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高中英语阅读理解题型解读、解题技巧及练习(教师版)


高中阅读理解题型解读(教师版)
(一)阅读是获得更综合、更复杂、更精确信息的必要手段,考生在做阅读理解时,不仅要 看懂文章的字面意思,还需要针对不同题材和体裁的篇目运用不同的方法作出正确的选择。 一般来说,词汇、阅读速度和理解能力是阅读理解中三个最重要且有相互联系的因素。 阅读的方法可以使用以下几种: 1.跳读:就是快速的一步阅读法。实际上是有选择阅读,找关键词。用这种

阅读方法回答 who、what、when、where 之类的问题最为有效。 2.略读:指比跳读慢些的二步阅读法。即泛泛地、粗略地快速阅读,目的是了解大意,对文 章有个总的概念。此种阅读方法能回答 why、how 之类的问题。 3.精读:即最细致、最慢的深层阅读方法,目的是求得对所读文章的全部意义的理解与掌 握。 在使用阅读技巧时尽量做到以下几点: 1.带着问题阅读短文。 2.找出主题句、确定中心思想。 3.推断单词、句子和文章的含义。 4.尽快选择答案。 (二)不同体裁文章的特点及解题技巧 1.记叙文 记叙文又可分传记类和故事类。 传记类文章在阅读中时间是全文的关键,根据时间我 们可以找到相关的事件,抓住文章的主要内容。故事类文章情节性较强,阅读时要注意故事 中的时间、地点、人物和发生的事件,这些都是文章中的主要内容和信息,对于准确理解文 章十分重要。 2.说明文 说明文是对事物的形状、性质、特征、成果或功用等进行介绍,解释或阐述的文章。把 握所说明事物的特征和本质是理解说明文的关键。 说明事物特征的方法很多, 主要有定义法、 解释法、比较法、比喻法、数字法、图表法、引用法和举例法等。 ? 数字说明文 在阅读数字说明文时要特别注意文中数字的含义, 从这些数字中可以找到文章的主要内容。 ? 解释说明文 解释说明文着重说明事物的本质、特征和功用等。许多科普文章都属于这一类。在阅读这类 文章时要学会解决 what, how, why 等一类的问题。它们是文章的关键。如能带着这些问题阅 读,将会更迅速抓住文章的主题。 ? 比较说明文 比较说明文是通过对比方法说明问题。在阅读这类文章时要善于把握全篇陈述的基本倾向。 作者在谈论一个有争议的问题时总要顾及到争议的各个方面。但是,在一般情况下,作者的 陈述总要倾向于某一种观点。 3.应用文 应用文涉及的范围比较广,包括广告、通知、书信等。应用文一般语言简洁,省略及不规范 的句子较多。 阅读时一般要求考生全面掌握文章中提供的信息, 并运用这些信息去解决问题。 因此对题干的理解尤为重要。 阅读理解的考题分为客观理解题(是指在短文中客观存在的事实, 客观信息的答案一般 都可以在原文中找到。即理解文中的具体事实或抽象概念)和主观理解题(这类问题都不可能 直接从原文中找到答案, 须通过阅读文章对文章主旨和深层含义有更深理解, 并据此进行判 断和推理)。其中细节理解题和猜测词义题属于客观题;主旨大意题和推理判断题属于主观 题。针对不同类型的题目,要在平时的练习过程中,结合具体的题目,给学生进行解题方法
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的指导和讲解。对于客观题,要提醒他们阅读时关注文章的细节,如时间,地点或一些具体 数字,在选择答案时,务必从原文中找到确切的依据。 我们可将阅读理解归纳为以下四大题型, 根据阅读理解题考查角度的不同, 可采用不同 的解题技巧来应付。 Ⅰ.事实细节题 属于细节类型的阅读理解题一般只针对某个特定的细节, 题型可以多种多样。 此类题型 一般分两种。第一种是直接理解题,在原文中可以直接找到答案。第二种是词义转换题,正 确选项是原文有关词语和句子的转换。 做此类试题一定要抓住事件发生的时间、 地点、 人物、 发展过程和结局等环节,所选答案一定要符合原文,切不可望文生义。这类题型的主要提问 方式常为: ①Which of the following is true/NOT true in the passage? ②Which of the following statements is NOT discussed/mentioned in the passage? ③Which is the right order of the events given in the passage? ④All the following statements are NOT true except . 细节题的破解一般采用寻读法,即先看试题,再读文章。对有关信息进行快速定位,再 将相关信息进行整合、甄别、分析、对比,有根有据地排除干扰项,选出正确答案。此法加 强了阅读的针对性,提高了做题的准确率,节省了宝贵的时间。寻读法还特别适用于对图形 表格类题材的理解。做此类型的题目还要特别注意句子的逻辑关系。英语中有许多功能词, 如: 表因果关系的 because, since, as 等; 表转折关系的 but, however ,on the contrary, on the other hand 等等。 Ⅱ.猜测词义题 在高考阅读题中, 考生遇到的最大障碍往往有两个: 一是被已认识的单词的某一熟知含 义所误导;二是被完全不认识的单词的意思所阻碍,从而出现理解偏差或理解困难,影响阅 读的速度。 其实解决这两个困难的一个重要法宝是考生在心目中树立起上下文观念, 要学会 "顺藤摸瓜",通过构词,语法,定义,同位,对比,因果,常识,上下文等线索确定词义。 在阅读解题时要注意从以下七个方面着手: 1)根据定义或解释、说明猜测生词的词义 在 be,be called,call 等判断词出现的判断句中,或定语从句及标点符号,可以根据已知部 分, 猜测生词的含义。 例如: The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year. 通过理解定语从句的意思,能猜出 herdsman 是“牧人”。 2)根据对比关系猜测生词的词义 在 but,however,yet,otherwise,though 这些表示意义转折的连词出现的句子中,其前后 的词有明显对比关系,根据已知的内容,通过这种对比关系,就很容易猜出生词的词义了。 例如: Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 和 clean 意思相对的便是“肮脏的”了,因此可猜出句中 grubby 的意思是“肮脏的”。 3)通过因果关系猜测词义 because, since 与 as 是连接原因状语从句的从属连词, 是连接表示结果的状语从句的连词, so so...that 与 such...that 中的 that 是连接结果状语从句的。 当这些信息词出现在有生词的句子中, 通过因果关系,依据已知部分就能猜出生词的词义。例如:She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 根据 because 从句所讲的意思,我们就可推测 trim 就是 “修剪”之意。 4)根据生活常识猜测词义

