作 根据提示翻译下面的句子 1．同时，我将会把帮助我们的环境干净、有益健康作为我的职责。(meanwhile) (2013· 安徽· 书面表达) Meanwhile，I will regard it as my duty to help keep our environment clean and healthy. 2．不是空喊口号，给有需要的孩子们捐献书籍和体育用品更有意义。(使用比较级) (2013· 江苏· 书面表达) Instead of shouting empty slogans， it is more meaningful to donate books and sports goods to children in need. 3．那个晚上的月亮在整个农历月份中看上去最亮。(使用最高级)(2013· 辽宁· 书面表达) The moon that night looks the brightest in the whole lunar month. 4．首先，我把散落在房间里的书籍、报纸和其他东西整理好，放到合适的地方。(firstly) (2013· 陕西· 书面表达) Firstly I collected all the books，newspapers and other things scattered in the rooms and put them in place. 5．而且，根据学习进程时间表应该不时地更新。(besides)(2013· 四川· 书面表达) Besides，the timetable should be updated according to the progress of our study from time to time. ◆语法填空 A Rainforests are the lungs of the planet storing vast quantities of carbon dioxide and producing a significant amount of the world oxygen.Rainforests have their own perfect system for 1.guaranteeing(guarantee) their own survival.The tall trees make a cover of branches and leaves 2.that/which protect themselves，smaller plants and forest animals from heavy rain，dry heat and strong winds.3.Amazingly(amaze)，the trees grow in such a way that 4.their leaves and branches
are all close together；never actually touch those of another tree.Scientists think this is 5.a deliberate method to prevent the spread of any tree diseases 6.and make life more difficult for leafeating insects.To survive in the forest，animals must climb from tree to tree.The ground floor of the forest is not all covered 7.with leaves and bushes，but is 8.where leaves turning to food for the trees and other forest life.They are not called rainforests for nothing.Rainforests can produce 75 percent of their own rain，at least 80 inches of rain a year is normal.And in some areas，there may be as much as 430 inches of rain 9.annually(annual)．This is real rain.In just two hours，the 10.depth(deep) can rise 10 to 20 feet. B Hi，everyone！Welcome to the Friendship Club of our school！You will meet many new people here 1.and make friends with each other.We have some 2.advice(advise) for you.It will help you a lot. First ， be friendly and polite 3.to everybody in the club.This will make people 4.comfortable(comfort) when they talk to you.Rude people are not welcome here and we usually ask them to leave. Second，be honest and truthful.We hope that 5.our members can trust each other and will not be hurt by each other.6.If we find you are telling lies to other club members，we will ask you to leave the club. Third，be 7.a good listener and keep your friends’secrets.This will make your friends trust you and it will also help you know more about your friends.If you share your friends’secrets 8.with anyone else，you will hurt their feelings. The last，be generous and helpful to your friends.9.Sharing(share) thoughts，ideas and opinions will help you know more about each other and become friends. Please remember our advice 10.when you come to the club.I hope to see you here soon!