宾语从句（The Object Clause）
一 不同词类作宾语 二．非谓语类作宾语 三．从句类作宾语 四．两种特殊带宾语的结构
五 it 用作形式宾语（基本用法）
六．双宾语 七．同源宾语（Cognate Object）
作、行为的对象，是动作的承受者。宾语由名词、代词、不定式或相当于名词的词、短语来担任。当然,也可 以由一个句子来充当,称之为宾语从句；英语的及物动词后必须有宾语；除及物动词有宾语之外，英语介词后面也要有宾语； 某些形容词如 worth,careful 等后也可有宾语；宾语有直接宾语和间接宾语之分。即指人的间接宾语和指物的直接宾语，这两 个宾语统称为"双宾语"。
一 不同词类作宾语 1. 名词作宾语 She is playing the piano now. 2. 代词作宾语 We all like him. She doesn't know me. 3. 数词作宾语 Give me four. 4. the+形容词/v-ed/v-ing 结构作宾语。 1) The young should respect the old . 2) They went to help the dying and the wounded. 3) They are searching for the lost . 二． 非谓语类作宾语 1．不定式作宾语 We all like to go to school. 注意: I don’t know what to do next. 2．动名词作宾语 The boss hates workers’ complaining. 三． 从句类作宾语 I think he is right. Do you understand what I mean? I asked whether there are any chemist's shops in this street. Give him whatever he needs. We can rely on whomever we can trust. She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 四． 两种特殊带宾语的结构 1．一些形容词可有宾语 常用的情感形容词有：sure, afraid ,glad ,pleased ,happy ,worried ,sad ,sorry The book is worth reading. 2．介宾结构 Are they listening to the professor? Are they satisfied with us? He passed the exam by cheating. 五．it 用作形式宾语（基本用法） I think it no need talking about it with them. He makes it a rule never to borrow money. Did you make it clear why she didn't come? I think it very strange that he goes out walking almost every night. She won’t like it if you arrive late. 六． 双宾语 有些及物动词可接两个宾语（双宾语） ，即指人的间接宾语和指物的直接宾语。
1. 常用句型为 主语＋及物动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语。 Give me a cup of tea, please. You don’t need to show him how to do it. He has told me where they lives. 2. 下面几种情况，通常要用介词 to 或 for 引起的短语： 1). 当直接宾语是人称代词（it／them）时。如： The watch is Li Lei's. Please give it to him.。 2). 当强调间接宾语时。如： Mother cooks breakfast for us every day. 3). 当间接宾语比直接宾语长时。如： On the bus, he often gives his seat to an old person. 4) 由 to 连接间接宾语的动词有：give, lend, bring, show, tell, write, send, hand, teach, offer, sell, promise, pass ,take 等. 5) 由 for 连接间接宾语的动词有： buy, make, leave, do, choose, order, sing, win, cook, get 等 注意： I will ask him a question. I will ask a question of him. 七． 同源宾语（Cognate Object） 少数不及物动词能带一个在词根上与动词相同或相近意义的宾语，即同源宾语 1. 能带同源宾语的动词有：lead, live, die, sleep, dream, breathe, smile, laugh, fight, run, sing 等。 Under the leadership of the Party, the peasants are living a happy life. I dreamed a terrible dream last night. Our soldiers fought a wonderful fight against the floods last August. He died a heroic death. 2. 同源宾语前面可带形容词作定语。这时， “动词+定语+同源宾语”的结构在意义上相当于“动词+与定 语意义相同的状语” 。二者相比，前者语气更强一些。 We slept a comfortable sleep last night. (= We slept comfortably last night.) Professor Smith died a sudden death last Wednesday. （= Professor Smith died suddenly last Wednesday.） 注意：同源宾语前面通常带有定语。 fight a good fight breathe a deep breath laugh a foolish laugh smile a forced smile 3. 同源宾语的修饰语是形容词最高级或含有最高级意义时，该同源宾语常可以省去。 You should run your fastest（race）. The old man breathed his last（breath）this morning.
I don't know the phone number. I don't know what’ his phone number is. I don't know if this is his phone number. 在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句.
