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航空涡轮发动机 英文版

13.0 The Compressor #3 压缩机#3 The aim of the design was to utilise the largest amount of air that could be delivered from the smallest compressor. 该设计的目的是为了利用空气,可以从最小的压缩机输送量最大。 This has proved

an ambitious aim, as the high throughput wheel is very intolerant of the diffuser angles. \这证明了一个雄心勃勃的目标,为高通量轮是很不耐的扩散角度。 The Garrett 446335-09 T25 compressor chosen (see above left) has an inlet diameter of 38.6mm compared to the overall diameter of 54mm (“54”is where the engine gets it’s MW54 name ). The prototypes have been tested with wheel, a larger inlet variant of the Garrett wheel (446335-10) and a compressor wheel from KKK. 选择的加勒特 446335-09 T25 压缩机(见左上图)拥有 38.6 毫米入口直径相比 54 毫米的总直径( “54”是在发动机得到它的 MW54 名) 。该样机已经测试过轮,加勒特 轮(446335-10)的一个更大的进气变种和三 K 党的压缩机叶轮。 The design has been optimized for the Garrett “09”size wheel and that is the wheel we suggest. The Garrett compressor needs no other modifications but may need accurate electronic balancing.As this “09”is an expensive wheel we have used the larger “10” size trimmed down for the prototype engines and this was found very successful - in fact this is how manufacturers make their smaller sizes. For some reason the larger size is a lot cheaperl . 该设计已优化的加勒特“09”大小轮,这是我们建议的车轮。加勒特压缩机不需要 其他的修改,但可能需要精确的电子 balancing.As 这个“09”是我们用了较大的“10” 大小缩减为原型发动机,这是发现很成功的一个昂贵的车轮 - 事实上这是怎么了制造 商使他们更小的尺寸。出于某种原因,更大的尺寸是很多 cheaperl。 Re -profiling the “10”size compressor 重新分析了“10”大小的压缩机 If you obtain the “10”size you will need to trim it to size. Remember to do this before making the inlet cone so it can then be made to match your profile. First mount a length of steel rod in the lathe and turn it to be a nice firm fit the compressor. The compressor can be gently pressed on and we are ready to trim. 如果您获得了“10”大小,你需要将它修剪到大小。记住使得入口锥所以它可以被 制造,以符合您的个人资料之前做到这一点。首先安装钢线材在车床的长度,并把它是 一个不错的公司适合压缩机。该压缩机可以轻轻压上,我们准备修剪。 Make up a plastic template of the profile required, using the plan. Set up a turning rest on your toolpost , positioned as you can to the wheel. 弥补所需的配置文件的塑料模板,使用计划。建立一个转弯休息你的刀架,定位, 你可以到车轮。 Wear your safety glasses for next part, as a lot of little bits are spread around! Select a flat file that has had a nose radius of about 8mm ground onto it with a touch of clearance angle. Using the fille and with the lathe running nice and fast, gently trim the compressor to the new profile. Take very small scraping cuts so you don’t bend the blades, and aim for a nice smooth finish. The template should be offered up to the wheel from time to time. Note, it needs to be turning for the true profile to be seen, so watch your fingers while you’re doing this! 佩戴防护眼镜的下一个部分,因为很多小位都传遍!选择已约为 8mm 地面刀尖圆

弧半径到它带有一丝间隙角的平面文件。使用并祝并与车床运行很好,速度很快,轻轻 修剪压缩机到新的配置文件。采取非常小的刮切,这样你就不会弯曲的叶片,并瞄准一 个很好的光洁度。模板应提供到车轮时。请注意,它需要转向为真正的配置文件中可以 看出,所以看你的手指你这样做的同时! Once you are happy with the shape the wheel can be removed from the mandrel. At this point it is most likely out of balance and this will need to be done before it can be used in running in the engine. 一旦您满意的车轮可以从芯棒被删除的形状。 在这一点上是最有可能失去平衡, 而 这将需要完成之前,可以在发动机运行中使用。 14.0 The outer case #21 外壳 The design is aimed at allowing the home builder to make more of the engine if he choose and to retain the compact dimensions of the unit overall. 