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运用逻辑推理能力,自身的生活经验及生活常识。再联系上下文能读懂的部分,可以正确猜 出词义。例如:Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold. 根据句子意思及 生活经验,wither 表示“枯萎”。 5)根据同等关系猜测词义 同等关系,指的是一个词,一组词或短语在句中作同一成分,而且它们的词义都属于同一范 畴。明显的标志是,这样的词组或短语中间常常用并列连词 and 或 or 来连接。例如: At forty-two he was in his prime and always full of energy. 从“年龄 42 岁”以及与 prime 具有同等 关系的 full of energy 可以猜出 prime 的意思是“盛年时期”。 6)根据列举的事例猜测词义 You can take any of the periodicals: “The World of English”. “Foreign Language Teaching in Schools”, or “English Learning”. 从后面列举的例子中,可以猜出 periodical 是“期刊,杂志” 的意思。 7)根据构词法知识猜测词义 根据学过的构词法知识,知道词根和前缀或后缀的意义,就可猜出由它们组成的新词词义。 例如在 2006 年福建的高考题文章中有这样一句: The schools are reluctant to take off — even teachers with tickets for the England-Argentina game had trouble getting the day off. A.kind B.unwilling C. free D.careless 【解题思路】通过破折号可知正确答案为 B. Ⅲ.推理判断题 做这类题要求考生在阅读理解整体语篇的同时, 又要求学生对作者的态度、 意图及文章细节 的发展作正确的推理判断,力求从作者的角度去考虑,不要固守自己的看法或观点。不要主 观臆断,凭空想象,任意发挥,而走入误区。学生要学会运用主题句去推测、揣摩文字背后 作者的意图,运用归纳、对比、演绎技能,运用背景知识去挖掘文章深层含义,从而正确理 解作者的言外之意,同时认真体会文章的语气与感情基调(如:否定、厌恶、反问、讽刺等)。 这类试题常以如下句式发问: ①What can you conclude/ imply from this passage? ②What’s the author’s attitude(态度)towards...? ③We can infer /learn from the passage that... 如: Once there was something wrong with a machine in a factory. The workers could do nothing but turn to a German engineer for help, who drew a line on it and said, “Take off the part where the line is and change it for a new one. ”The machine, with a new line on, began running well again. The engineer then asked for $ 30,000 for what he had done. The following were what he wrote on a bill, “The new part only costs one dollar, and knowing where the problem with the machine is costs $ 29,999.” Q: What can you conclude from this passage? A. the engineer asked for too much money B. the workers should pay the money C. the knowledge is worth money D. the new part could cost more 这篇短文是作者讲的一个故事,那么通过这个故事我们可以判断出什么呢?虽然作者没 有言明,但是我们可以断定,发现问题的所在需要智慧和知识,知识是创造价值的源泉,因 此此题的正确答案应为 C。 Ⅳ.主旨大意题 这种题型要求考生能够把握文章的总体,并真正理解主题和中心;要求能较好地运用概括、 判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维方法解题,难度较大,属于高层次题。 一般主旨大意题可以分为两类:
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1.确定文章的标题和主题(title or topic) 标题位于文章之首,用来高度概括文章内容,点明文章主题。它可以是单词,短语,也可以 是句子。要确定文章标题,首先,要在阅读原文的基础上,考虑标题是否与主题密切相关; 其次,看标题是否能概括全文内容。不能只概括短文中的某些事实或细节;然后,要注意标 题范围不应太大或太小; 最后,标题应简练并能吸引读者。 即:1、 独特新颖 2、概括性强 3、 短小精炼。 常见的标题型题干: 1) The best title/ headline for this passage might be________. 2) The text (passage) could be entitled ______. 3) What is the best title for the passage? 4) What’s the topic of the article? 如:In the 1930s, a lot of people in the USA were out of work. Among these people was a man named Alfred Butts. He always had an interest in word games and to fill his time he planned a game which he called “Lexico”. However, he was not completely satisfied with the game, so he made a number of changes to it and changed its name from “ Lexico” to “Alph” and then to “Criss Cross”. He wanted to make some money from his new game but he didn’t have any real commercial(商业性的)success. Q: The text is mainly about________. A. Lexico B. Three men C . A word game D. Alfred Butts. 【解题思路】答案 A 和 C 以偏概全。因此此题的正确答案应为 D。 2.主题句(topic sentence)及主旨大意(main idea)的概括 一篇文章一般表达一个中心内容或主题。 这个中心内容或主题通常用一个句子来概括。 此句 叫做主题句。一般来说,说明文和议论文都有主题句,而且多位于文章的开头,有时也位于 文章的中间或末尾。但有时不能在文中直接找到主题句,要求读者把握每段的主题句,弄清 段于段之间逻辑关系的基础上自己归纳总结。主题句必须能简洁明了地概括全文的主要内 容,具有高度的综合性和概括性。文章或段落的其他句子都是对主题句的进一步解释,说明, 论证或扩展. 常见的主题句和主旨型题干: 1) What is the topic sentence of the passage? 2) This article/text/passage mainly tells that _____________. 3) Which of the following gives a general idea of the passage? 