一．宾语从句的分类:. 1 作动词的宾语 : I heard that he would come here later on. 2 作介词的宾语 : He said nothing about who broke the window last night. 3 作形容词的宾语： I am sure I will pass the exam. 二.宾语从句中引导词（连接词） 的用法 分三类： 从属连词 that(陈述句),if,whether（是否） ， 连接代词 who, whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever , whatever, whichever 等.连接代词一般指疑问, 但 what, whatever 除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述. 连接副词 when,where,why,how,whenever,wherever,however 等.
找出并翻译下列句中的宾语从句 1 He told me that he would go to the college the next year 2 I don’t know if there will be a bus any more. 3 Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam. 4 Do you know who has won Red Alert game? 5 The book will show you what the best CEOs should know. 6 He didn’t tell me when we should meet again. 7 Could you please tell me how you use the new panel（新的操作盘）? 8 None of us knows where these new parts can be bought. （一） that 引导的宾语从句（在非正式场合 that 可以省略） 1 只起连接作用，无词意，通常第一个 that 可省。 可跟 that 从句做宾语的动词有： say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report 等。 The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets. 2 在以下情况中 that 不能省略 1）、当句中的动词后接多于两个由 that 引导的宾语从句时，第一个 that 可省，但后面的 that 不可省。 I believe （ that ） you have done your best and that things will get better ． 2）当主句的谓语动词与 that 宾语从句之间有插入语时，that 一般不可省。 Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap. 当 that 从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时，that 不可省。I can’t tell him that his mother died. 4 ）当 it 作形式宾语时 例句： She made it clear that she had nothing to do with him ． 5 ）当宾语从句前置时 That our team will win ， I believe ． 6 ）. that 从句单独回答问题时。如： —What did he hear? 他听说了什么事？ —That Kate had passed the exam. (他听说)凯特考试及格了。 3 宾语从句的否定转移 当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词，而宾语从句的意思是否定时，常把否定转移至 主句表示。 I don’t think it is right for him to treat you like that. 注意： 1) 主句的谓语动词是 think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,expect,fancy,guess 等 , 并且主句的主 语是第一人称而且为一般现在时 , 从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来 , 其反义疑问句一般与宾语从 句一致 . I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he? I expect our English teacher will be back this weekend, won't she/he? We suppose you have finished the project, haven't you? 如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词 ( 不包含带有否定前缀的词， 如： unhappy， unfair ， dislike 等 ), 其反义疑问句要用肯定形式 . We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully, does he? 2) 当主句的主语是第二、三人称时，其反义疑问句一般与主句保持一致。 Your sister supposes she needs no help, doesn't she? You thought they could have completed the project, didn't you? They don't believe she's an engineer, do they? She doesn't expect that we are coming so soon, does she? 3 ）在 think,believe,suppose,guess 等及物动词及 I ’ m afraid 等表达的后面，可用 so, 或 not 代替一个 宾语从句， so 代替肯定句， not 代替否定句，该宾语从句通常是上文提到的一件事。 — Are we late? ---I ’ m afraid so. ----Do you think he will come? ----No,I think not./I don ’t think so. 注 : I don ’t think /believe/suppose/expect so. 这种结构不能用于动词 guess 和 hope,guess 和 hope 只 能用 I hope/guess not. 练习题 (1)．I don’t think he is right,__________? A．isn’t he B．is he C．do I D．don’t I (2). He believes she is right, __________? A．doesn’t he B．does he C．is she D．isn’t she (3).I thought that he disliked playing football,__________?