该设计的目的是使房屋建筑商, 使更多的发动机, 如果他选择和保留单元的尺寸紧 凑的整体。 The case is made from 0.4-mm thick, stainless steel, rolled into shape and the seam spot welded. You MUST be able to produce a good quality spot weld, as this is a pressure vessel. It has to be able to stand at least 1.5 bar above atmosphere. We have specified two rows in order to incorporate plenty of strength into this important component. 的情况下是从 0.4 毫米厚的不锈钢制成,轧成形状和缝点焊。你必须能够生产出优 质的点焊,因为这是一个压力容器。它必须能够承受至少 1.5 巴以上的气氛。我们为了 把充沛的体力投入这项重要组成部分指定的两行。 An alternative to the wrap around case made from sheet is to find a vessel of the correct diameter and length in the Cookware Dept. of a local hardware store. We have not carried out an exhaustive check of oil filters but there may be one that has a casing that is close to the required diameter. If you use a case that is too large then the effect of the cooling holes in the combustion chamber may be changed so it not advised at this stage. 一种替代围绕壳体由钢板制成的包装是要找到正确的直径和长度在局部五金店的 炊具部的容器。我们并没有进行油过滤器进行彻底检查,但可能有一个,有一个外壳, 是接近所需要的直径。如果使用过大的情况下,然后在燃烧室中的冷却孔的效果可以 被改变,因此,不建议在这个阶段。 Making the outer case 使外侧壳体 The sheet for the outer case is carefully marked out first, not forgetting the glowplug positions and cut out with tin snips. It is ideally and effortlessly rolled into shape using the GTBA rolls or similar. The case needs to be made a tight fit over the front cover and rear case of the engine. When ready, the area of the weld should be thoroughly cleaned with a green kitchen scourer. 该表表壳外圈仔细标示出第一,不忘作者:glowplug 位置和切出铁皮剪。它使用的 是 GTBA 卷或类似的理想,并毫不费力地卷成的形状。的情况下需要进行的紧密配合 比前盖和发动机的后壳。准备就绪后,焊缝区域应彻底用绿色厨房的清洁球清洗。 Welding 焊接 One spot weld at each end is then made to check the accuracy of the fits. The fit at the front can be looser than at the back as the O-ring is intended to seal the case here. When satisfied with the fit, the case can be spot-welded along the seam by running a line of large spaced spots about 20mm apart and then going back and welding the space in between. This

will help to minimize distortion. 然后, 由一个点焊焊点的每一端查询的配合的精度。 嵌合在前端可以比在后面更宽 松的 O 形环的目的是此处密封的情况。当与适当的满足,如此可点焊通过运行线路约 20mm 大斑间隔分开,然后回去和焊接空间之间沿煤层。这将有助于最大限度地减少失 真。 The joint must have two rows of closely spaced spot welds along the length. If the joint is placed towards the underside of the engine it will not be noticeable. A thin smear of car exhaust gum such “Holts Firegum”(available from Halfords and other motorists stores)along the seam will help ensure the seam remains gas tight. Silicon can be used but the tail end of the engine cen get very hot under certain circumstances and the seal might de-compose and start leaking. 接头必须有两排紧密间隔的焊点沿着长度。 如果关节被置于朝向发动机的下侧也不 会引人注意。汽车尾气胶这样的“Holts Firegum” (可从 Halfords 的和其他驾驶店)沿 煤层薄涂片,将有助于确保接缝保持气密性。硅可以使用,但尾部的发动机岑变得非常 热在某些情况下,密封可能去撰写,并开始泄漏。 Case rear #22 表壳背面#22 The rear case for the engine is turned from either a piece a piece of 6mm thick mild steel plate or stainless and the centre hole should be bored for a snug fit to the NGV.The steps can be machined out with a boring bar. The outer diameter can be turned to allow the case to be a tight fit. Before removing from the lathe the 3mm holes for the eight NGV screws can be drilled using a dividing attachment and a drilling spindle. The rear case can be removed from the chuck and eased into the outer case, aligning carefully with the end, There is no need for the end to be removed from now on so a tight fit is ok . 