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Discovering useful words and expressions
Answer key for exercise 1 on page 28

present—presence violence violent confident confidence different difference patient patience cert

ain fair paid like kind uncertain unfair unpaid unlike unkind

culture globe universe agriculture mathematics art physics chemistry biology science

cultural global universal agricultural

Artist physicist chemist biologist


Answer key for exercise 2 on page 28

1. At the beginning, the earth had no_______. C A dust B atoms C water D matter 2. The development of a planet generally depends on _______ combining together. A

A atoms B rocks C gases D water

C 3. The ________ of mammals happened after the disappearance of the dinosaurs.
A harmful B system C spread D method

B 4. Mammals ________ when the animals that were harmful to them disappeared.
A prevented B multiplied C depended D existed

Answer key for exercise 3 on page 28

Is the moon a planet? This question is fundamental if students are to show that they _________ understand the nature of __________. Some astronomy scientists think that the earth __________ the gave birth to moon because the moon circles our planet. Others believe that the moon ______ before the existed earth was formed. They think that earlier in time it travelled through space as a small planet which was caught by the earth’s gravity. __________, it goes around our planet. As a result

The evidence for this theory is that the atoms _______ that make up the rocks on the moon seem to be different from those on earth. What is clear is that the moon is smaller than the prevents from earth and this ________ it _____ escaping from the earth. Although its origin may still be a ______, the moon can never be anything puzzle more than a satellite of the earth.

Answer key for exercise 4 on page 28

Violent patient gentle angry rude relaxing kind shocked excited easy-going calm crazy

Emotional words

Calm words

Violent angry rude Shocked excited crazy

Patient gentle relaxing Kind easy-going calm

Unit 4 Grammar

Noun clauses as the subject

Use the words below to fill in the blanks.
whether what who whose whatever 1. ______ watch was lost is unknown. Whose 2. Whatever you did is right. ________ 3. _________ we will go for an outing Whether tomorrow remains unknown. 4. ______ we need is time. What 5. ______ will be our monitor hasn't Who been decided yet.

上面每个句子都出现了的主 语从句,大家能找到吗?

1. Whose watch was lost is unknown.
2. Whatever you did is right. 3. Whether we will go for an outing tomorrow remains unknown. 4. What we need is time. 5. Who will be our monitor hasn't been decided yet.

1. Whose watch was lost is unknown.
2. Whatever you did is right. 3. Whether we will go for an outing tomorrow remains unknown. 4. What we need is time. 5. Who will be our monitor hasn't been decided yet.

主语从句 (Subject Clause)

That he finished writing the composition

in such a short time surprised us all. What we need are good doctors. Whom we must study for is a question of great importance.

1. that That the earth moves around the sun is well known. 2. whether Whether he will come or not is not known yet. 3. who Who will be sent there has not been decided.


4. what What you need is more practice. 5. which Which one is the best is not clear. 6. when, where Where he has gone is a question. 7. why, how Why there is gravity is hard to understand. How he can earn a living in Britain remains a big problem.

8. whoever、whatever、whichever可引 导主语从句。 Whoever comes will be welcome. Whatever he did was right. Whichever of you comes in will receive

a prize.

1.引导主语从句连词有that, whether, who, what, whatever等。 2. 连词位于句首不能省略。 3. 主语从句大多数情况下视为第三 人称单数, 但在关系代词what引导 的主语从句后谓语动词的数要根 据句意而定。

为了防止句子头重脚轻,通常把形式 主语it 放在主语位置,真正主语后置。 1. It is certain that he will win the match. 2. It is true that he has made a very important discovery in chemistry. 3. It is very likely that they will hold a meeting.

4. It is strange that the man should have stuck to his silly ideas. 5. It is a pity that we won't be able to go to the south to spend our summer vacation. 6. It is still a mystery what caused the accident. 7. It is said that he has gone to Shanghai. 8. It seems that he has seen the film.

1. 以that 引出的主语从句,常以形式

主语it引导, 结构为: It is +形容词/
名词/某些动词ed + that 从句。 2. 在有些that从句中要用虚拟语气

(should +do/should +have done)。

但下列情况下只用whether : 1. 引导主语从句并在句首 Whether he will come is not clear. 2. 引导表语从句 The question is whether he’ll come.

3. whether从句作介词宾语 I’m not sure about whether we’ll win. 4. 引导让步状语从句时 Whether you like it or not, you’ll have to do it.

1. 主语从句位于句首时必须由连接词 引导。 2. 主语从句后置时引导词that可省略。 3. 主语从句位于句首时,不能用if 引导。 4. 主语从句后置时, 可以用if引导。

1. ____makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services. A. What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever

2. These wild flowers are so special I would do____ I can to save them. A. whatever B. that C. which D. whichever

3. ____in the regulations that you should not tell people the passport of your e-mail account. A. What it required B. What requires C. It is required D. It requires

4. It is pretty well understood ____
controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out of the atmosphere today.

A. that
C. what

B. when
D. how

5. _____ made the school proud was ____ more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities. A. What; because B. What; that C. That; what D. That; because

6. It now appears ___ they are in need of help.
A. that C. what B. which D. how

7. ____ knows the truth will tell you about it.

A. Who that
C. Whom that

B. Whoever
D. That who

8. It is good news ___ they will arrive in a few days.

A. which
C. that

B. what
D. how

1. 他出生在何地还不知道。 Where he was born has not been found. 2. 谁会赢得比赛还不知道。 Who will win the match is still unknown. 3. 谁来都欢迎。 Whoever comes is welcome. 4. 那个人为什么被谋杀尚不知道。 Why the person was murdered is still unknown.

Discovering useful structures
His discovery has not yet been proved. What has not yet been proved is his discovery __________________________________________. Do the other astronomers accept his ideas? It remains a question.

Whether other astronomers accepts his ideas remains a question _______________________________________.
The first appearance of life on earth is still a mystery to scientists. How life first appeared on earth is still a mystery to scientists _________________________________________.

Why is the earth becoming warmer? It is an important topic for research. Why the earth is becoming warmer is an important topic for research _______________________________________. Stephen Hawking at 65 experienced zero gravity during a flight. It amazed everybody. It amazed everybody that Stephan Hawking at 65 experienced _______________________________________. zero gravity during a flight. Pluto is no longer considered a planet in our solar system. What a surprise! It is a surprise that Pluto is no longer considered _______________________________________. a planet in our solar system

Answer key for exercise 3 on page 29


3 5


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