A．didn’t he B．did he C．did I D．didn’t I (4). I find _____ important that we practice English every day. A. it B. this C. that D. what (5). You can’t imagine ____when they received the nice gift. A. how they were excited B. how excited they were C. how excited were they D. they were how excited （二）由 whether,if 引导的宾语从句 whether 和 if 通用，都表示“是否”的意思。一般来说，后者比较正式，在口语中前者常用来代替后者。但 两者有时具有不同的暗示。用 whether 时，正反两面的选择意义较强，问话人并不在意回答是肯定还是否 定；而用 if 时，则比较强调单方面，即正面，问话人希望得到肯定的回答。另外，还要注意从以下六个方 面的高频考点： 一、 whether 和 if 都可以与 or not 连用； 但 whether 和 or not 写在一起时， 或在动词短语后， 只能用 whether， 不能用 if。如： ● I don't care whether (或 if) it will rain or not． ● I don't care whether or not it will rain. (不用 if) ● I don't care about whether or not it will rain. (不用 if) 二、在引导宾语从句时，应注意： 1、表示“是否”时，两词都能引导宾语从句。 ①I don't know whether/if I will be able to come.我不知道我是否能来. ②She asked me whether/if I was interested in working for her.她问我是否有兴趣为她工作。 ③We'll be told tomorrow whether we should take the exam or not.我们明天才知道是不是应该参加考试. ④I asked him whether he had done all the work himself or whether he had had any assistance. 我问他这些工作 都是他自己做的还是别人帮他做的. ⑤I wonder if/whether you can examine him now． ( 注意: 在两个供选择的从句之间若用 or 字, 则须重复 whether 一字. ) 注: ⑴当强调宾语从句并将其提前时只能用 whether。 如:Whether I'll have time to go with you I am not sure.我很难说我们是否有时间跟你们一起去。 2、宾语从句移置句首时，用 whether，不用 if。 Whether it is true or not， I can't say． =I can't say whether/if it is true or not 3、宾语从句为否定形式时，通常用 if，而不用 whether。 I asked Tom if Mary wouldn’t come． 4、动词 discuss，decide, consider 等后习惯上也常用 Whether 引导从句，不用 if。考试注意改错题 They discussed whether they should leave at once.他们讨论了是否应该马上离开。 We discussed whether the house should be sold. 我们讨论了这房子是否应卖掉。? We discussed whether we should buy the gift for him． 下面的内容与上文列项不一致，要重新定序号。都可以称为：whether 和 if 的区别 三、在下列情况下，只能用 whether，不能用 if。 1、与不定式连用时，只能用 whether． He can't decide whether to accept or refuse． 2、在介词后，只能用 whether。 Everything depends on whether he is ready． I don't care about whether or not it will rain. 3、在名词后作同位语时，只能用 whether。 The question whether they ought to stop working was discussed among the workers． I have no idea whether he is there． 4、引导主语从句时，只能用 whether。 Whether he comes or not doesn't concern me． 5、引导表语从句时，只能用 whether。 What Maria doesn't know is whether there will be enough snow． 6、当 whether 和 or not 连用时，只用 whether 不用 if。如: I don’t know whether or not he will come.我不知道他是不是回来。 I'll be happy whether/if I get the job or not 我能不能得到那份工作都一样高兴。注意：当 or not 放在 whether
引导的从句句尾，则可以用 if 来替换。 7、 当 whether 和 or 连用表示明确的选择时，只用 whether 不用 if。 He asked me whether I wanted to go there by train or by bus.他问我是想乘火车还是坐公共汽车去那里。 He hesitated about whether he should drive or take the train.他开车去还是坐火车去, 犹豫不决 注:whether 和 or 连用还可以引导让步状语从句,此时也不用 if。 如： We'll go on with the work, whether we can find the necessary tools or not. 不管我们能否找到所需的工具,我们要把这件工作做下去。 Whether or not it rains / Whether it rains or not, we're playing football on Saturday.无论下不下雨, 我们星期六 一定踢足球. 8、在动词不定式之前，只能用 whether，不能用 if。 ①The question is whether to go to Munich or Vienna.问题是去慕尼黑还是去维也纳. ②She doesn't know whether to get married now or wait.是否现在结婚或是等待她不知道。 ③We were wondering whether to go today or tomorrow.我们弄不清是今天走还是明天走. ④I'm not sure whether to resign or stay on.我拿不准主意是辞职还是留任. 四、if 可引导条件状语从句，译作“如果”，whether 可引导让步状语从句，译作“不管、无论”。 If I were you，I would not buy． Whether he agrees or not，I shall go there． We'll go on with the work, whether we can find the necessary tools or not.不管我们能否找到所需的工具,我们 要把这件工作做下去。 Whether or not it rains / Whether it rains or not, we're playing football on Saturday.无论下不下雨, 我们星期六 一定踢足球. 五、whether 和 if 均可用来引导主语从句，但 if 引导的从句不能位于句首。 Whether they win or lose is all the same to me. 他们是赢是输於我都一样.（此时 whether 不能换作 if ） It's doubtful whether there'll be any seats left.说不上还有没有空座位了. (此句 whether 能换作 if) 六、表语从句、同位语从句用 whether 引导不用 if. The doubt was whether you had broken the beautiful vase.疑问是你是否打坏了这只漂亮的花瓶。 The question whether we'll build another lecture building hasn't been settled.是否要另建一幢教学楼的问题还未 决定。 