4) Which of the following is the main idea of the passage? 如: Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. Q: What is the main idea of the passage? A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer. B. Bingham is a diligent student. C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. D. A good lawyer needs good education. 【解题思路】 此文没有主题句。全篇共四句,只陈述了四个细节(detail)性的事实。因此就 答案本身看,个个都对。读者只能将所有的 details 综合起来,进行逻辑推理,才能构成一 个没有言明的主题思想(unstated main idea)。由于文中主要涉及了 Joshua Bingham 接受教育 的情况,即作者想告诉我们的是:Joshua Bingham 接受过良好的教育,所以答案是 C。

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总之,阅读水平的提高不是一两天的阅读就可以见效的。想要提高阅读能力,一是要培 养良好的阅读行为习惯;如:要用眼光看,不要用手指去点;要默读,不要小声读。二是要 积累大量的词汇,把阅读中的高频难词熟记,每次阅读后要整理好生词,然后记住其意思。 三是要广泛地做课后阅读,坚持每天读 1-2 篇文章。四是不要一遇到生词就查字典,要先猜 其意义,等做完题目后再查字典,以免影响阅读速度。

高中阅读理解解题技巧
一、速读全文,了解大意知主题。 阅读能力一般指阅读速度和理解能力两个方面。 阅读速度是阅读最基本的能力。 考生必 须在十分有限的时间内运用略读、扫读、跳读等技巧快速阅读,搜寻关键词、主题句,捕捉 时空、顺序、情节、人物、观点,并且理清文章脉络,把握语篇实质。 抓主题句是快速掌握文章大意的主要方法。主题句一般出现在文章的开头和结尾。 主 题句往往对全文起提示、启迪、概括、归纳之作用,主旨大意题,归纳概括题,中心思想题 往往直接可从主题句中找到答案。 试试看,你能找出下面一段文章的主题句吗? The panda is a popular animal. Stories about the panda in the Washington Zoo are always front page news and important features on television newscasts. Stuffed pandas are among the most popular toys for children, and panda postcards are always in demand in zoo gift shops. 不难看出,文章的第一句是主题句,后面的句子都围绕这个句子展开。 二、看题干,带着问题读文章。 首先要掌握问题的类型, 客观信息题可以从文章中直接找到答案; 而主观判断题考查的 是对文章的感情基调等, 这类题必须经过对作者的态度、 意图以及对整篇文章进行深一层的 推理等。 其次, 了解试题题干以及各个选项所包含的信息, 然后有针对性地对文章进行扫读, 对有关信息进行快速定位。此法加强了阅读的针对性,提高了做题的准确率。 三、 逻辑推理,做好深层理解题。 在实际阅读中,有时作者并未把意图说出来,阅读者要根据字面意思,通过语篇逻辑关 系,研究细节的暗示,推敲作者的态度,理解文章的寓义。要求读者对文字的表面信息进行 分析、 挖掘和逻辑推理, 不能就事论事, 以偏概全。 推理题在提问中常用的词有: infer, imply, suggest, indicate 等。 四、 猜词悟义,扫除阅读拦路虎。 猜词是应用英语的重要能力。 它不但需要准确无误地理解上下文, 而且要有较大的泛读 量,掌握或认识较多的课外词汇。我们要学会“顺藤摸瓜”,通过构词,语法,定义,同位, 对比,因果,常识,上下文等线索确定词义。 a. 定义法 It will be very hard but also very brittle...that is, it will break easily. 从后面的解释中我们可 以了解到 brittle 是“脆”的意思。 b. 同位法 They traveled a long way, at last got to a castle, a large building in old times. 同位语部分 a large building in old times 给出了 castle 的确切词义,即“城堡”。 c. 对比法 She is usually prompt for all her class, but today she arrived in the middle of her first class. but 一词表转折,因此 but 前后的意思正相反。后半句的意思是她今天“第一节上了一半才 来”,因此反向推理,可得出她平时一向“准时”的结论。
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d. 构词法(前缀、后缀、复合、派生等) Perhaps, we can see some possibilities for next fifty years. possibility 是 possible 的同根名 词, 据此可以断定 possibility 意思是“可能性”。 e. 因果法 The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken. Sometimes the weakness was permanent. So the player could never play the sport again. 从后面的结果“永远不能再运动”中, 可以推测 permanent 的意思为“永远的,永久的”。

基础练习
故事类 (1) Son’s Help Mr. Lang worked in a factory. As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much. His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home. So he had enough time when he had a holiday. A few friends of his liked gambling(赌博) and he learned it soon. So he was interested in it and hardly forgot anything except gambling. He lost all his money and later he began to sell the television, watches and so on. His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police. He and his friends were punished for it. And he was hardly sent away. After he came out of lockup(拘留所), he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him. It