后壳体的发动机, 无论是从一块一块 6mm 厚的低碳钢板或不锈钢和中心孔应钻为 滑动配合到 NGV.The 步骤可以加工出与镗杆的转动。外径可以被打开以允许的情况下 是一个紧密的配合。在从车床去除可使用分割附件和钻床主轴钻 3mm 的孔八 NGV 螺 丝。后壳体可以从卡盘被移除,缓和到外的情况下,与端仔细对准,没有必要为最终 必须从现在起去除,以便形成紧配合即可。 Assembly to the case - marking fixing holes 大会的情况下 - 标记固定孔 Using a compass, draw a circle of 90mm diameter on a sheet of paper. Then with a protractor, mark out on the circle, lines at 60’ to each other and passing through the centre point and extending out about 10mm beyond the periphery. 使用指南针,画出直径 90mm 上的一张纸的一个圆。然后用量角器,标示出在圆 上,在 60 行',彼此穿过中心点和延伸出约 10mm 以外的周边。 The case can then be carefully positioned over the circle and index marks placed with a scriber in line with the lines on the paper. A pair of dividers can then be used to accurately mark the distance in from the end. The crossed marks can then be gently centre punched. 的情况下可以被小心地定位在存放在纸张上的行线的划线的圆圈和索引标记。 一对 分隔然后可以用来准确地标记在从端部的距离。然后,穿过痕迹,可用手轻轻点刻。 Drilling for fixings 钻探定价 It is best to drill the two parts together by drilling the tapping size drill right through. The holes can now be tapped for the securing screws - use cutting compound. Finally a clearance drill can carefully be used to open out the holes in the out case. The fixing screws can be smeared with thread-lock and screwed in firmly. They will not need removing again.

这是最好的权利, 通过钻孔攻丝尺寸钻来钻去的两部分组合起来。 孔现在可以挖掘 的固定螺丝 - 使用切削液。最后一个间隙钻可以仔细用来开的情况下出孔。固定螺钉, 可涂上螺纹锁和拧紧。他们将不需要再取出。 The front cover is made as part of the diffuser assembly and can be marked using the same system as for the end. The case is drilled 2.5mm clearance size after careful measurement of the main engine assembly. The assembly is fitted into the case, orientated carefully, and then the drill is used to “spot” the fixing screw positions. The engine assembly is then removed and the front cover removed and drilled for the tapping size for the fixing screws. It is useful at each stage of assembly, to have marks to show orientation as although parts should be able to be rotated and still fit - sod’s law will intervene to ensure this is not the case! 前罩被制成扩散器组件的一部分,并且可以使用相同的系统作为结束标记。目前, 此案钻经过仔细测量的主发动机总成 2.5mm 的间隙大小。该组件被装配到的情况下, 小心地定向,然后将钻头被用来“斑点”的固定螺丝的位置。发动机组件然后去除和 前盖被打开和钻孔的攻丝尺寸为固定螺钉。它在装配的各个阶段是有用的,有标记, 以显示取向虽然零件应该能够被旋转和静止拟合 - 草皮定律会介入,以确保这不是这 种情况! 15.0 The turbine wheel #25 涡轮叶轮 This is available as a cast item and we have spent much time developing the profile and optimizing the engine to match the wheel. The material is Inconel 713c and is extremely tough to withstand this exacting duty. 这是作为一个投项目, 我们已经花了很多时间开发的形象和优化发动机相匹配的车 轮。该材料是镍铬合金 713C,是非常艰难的承受了如此严苛的责任。 We have tested our cast wheels to higher speeds than anticipated to be used on the engine, without any problems. It is important that the top speed of 160K is not exceeded. As usual the wheels are cast to aerospace standards with full x-ray testing. 我们已经测试了我们的铸造车轮, 以更高的速度比预期要在发动机上使用, 没有任 何问题。这是很重要的 160K 的最高时速不超过。像往常一样,车轮转换为航空航天标 准,完整的 X-射线探伤。 The wheel can be obtained from Wren Turbines with the hole reamed to 1/4”. Wheels can also be obtained with the hole bored if you wish to do this yourself. 车轮可以从雷恩涡轮获得与孔铰至 1/4“。轮毂也可与孔得无聊,如果你想自己做。 