七、强化练习： 1. The question has not been answered ____ Taiwan will be included on the Olympic torch relay route. A．that B．whether C．which D．if 2. You have not yet answered my question _____ I can join in the party tonight or not. A. whether B. if C. that D. which 3．---What are you anxious about? ---___________ A. If we succeed B.That we can succeed C. Do we succeed D.Whether we can succeed 4. Only when _____ the painting _____ decide ______the painting is worth buying. 难 A. he sees, he can ,whether B. does he see, can he, if C. he sees, can he ,whether D. sees he, he can,that 5. _____ English is his favourite subject A. I asked him if B. I asked him that whether C. I asked him that D. I asked him which 6 _____ they’ll go to the Summer Palace ____ the weather. A. If; depends on B. Whether; depends upon C. Whether; depended on D. If; depended upon 7.It isn’t quite _____ ______ he will be present at the meeting. A. sure; whether B. sure; if C. certain; whether D. certain; that 8. _____ the meeting will be held in Beijing is not known yet. A. Whether B. If C. Whenever D. That 9. No one was sure _____ he would be asked to speak next year. A. when B. whether C. what D. how 10. It is still a question to us all _____ there is any living thing in some other places in the space. A. whether B. which C. what D. where 11. I doubt _____ he will come here on time.
A. that B. whether C. when D. where 12 The point is not who said the words, _____ they are true or not.? A. but whether B. and whether? C. but how D. and how? ? 13. “What did he ask you?” “_____ I would be late.”? A. That B. When C. Where D. Whether? 14. He treated all the people around him,______he knew or he didn't know,______. A. if, friendly B. whether, friendly? C. if, in a friendly way D. whether, in a friendly way 15. At the meeting, we discussed _____ we should employ more workers.? A. if B. whether? C. that D.不填? ? （三）连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句 这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的，宾语从句要用陈述句语序。用于这种结构的动词 常常是：see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise 等。 ②连接代词：who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。 连接代词一般指疑问 , 但 what, whatever 除了指疑问外 , 也可以指陈述 . Do you know who has won Red Alert game? 你知道是谁赢得了红色警报的游戏么？ The book will show you what the best CEOs should know. 这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解什么 . Have you determined whether you should buy,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone? 你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗 ? ③连接副词有：when,where,why,how，在句中担任状语的成分。 He didn’t tell me when we should meet again. 他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面 . Could you please tell me how you use the new panel? 你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗 ? None of us knows where these new parts can be bought. 没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到 .
练习题 引导词的运用 （1） I don’t know ___________or not． A． whether he is at home B． if he is at home C． that he is at home D． whether is he at home （2） This depends on _________ the weather is fine． A． which B． whether C． if D． that （3） The teacher asked the new student ________ class he was in． A． which B． where C． if D． that （4） I don’t know ________ Mr． Green will come to see us． He’ll help us with our English． A． why B． when C． how D． where （5） －－Be careful！ Don’t break the bottles． Do you hear ______ I said? David? －－ Yes， Mum A． what B． that C． why D． if （6） －－－ Do you know _______ Mr Black’s address is? －－－ He may live at NO．18 or No． 19 of Bridge Street． I’m not sure of ______． A． where， which B． where， what C． what， which D． what， where （7） There is not much difference between the two． I really don’t know _____． A． what should I choose B． which I should choose C． which should I choose D． what I should choose 三.宾语从句的语序 宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即：连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。 I don’t know what they are looking for. Could you tell me when the train will leave?