was New Year’s Day. Mr. Lang didn’t go to work. He felt lonely and wanted to gamble again. He called his friends and they came soon. But they were afraid the police would come. He told his five-year-old son to go to find out if there were the policemen outside. They waited for a long time and didn’t think the police would come and began to gamble. Suddenly opened the door and in came a few policemen. “I saw there weren’t any policemen outside, daddy,” said the boy, “so I went to the crossing and asked some to come.” 1. Mr. Lang was paid much because _______. A. he was a driver B. he worked in a factory C. he had a lot of work to do D. he had worked there for a long time 2. Mrs. Lang did all housework because _______. A. she couldn’t find any work B. she thought her husband was tired C. her husband spent all time in gambling D. she wouldn’t stop her husband gambling 3. _______, so he was put into lockup. A. Mr. Lang often gambled B. Mr. Lang was late for work C. Mr. Lang didn’t help his wife at home D. Mr. Lang wasn’t polite to the police 4. The woman had to leave Mr. Lang because _______. A. he didn’t love her any longer B. he wouldn’t stop gambling C. he had been put into lockup D. he was hardly sent away by the factory 5. Which of the following is right? A. The boy hoped his father to be put into lockup again. B. The boy thought his father needed some policemen. C. The boy hoped his father to stop gambling soon. D. The boy hoped his mother to come back. 【答案与解析】本文讲一个赌棍想要赌钱,因此叫他的儿子把风,可他的儿子却把警察找来
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的故事。 1. C。细节题。根据第 1 段第 2 句话 As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much 可知答案 为 C。 2. B。推断题。根据第 1 段第 3 句话 His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home 可知答案为 B。 3. A。推断题。根据 His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police 可知答案为 A。 4. A。细节题。根据 …he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him 可知答案为 A。 5. B。 语义理解题。 根据最后一句话 I saw there weren’t any policeman outside, daddy, so I went to the crossing and asked some to come 可知答案为 B。 教育类 (2) Students in many countries are learning English. Some of these students are small children. Others are teen-agers. Many are adults. Some learn at school, others by themselves. A few learn English by learning the language over the radio, on TV, or in film. One must work hard to learn another language. Why do all these people want to learn English? It is difficult to answer this question. Many boys and girls learn English at school because it is one of their subjects required for study. They study their own language and maths and English: Some people learn it because it is useful for their work. Many people learn English for their work. Many people learn English for their higher studies, because at college or university some of their books are in English. Other people learn English because they want to read newspapers or magazines in English. 1. People learn English _______. A. at school B. over the radio C. on TV D. not all in the same way 2. Different kinds of people want to learn English _______. A. together with other subjects B. for different reas** C. for their work D. for higher studies at colleges 3. From this passage we know that _______. A. we can learn English easily B. English is very difficult to learn C. English is learned by most people in the world D. English is a useful language but one must work hard to learn 4. Which of the following is right? A. We don’t need to learn any foreign languages. B. We can do well in all our work without English. C. English is the most important subject in schools. D. We should learn English because we need to face the world. 