Making the turning fixture 使转向装置 To bore your turbine wheel, you will need a fixture to hold the wheel securely and perfectly square.This can be made from an aluminium blank of 75mm×10mm thick and a ring of 75 mm×6mm×33mm i/d. 要担当你的涡轮机叶轮,您将需要一个夹具保持车轮安全,完美 square.This 可以 从为 75mm×10mm 厚的铝板上,并为 75 毫米×6 毫米×33MM 本人/ D 环进行。 Hold the ring in the chuck and face off .Using the drilling spindle and dividing attachment drill 4 holes at 5mm dia on a 64 mm PCD. Remove from the chuck and hold the thicker in the chuck and using the same drilling and dividing setup,drill 4 holes at 4.2 mm diameter to 8mm deep, on the same PCD.The drilling and dividing setup can now be removed. 保持环夹头和面临关闭。使用钻床主轴和除以附件钻 4 个孔为 5mm 直径的 64 毫

米 PCD。从卡盘取下并保持较厚的卡盘,并使用相同的钻孔和分割设置,钻 4 个孔在 4.2 毫米直径的 8 毫米深,在相同的 PCD.The 钻探和分割设置可立即被去除。 The 4.2 holes should now be tapped M5. A hole of 30mm diameter should now be bored right through - be careful you don’t run into your chuck! Then turn a recess of 5mm deep to the outside diameter of the wheel, The wheel should be a sliding fit into this recess, so keep checking the fit as you get to size. The wheel is fitted with the inside face facing out. 4.2 孔现在应该挖掘 M5。直径为 30mm 的孔现在应该通过合适的无聊 - 小心你不 碰到你的卡盘!然后转深 5mm 到车轮的外直径的凹部,该轮应该是一个滑动配合到该 凹部,从而保持检查拟合为你到大小。车轮装配于内表面朝外。 The wheel is eased into the hole in the blank until the rim at the root of the blades rests against the back of the recess. The ring can now be attached used 4 M5×12mm long screws and gently nipped up squarely. The wheel should now be held firmly for the inside face of the hub to be machined square. 车轮缓和成空白的孔直到凸缘在所述叶片的根部抵靠在所述凹部的背面。 环现在可 以连接使用 4 M5×12 毫米长的螺钉,轻轻地咬了正视。车轮现在应牢固地保持在轮毂 的内表面被加工方。 Machining the turbine wheel 加工所述涡轮机叶轮 Use a new tip in your tipped tool and running the lathe at around 250rpm, carefully face off the hub. Using a new BS2 or 6mm centre drill, carefully drill the centre. Technically, using cutting oil ought to make it easier to cut but this is not always true in practice with these difficult and tough metals - it can make the drill slide instead of cut. When the hole has been centred you need to drill ready for final boring to size. 使用新的提示在你的头工具,并在约 250rpm 的转速运行车床,精心面临关闭的枢 纽。使用新的 BS2 或 6 毫米中心钻,钻仔细的中心。从技术上讲,使用切削油应该更 容易削减, 但这并不总是在实践中这些困难和严峻的金属真实的 - 它可以使钻头滑动, 而不是削减。当孔已集中你需要钻准备进行最后的无聊的大小。 Drilling and reaming the centre hole 钻孔和铰孔的中心孔 The hole must be square to the wheel, perfectly centred and exactly 1/4” in diameter, a tough task. A tough task. It is usual to finish the hole to size with a reamer after running through with a small boring tool to ensure perfect centering. 孔必须在直径,一个艰巨的任务是方形的车轮,完全置和正好是 1/4“。一个艰巨 的任务。它通常是用小镗刀贯穿,以确保完美的定心后,完成孔的大小与铰刀。 Drilling must be done using a tough drill bit - ordinary high-speed-steel is not up to it and the drill edges will wear off before it has gone halfway in the hole and will jam. Ideally a solid or cobalt stub drill, preferably without twist, is the answer. Having obtained your drill (one size down from the finished size ) fit it to the tail-stock firmly and running nice and slow drill the hole. Keep the pressure up throughout the cut. If yo ease off the material work-hardens and that will be the end of your expensive drill-bit! 必须使用一个艰难的钻头进行钻孔 - 普通高速钢最多的就是它不和钻边缘将穿脱 之前它已经在半路的孔,将卡纸。理想的情况是固体或钴存根钻,最好不扭曲,就是答 案。在获得您的钻孔(一大小从成品尺寸下)它适合于尾部股票坚决和运行很好的和缓 慢的钻洞。保持高压态势在整个切割。如果哟缓解了材料工作变硬,这将是您昂贵的钻 头的结束!