例 1 No one can be sure ______ in a million years. A. what man will look like B. what will man look like C. man will look like what D. what look will man like 例 2 The boss went up to ask _____. A. what the matter was B. what’s the matter C. what was the matter 练习题 (1) Did you find out ______? A. she was looking for whose child B. whose child was she looking for C. whose child she is looking for D. whose child she was looking for (2) Are you interested in _____? A. how did he do it B. he did it how C. how he did it D. he how did it (3) I don’t know _____. Can you tell me? A. how the two players are old B. how old are the two players C. the two players are how old D. how old the two players are (4) --- What did the scientist say? --- He said he wondered if _____ into space by spaceship one day. A. he had to fly B. he could fly C. can he fly D. could he fly (5) Excuse me, sir. Could you tell me ____? A. Where the bank nearest B. where is the nearest bank C. where the nearest bank is D. the nearest bank is where （6）She asked Tom ________ with his car? A. what the matter was B. what the matter is C. what was the matter D. what is the matter 四.宾语从句的时态 时态： 1、 主句是一般现在时，从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。 例句：The headmaster hopes everything goes well. 2、 主句是过去时态，从句须用过去时态的某种形式。 例句：She was sorry that she hadn’t finished her work on time. 3、 当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时，即使主句是过去时，从句也用一般现在时态。 例句：The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound. 例 1 The manager entered the office and was happy to learn four fifths of the tickets ________. A. was booked B. had been booked C. were booked D. have been booked 例 2 We were all surprised when he made it clear that he _____ office soon. A. leaves B. would leave C. had left D. had been away 例 3 —Do you work in the lab every afternoon? —No, but sometimes I wish I _________. A. have time B. had time to do C. have time to D. had time to 练习题 (1) It’s 7:30. I can’t believe you___ cooking dinner yet, Sally. A. haven’t started B. didn’t C. don’t start D. hadn’t started (2) The teacher told us yesterday that December 25 ____ Christmas Day. A. is B. was C. has been D. will be (3) The teacher said that the earth _______round the sun. A. goes B. go C. went D. will go (4) We ’d like to tell you that you ______the exam. A. have passed B. had passed C. pass D. will pass (5) “Could you tell me______?” “Yes. They ____ to the library.” A. where are the twins, have been B. where were the twins, have been C. where the twins are, have gone D, where the twins were, have gone (6) Our father said that he ______ a new computer next week. A. will buy B. have bought C. would buy D. buys (7) I hear that he ______ to Beijing yesterday. A. goes B. will go C. went D. have gone
D. what the matter is
五 宾语从句中的语气 虚拟语气的用法 虚拟语气是一种动词形式，表示说话人的一种愿望，假设，怀疑，猜测，建议等含义，虚拟语气所表示的 含义不是客观存在的事实。 1.Wish(表现在--->过去时；表过去--->过去完成时；表将来--->would+do ) I wish I were a bird and could fly freely . I wish I had met that film star yesterday. How I wish it wouldn’t rain tomorrow . 2.在表示含有“愿望、建议、命令”等词的各种从句中，从句的谓语动词用（should +do ） 一坚持二命令三建议四要求 i-和-s 双重性 Insist , order, command, advise, suggest , propose, demand, desire, request, require insist/suggest Eg: The teacher suggested that he (should) read English aloud. He required that we (should) work all right. It was suggested that the meeting (should) be put off next week. The suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off till next week surprised us a lot. The suggestion is that the meeting (should)………. 注：suggest 表“暗示”，表明之意时，insist 表示“坚持认为，硬要说”之意时，不用虚拟。 The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work. The man insisted that he had never stolen the money. He insisted that he was a Party member and be sent to the front. 练习 1. The teacher demanded that the exam _____ before eleven. A. must finish B. would be finished C. be finished D. must be finished 2. She made the demand that the journalists _____ at once ______ Iraq. A. leave; for B. leave; to C. left; to D. to be left; for 3The young man insisted that he _____ nothing wrong and _____ free. A. did; set B. had done; should be set C. should do; be set D. had done; must be set 4 I suggested there ____ be a kind of language all could understand and use ____ . A. can; it B. /; / C. would; it D. may; / 5 The suggestion has been made _____ the basketball game _____ put off. A. for; to B. that; be C. which; should be D. to; being 6. The order came that the medical supplies _____ to Beijing for the Sars soon. A. would be sent B. should send C. be sent D. must be sent 7----I have gone through a hard time in the last few years. ----Really? I wish you ______me about it earlier. After all, we are friends. A. had told B. told C. would told D. tell 8. —Do you work in the lab every afternoon? —No, but sometimes I wish I _________. A. have time B. had time to do C. have time to D. had time to 六、 宾语从句的特殊式 1. 