【答案与解析】这篇文章探究了学习英语热潮的现象和发生这种现象的原因。 1. D。由第 1 段我们可以知道学习英语的形式可以 over the radio, on TV, or in film 等不同的 方式。 2. B。根据第 2 段人们学习英语的原因有 required for study, useful for their work, for high studies 等几种。由此可推知人们学习英语的原因是不同的。 3. D。由于人们学习英语的各种原因可以发现英语是非常有用的。但从 small children 到 adults(成年人)都用各种形式去学,说明英语必须靠人的努力才能学好。
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4. D。由于文章中说很多国家都学习英语,那么如果不学习英语就不能融入现代社会。所以 学习英语的目的是 we need to face the world(我们需要面对这个世界)。 科技类 (3) The computer is a useful machine. It is the most important invention in many years. The oldest kind of computer is the abacus(算盘), used in China centuries ago, but the first large, modern computer was built in 1946. A computer then could do maths problems quite fast. Today computers are used in many ways and can do many kinds of work. In a few years the computer may touch the life of everyone, even people in faraway villages. In the last few years, there have been great changes in computers. They are getting smaller and smaller, and computing faster and faster, Many scientists agree that computers can now do many things, but they cannot do everything. Who knows what the computers of tomorrow will be like? Will computers bring good things or bad things to people? The scientists of today will have to decide how to use the computers of tomorrow. 1. The computer is a _______ machine. A. helpful B. strange C. large D. dangerous 2. The first large, modern computer was built about _______ years ago. A. a few B. forty C. sixty D. eighty 3. The computers of today are _______ than before. A. bigger B. fewer C. smaller D. taller 4. Computers can do _______. A. everything B. anything C. nothing D. lots of things 5. The scientists of today _______ how to use the computers of tomorrow. A. may decide B. must decide C. can make D. needn’t make 【答案与解析】本文讲计算机的发展历史。 1. A。细节题。根据据第 1 句话 The computer is a useful machine 可知答案为 A。 2. C。推断题。第一台计算机是 1946 年生产的,距今大约 60 年,所以应选 C。 3. C。细节题。根据第 3 段第 2 句 They are getting smaller and smaller 可知答案为 C。 4. D。 推断题。 根据第 2 段第 1 句 Today computers are used in many ways and can do many kinds of work 以及…but they cannot do everything 可知答案为 D。 5. B。细节题。根据最后一句话 The scientists of today will have to decide how to use the computers of tomorrow 可知答案为 B。 历史类 (4) Napoleon agreed to plans for a tunnel(隧道) under the English Channel in 1802. The British began digging one in 1880. Neither tunnel was completed. Europe has had to wait until the end of the 20th century for the Channel Tunnel. After nearly two centuries of dreaming, the island of Great Britain is connected to Continental Europe for the first time since the Ice Age, when the two land masses moved apart. On May 6, 1994, Britain’s Queen Elizabeth and France’s President Mitterrand carried out the official opening. The Queen was accompanied(陪同) on her train journey through the historic tunnel by one of her Rolls-Royce cars which was placed on the train. The following day saw celebration taking place in Folkestone and Calais. Regular public services did not start until the latter part of 1994.