If you are lucky the hole will be dead centre and only need reaming to final size. If so then use some cutting compound and running the lathe dead slow run the reamer through. If you are unlucky the hole will have gone off centre due to the drill bending. If so you will have to bore the hole until it is square and then ream to size . The turbine can now be removed. 如果你是幸运的孔会死人的中心,只需要扩孔到最终尺寸。如果是的话,通过使 用一些切割化合物和运行车床死缓慢运行的铰刀。如果你运气不好的孔都将熄灭中心, 由于钻头弯曲。如果是这样,你将不得不孔孔,直到它是正方形,然后扩到尺寸。涡 轮机现在可以被除去。 Facing off the rear face of the turbine 对峙涡轮的背面 The turbine needs the outside hub face squaring off and trimming to length. Make up a steel stub mandrel to hold the wheel making it a snug fit and face off as before using the tipped tool. Machine enough to get the length down to 12mm front to back . The turbine should be running straight with little or no wobble. It will need balancing however and we will tackle this later. There should be no need to skim the outer diameter until we are able to assemble the engine, We will then have the turbine on the shaft and it can be held between centres for trimming then. 涡轮需要外界轮毂端面现蕾和修剪长度。弥补钢存根芯棒保持车轮使其紧密贴合, 面对销为使用尖工具之前。机器足以让长度下降到 12mm 从前到后。涡轮应该直很少 或根本没有摆动运行。然而这将需要平衡,我们稍后会解决这个问题。应该没有必要脱 脂外径,直到我们能够组装发动机,然后,我们将有轴的涡轮,它可以中心之间举行的 微调即可。 16.0Nozzle Guide Vane Built-up version 喷嘴导叶 建成版 The ngv can be made up using fabrication techniques although it’s small size and need for specialized TIG or Plasma welding equipment make this prospect of limited interest to many turbine builders in our experience. One of the most difficult elements is the accurate cutting curves for the vanes in the ngv outer. To help support the builder keen on this element of construction we are arranging for pre-cut components to be made available soon which will only require assembly and welding for completion. The plan contains a pattern for the cutting out of the ngv vane which can be used to stick onto your sheet material. We have found 310 stainless to work well for this component and it is relatively easy to work with. 该 NGV 可以使用的制造技术,尽管它的体积小,需要专门的 TIG 或等离子焊接设 备有限地关注这一前景在我们的经验, 许多风机制造商来弥补。 其中最困难的要素是精 确的切割曲线的 NGV 外的叶片。为了帮助支持制造商热衷建设,我们正安排预切组件 作出很快面市,将只需要装配和焊接完成的这个项目上。该计划包括用于切削出 NGV 叶片可以用来粘到你的片材的图案。 我们发现 310 不锈钢工作很适合这个组件, 它是相 对容易的工作。 Turbine shroud 涡轮护罩 Start by cutting the sheet to the size shown on the plan - don’t stick the template on just yet. I found it best to make it touch longer and trim it to a perfect fit. Use 2mm sheet and cut out using a bench shear if you have access to one, or a hacksaw if you don’t. Using a set of