复合连接代词在宾语从句中的使用。如： Sarah hopes to become a friend of whoever shares her interest. （whoever= anyone who / any person who） These wild flowers are so special I would do whatever I can to save them.（whatever= anything that） It is generally considered unwise to give a child whatever he or she wants. whatever 在此处是泛指，不可被 what 替代。而“I can’t remember at the moment who has said the words.”中的 who 表特定的某人，不可以改成 whoever。 2. it 作形式宾语，从句作真正宾语。 （1） 动词 + it + important / necessary / natural / etc. + thatclause。that clause 中谓语动词前可加 should，亦 可省略。如： I think it important that you （should） attend the conference. （2） 动词+ it + as + 名词 / 形容词 + clause。如： The lecturer takes it as encouraging when so many students attend his lecture. （3） 动词+ it + 介词 + thatclause。 常见的有： owe it to sb. + thatclause （把……归功于某人） ， leave it to sb. + thatclause （把……留给某人去做） ， take it for granted + thatclause （想当然） ， keep it in mind + thatclause （记住……） 。如： I just took it for granted that he’d always be around.
You may depend on it that he will turn up in time. 你可以相信他会及时赶到的。 You may depend on it that we shall always help you.（尽管放心，我们会随时帮你的。 ） I’ll see to it that all these letters will be sent to the post before twelve.我将注意... Would you see to it that she gets home early?（你负责保证她早到家，好吗？） He insisted on it that he was innocent.（他坚持说自己是无辜的。 ） I leave it to your own judgement whether you should do it.（我让你自己判断这事是否该做。 ） We owe it to you that there wasn’t a serious accident.（多亏了你才没有发生严重事故。 ） (4) 某些表示“喜怒哀乐”的动词，如 like, enjoy, love, hate, dislike, prefer, appreciate 等，往往不能直接接 宾语从句；或者当它们后接 if 从句或 when 从句，通常应先在动词后接 it 作形式宾语。 I don’t like it that he’s so lazy.（我不喜欢他那么懒惰。 ） I don’t like it when shop assistants follow me around. 我不喜欢店员跟在我后面. I hate it if you say such things in public. 我讨厌你在大庭广众之下说那样的事。 He hates it when people talk with their mouths full.他讨厌别人边说话边吃东西。 I’d prefer it if I didn’t have to do so much work. 要是我不必做那么多工作那就太好了。 I would appreciate it very much if you would help me with it. 感激。 (5. )用于 have it that(说，认为)，take it that(认为)等个别固定表达中。如： I take it (that) you agree. 我以为你同意了。 Report has it that about 30 people were killed in the accident.据报道... 注意：若宾语从句是 wh-类,则不可用 it 代替 We all consider what you said to be unbelievable.我们都认为你所说的是不可信的. We discovered what we had learned to be valuable.我们发现 上面有些东西难度大，考试不考，可以征询其他老师意见，删除几个。 练习 1 The poor young man is ready to accept ________ help he can get. A. whichever B. however C. whatever D. whenever 2 _____ has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising. A. Who B. The one C. Anyone D. Whoever 3 I’d appreciate _______ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. A. that B. it C. this D. you 4 —I don’t think you could have been used to the quick pace of life while studying in the USA______ you? —______. I thought of returning to our country at one time. A. had; Yes B. do; Yes C. have; No D. were; No 5 With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased _______ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 6． I find _____ important that we practice English every day． A． it B． this C． that D． what 7． You can’t imagine ____when they received the nice gift． A． how they were excited B． how excited they were C． how excited were they D． they were how excited 简化宾语从句的方法 方法一：当主句谓语动词是 hope， decide， wish， choose， agree， promise 等，且宾语从句的主 语与主句主语一致时，宾语从句可简化为不定式结构。例如： Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon. →Li Ming hopes to be back very soon. We decided that we would help him. →We decided to help him. 方法二：当主句谓语动词是 know， learn， remember， forget， tell 等动词，且主句主语与从句主 语一致时，宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如： She has forgotten how she can open the window. →She has forgotten how to open the window. 注：当主句谓语动词是 tell， ask， show， teach 等动词，且后带双宾语，从句主语和间接宾语一致 时，宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如： Could you tell me how I can get to the station？ →Could you tell me how to get to the station？ 方法三：当主句的谓语动词是 order（命令），require（需要）等时，如果主句和从句的主语不一致， 宾语从句可简化为“名词（代词）+不定式”结构。例如： The headmaster ordered that we should start at once. → The headmaster ordered us to start at once. 方法四：某些动词后的宾语从句，可以用介词加动名词（短语）等其他形式简化。例如： He insisted that he should go with us. →He insisted on going with us. The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born. →The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth.