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1. The island of Great Britain is _______. A. connected to France all the time B. separated from France with a tunnel C. separated from France all the time D. joined to France with the tunnel 2. Queen Elizabeth _______ at the opening. A. took her car Rolls-Royce through the tunnel B. took her car which was placed on her train through the tunnel C. took her train through the tunnel D. took Mitterrand’s train through the tunnel 3. Before 1994, one could go to Britain from France _______. A. only by ship B. by ship or plane C. by car or train D. by ship, car or train 4. Which of the following is right? A. Napoleon made plans for the tunnel. B. The public could pass through the tunnel by train after May 6, 1994. C. The tunnel was built for two centuries. D. The tunnel will do great good to Britain and France. 【答案与解析】本文主要讲述拿破仑早在 1802 年就同意在英吉利海底修建隧道的计划,英 国在 1880 年就开始挖掘,但都没有完成。大约两个世纪后,即到了 1994 年,大不列颠岛和 欧洲大陆才由海底隧道连接起来。 1. D。 语义理解题。 从第 1 段 the island of Great Britain is connected to Continental Europe for the first time since the Ice Age 可以看出 the island of Great Britain 和 France 是由 the tunnel 连接起 来的。 2. C。语义理解题。第 2 段第 2 句话 The Queen was accompanied(陪同) on her train journey through the historic tunnel by one of her Rolls-Royce cars which was placed on the train 已明确 告知 Queen Elizabeth 是怎么去参加开幕典礼的。 3. B。判断题。既然 1994 年以前没有隧道,那当然只有坐船或乘飞机从英国去法国。 4. D。判断题。拿破仑是同意修建隧道的计划,并不是制定计划,故排除 A 项;接近 1994 年底,公众才能够坐火车穿过隧道,B 项不对;文章并没有说隧道建了多长时间,C 项也不 对;而隧道修建成功时,英、法两国元首都出席,由此可见隧道对两国的重要性。 人物类 (5) Nick Petrels is a doctor in Montreal. He works 60 hours a week. He takes care of 159 patients a week in the hospital and at his office. He’s been a doctor for ten years. Dr. Petrels gives his patients good medical advice. But he doesn’t just tell his patients what to do. He also sings to them on television! Dr. Petrels has his own TV show. The show is in Italian, English and French. The doctor starts the show with a song and then gives medical advice. He explains a medical problem or disease in simple language. After that, he sings another song. Dr. Petrels produces and performs in his own show every week. The program is very popular with his patients and with people who enjoy his singing. His dream is to perform(表演) in Las Vegas. His favorite songs are love songs, and he has a compact disk of love songs that he wrote. Dr. Petrels says, “I always loved to sing. All my problems are gone when I sing.” But when Dr. Petrels was young, his father didn’t want him to be a singer, so he went to medical school. Some people tell Dr. Petrels he can help people more as a doctor. But Dr. Petrels says he helps people when he sings, too. “I like to make people smile. Sometimes it’s difficult to make a sick person smile. Medicine and entertainment(娱乐) both try to do the same thing. They try to make
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people feel good.” 1. Dr. Petrels works 60 hours a week, because he _______. A. gives his patients medical advice B. takes care of 159 patients a week C. sings on television D. has his own TV show 2. Dr. Petrels _______, so he is called a singing doctor. A. has been a doctor for ten years B. always loved to sing C. is popular with his patients D. also sings to his patients on TV 3. In his TV show, Dr. Petrel _______. A. sings and gives medical advice B. sings about different diseases C. starts to explain diseases with a song D. sings love songs he wrote 4. Dr. Petrels’ show is popular _______. A. in Las Vegas. B. at medical school C. with people who like his singing D. with patients in Montreal 5. Dr. Petrels says he likes to _______. A. help people sing B. make people feel better C. do the same thing D. make difficult people smile 【答案与解析】这篇文章描绘在 Montreal 一个有趣的医生,他不但给病人治病,还在自己 的节目中为病人唱歌,给他们带来欢笑。 1. B。第 1 段告诉我们 He takes care of 159 patients a week, 如此多的病人,难怪 He works 60 hours a week。 2. D。由第 2 段的 He also sings to them on television,我们可得知他被称为 a singing doctor 的原因。 3. A。根据第 2 段的 The doctor starts the show with a song and then gives medical advice,我们 便可知道 Dr. Petrel 在他的节目中干些什么。 4. C。根据第 3 段的第 2 句 The program is very popular with his patients and with people who enjoy his singing 可推知答案为 C。Dr. Petrel 受欢迎的不只在 Las Vegas 这些地方和 Patient 这些人。 5. B。最后一句的 They try to make people feel good 告诉了我们 Dr. Petrels 想干什么。