bending rolls, form the strip into a neat ring and check the internal size. We want to get the internal diameter to just over 55mm, so file the and until you reach this dimension. Once satisfied the ring can be welded along the seam. 首先切割片上的计划中显示的大小 - 不沾在模板上,只是还没有。我发现最好让 它接触时间更长,它修剪到一个完美的结合。使用 2 毫米片和切出用台式剪切,如果你 访问一个或钢锯,如果你不这样做。使用一组弯曲辊,形成条状成整齐圈和内部尺寸。 我们想要得到的内径,刚刚超过 55 毫米,所以文件中,并直到你达到这个层面。 一旦满足该环可沿接缝进行焊接。 Welding the seam 焊接缝 Use a TLG (or Plasma if you have one!) welder with a 0.6mm stainless welding rod and 1.6mm tip. Back the inside of the ring with a steel tube or bar to allow the shielding gas to collect and protect the inside face from oxidation. Make tack at each end of the seam first and then weld from the outer edge inwards. When cool, clean up as required and check for circularity. If required pop the ring in the lathe and true up the turbine end dead square. 使用 TLG(或等离子,如果你有一个! )焊机与 0.6mm 的不锈钢焊条和 1.6 毫米一 角。该环与钢管或棒以使保护气体,以收集和防止氧化的内表面的背面的内侧。使粘在 接缝的每一端,然后再从外边缘向内焊接。当凉爽,按要求清理和检查圆度。如果需要 弹出环在车床和真实了涡轮端死方。 Cutting the ngv slots 切割槽 NGV The paper strip can now be stuck to the outside and the curved slots cut. These are the hardest part although it is possible to do them with the “Dremel”and a 20mm disk cutter, Carefully grind out the profile and clean up any burrs that occur. 纸带现在可以粘到外部,所述弯曲狭槽切割。这是最难的部分虽然可以做他们的 “德雷梅尔”和 20mm 的盘铣刀,小心碾出的轮廓和清理所发生的任何毛刺。 Guide vanes 导叶 Next the vanes themselves can be tacked. Make a master vane from 0.8mm 310 stainless sheet,mark it with marking blue for identification. Make the vane about 3mm deeper than the drawing to allow for the inner diameter to be ground to size when they are welded in place and to allow the outer edge to protrude about 1mm to weld down onto. The 13 vanes can now be scribed onto s strip of material and cut using snips. Check each with your master and trim/grind to shape as required. 下一个叶片本身可以被临时固定。做一个主叶片从 0.8mm 开始 310 不锈钢板,它 与蓝色标记识别标记。使约 3mm 比图纸更深的叶片,以允许内径被研磨成尺寸时它们 被焊接到位,以使外边缘伸出约 1mm 焊接向下到。 13 个叶片,现在可以刻划物质上 的脱衣舞和使用切剪。检查每个与你的主人和修剪/研磨塑造的要求。 A jig is required to aid the location of the vanes in the shroud. This is simply made from a block of aluminium 60mm dia ×30mm long. Hold in the chuck so 24mm is protruding . Turn the outside diameter to a snug fit in your turbine shroud to a length of 23mm. Then turn a step of diameter 35mm to a length of 15mm. This will form the seat for the vanes to rest upon when being welded. A tapped hole of about M5 can now be put into the centre of the blank. A steel disk of 57 diameter mm by about 2mm thick with a 5mm hole in the centre, should be made which will hold the turbine shroud onto the aluminium former. 甲夹具需要以有助于护罩叶片的位置。这简直是从铝 60 毫米直径×长 30mm 的块

进行。持有该卡盘使 24 毫米是突出。转外径对紧密贴合在你的涡轮机外罩,以 23 毫米 的长度。然后转动直径为 35mm 的步骤为 15mm 的长度。这将形成位子为叶片休息被 焊接时,应。关于 M5 的螺纹孔现在可以放入空白的中心。的钢盘的直径为 57 毫米约 2mm 厚在中心 5mm 的孔,应作出安排,以保持涡轮护罩上的铝前者。

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