方法五：某些动词后面的宾语从句可转化为“宾语+V-ing 形式（作宾语补足语）”结构。例如： Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground. → Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground. 方法六：动词 seem 后的宾语从句，也可以用不定式（短语）来简化，但句型需要进行适当的变化。 例如： It seemed that the boys were going to win. →The boys seemed to win. 除上述方法外，还有一些特殊句式的转化，如： I found that it was difficult to learn English well. →I found it difficult to learn English well. Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow. →Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow. They found that the box was very heavy. →They found the box very heavy. 例 1 I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ________ in my new job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects 例 2 It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ________. A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 例 3 The mother didn’t know_____ to blame for the broken glasses as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. what 将下面的复合句变为简单句。 1. I hope that I will hear from you soon. I hope ______ ______ from you soon. 2. I wonder how I can go there. I wonder ______ ______go there. 3. When and where they should build a new power station is a difficult problem for them. When and where ______ ______ a new power station is a difficult problem for them. 4.I think that it is dangerous to play with fire. I think ______ ______ to play with fire. 5. I saw that he was playing computer games. I saw ______ ______ computer games. 6.She heard that the boy cried all night. She heard the boy ______ all night. 7. It seemed that he would catch up with others. He seemed ______ ______ up with others. 8.The headmaster ordered that we should start at once. The headmaster ordered at once.
9.Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow. Soon we found the ground 10。He insisted that he should go with us. He insisted (1.to hear 2. how to with us. 3. to build 4. it dangerous 5. him playing 6. cry 7.to catch 8.us to start 9.covered with 10.on going) thick snow.
练习 一 典型错句 1. He doesn’t know that when she can return him his book. 2. He doesn’t like that I’ve brought him. 3. It’s a question of if we should help her. 4. Could you tell me where is she? 5. I think you are going to the park, don’t you?． 6. Could you tell you me which place she lives?．
7. He asked me when the train will arrive. 8. I don’t know that I said. 二 高考中的宾语从句 1. A computer can only do _____ you have instructed it to do. A. how B. after C. what D. when 2. He spoke proudly of his part in the game, without mentioning _____ his teammates had done. A. what B. which C. why D. while 3. —Do you remember ________ he came? —Yes, I do, he came by car. A. how B. when C. that D. if 4. —What did your parents think about your decision? —They always let me do __________ I think I should. A. when B. that C. how D. what 6. When asked_____ they needed most, the kids said they wanted to feel important and loved. A. what B. why C. whom D. which 7. The companies are working together to create _____ they hope will be the best means of transport in the 21st century. A. which B. that C. what D. who 8. The little girl who got lost decided to remain _______she was and wait for her mother. A. where B. what C. how D. who 9. Many young people in the West are expected to leave___________could be life’s most important decision-marriage-almost entirely up to luck. A. as B. that C. which D. what 10. I was surprised by her words, which made me recognize ____ silly mistakes I had made. A. what B. that C. how D. which 11. When you answer questions in a job interview, please remember the golden rule: Always give the monkey exactly ____he wants. A. what B. which C. when D. that 13. The manager entered the office and was happy to learn four-fifth of the tickets_______. A. was booked B. had been booked C. were booked D. have been booked 14. We were all surprised when he made it clear he ______ office soon. A. leaves B. would leave C. left D. had left 16. —I don’t think you could have been used to the quick pace of life while studying in the USA, ______you? —______. I thought of returning to our country at one time. A. had; Yes B. do; Yes C. have; No D. were; No 17. I just wonder ____ that makes him so excited. A. why it does B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is 18. These shoes look very good. I wonder ____. A. how much cost they are B. how much do they cost C. how much they cost D. how much are they cost 19. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see ________. A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is 20. He asked_____with you? A. what was the matter B. what the matter was C. the matter was what D. what is the matter 21. —We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. —What do you suppose ___________ to her? A. was happening B. to happen C. has happened D. having happened 22. No one can be sure ______ in a million years. A. what man will look like B. what will man look like C. man will look like what D. what look will man like 23. The boss went up to ask _____. A. what the matter was B. what’s the matter C. what was the matter D. what the matter is 24. Can you tell me _______? A. who is that gentleman B. that gentleman is who C. who that gentleman is D. whom is that gentleman 25. I ask her ________ come with me. A. if she will B. if will she C. whether will she D. will she 27. He didn’t know which room _______. A. they lived B. they lived in C. did they live D. did they live in 28. Can you tell me ______ the railway station? A. how I can get to B. how can I get to C. where I can get to D. where can I get to
29. Do you know ________? A. what is his name B. how is his name C. what his name is D. how his name is 30. They want to know _________ do to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they 31. These photographs will show you ________. A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like 32. Can you make sure _______ the gold ring? A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put 33. You can’t imagine ________, when they received these nice Christmas presents. A. how they were excited B. how excited they were C. how excited were they D. they were how excited 34. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see __________. A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is 37. She said that the earth ______________ around the sun.? A. moves B. moved C. move D. moving 42. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ________. A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 45. I like ___________ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. A. this B. that C. it D. one 46. I’d appreciate _______ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. A. that B. it C. this D. you 47. We haven’t settled the question of __________ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A. if B. where C. whether D. that 48. —Could you do me a favour? —It depends on __________ it is. A. which B. whichever C. what D. whatever 49. You can only be sure of ____ you have at present; you cannot be sure of something ____ you might get in the future. A. that; what B. what; / C. which; that D. /; that 50. Choosing the right dictionary depends on __________ you want to use it for. A. what B. why C. how D. whether 51. Could I speak to __________ is in charge of International Sales, please? A. anyone B. someone C. whoever D. no matter who 52. Some children want to challenge themselves by learning a language different from_____their parents speak at home. A. what B. that C. which D. one 53. The way he did it was different ________ we were used to. A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which 54. People in Chongqing are proud of _______ they have achieved, in the past ten years. A. that B. which C. what D. how 55. As his best friend, I can make accurate guesses about ________ he will do or think. A. what B. which C. whom D. that 56. As a new diplomat, he often thinks of ________he can react more appropriately on such occasions. A. what B. which C. that D. how 57. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for ____ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which 59. We haven’t settled the question of ____ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A. if B. where C. whether D. that 60. Mary wrote an article on _____ the team had failed to win the game. A. why B. what C. who D. that 61. We cannot figure out ____ quite a number of insects, birds, and animals are dying out. A. that B. as C. why D. when 63. Having checked the doors were closed, and _____ all the lights were off, the boy opened the door to his bedroom. A. why B. that C. when D. ours 64. With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased ____ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 65. Jane’s face suggested that she _____ ill, and her parents suggested that she _____ a medical examination. A. be; should have B. was; have C. should be; had D. was; has 66. The workers in France demanded that the their pay _____ from the following week on. A. would be raised B. was raised C. be raised D. raised
68. The old professor gave orders that the experiment _____ before 6. A. was finished B. will finish C. be finished D. shall be finished 69. The work would require that _____ at 5 every morning. A. she has been there B. she was there C. she be there D. she will be there 70. She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do ________it takes to save her life. A. whichever B. however C. whatever D. whoever 71. The poor young man is ready to accept ________ help he can get. A. whichever B. however C. whatever D. whenever