提升训练
一、人物类 In October 1961 at Crowley Field in Cincinnati Ohio an old deaf gentleman named William E. Hoy stood up to throw the first ball of the World Series. Most people at Crowley Field on that day probably did not remember Hoy because he had retired(退休) from professional baseball 58 years earlier in 1903. However he had been an outstanding player and the deaf people still talk about him and his years in baseball. William E. Hoy was born in Houckstown Ohio on May 23, 1862. He became deaf when he was two years old. He attended the Columbus Ohio School for the deaf. After graduation he started playing baseball while working as a shoemaker. Hoy began playing professional baseball in 1886 for Oshkosh(Wisconsin) of the Northwestern League. In 1888 he started as an outfielder(外场手) with the old Washington Senators. His small figure and speed made him an outstanding base runner. He was very good at stealing bases during his career. In the 1888 major league season he stole 82 bases. He was also
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the Senators’ leading hitter in 1888. Hoy was clever and he threw right-handed and batted left-handed. On June 19,1889 he threw out three batters(击球手) at the plate from his outfield position. The arm signals used by judges today to show balls and strikes began because of Hoy. The judge lifted his right arm to show that the pitch was a strike and his left arm to signal that it was a ball. For many years people talked about Hoy’s last ball game in 1903. He was playing for Los Angeles of the Pacific Coast Winter League. It was a memorable game because Hoy hit a wonderful ball which won the game. It was a very foggy day and therefore very hard to see the ball. In the ninth inning(棒球的一局) with two men out, Hoy managed to catch a fly ball to make the third out in spite of the fog. Los Angeles defeated their opposition and won the game. After he retired Hoy stayed busy. He ran a dairy farm near Cincinnati for 20 years. He also became a public speaker and traveled giving speeches. Until a few years before his death he took 4-10 mile walks several mornings a week. On December 15, 1961 William Hoy died at the age of 99. 1. In which order did the following things happen in Hoy’s life? a. Hoy worked as a shoemaker. b. Hoy began to run a diary farm. e. Hoy became deaf. D. e a b c d c. Hoy played a memorable game in the heavy fog. d. Hoy threw the first ball of the World Series. A. d e a c b A. became famous C. traveled around the world B. e a c b d C. d a e c b B. led a relaxed life D. was in good physical condition B. baseball game rules and important players

2. We can infer from the last paragraph that Hoy _______ in his late years.

3. This passage is mainly about _______. A. a deaf player devoted to the game of baseball C. the rise in the social position of the deaf people D. where the baseball judge hand signals came from 4. What can be inferred from this passage? A. Hoy was the greatest baseball player in his time. B. Speaking and listening are not necessary in baseball games. C. The judge had to study the hand signals very seriously. D. Hoy’s family encouraged him to become a baseball player. 【答案解析】本文介绍了美国 20 世纪初最杰出的棒球选手 Hoy 不平凡的一生。 1. B。细节题。此题要求对事件发生的先后顺序进行排序。可用首尾定位法,即找到第一个 发生的事件 (e. Hoy became deaf.),再找到最后一个发生的事件 (d. Hoy threw the first ball of the World Series.),故可排除 A、C。再进行比较可知 B 最佳。 2. D。 推断题。 根据 Until a few years before his death he took 4-10 mile walks several mornings a week.,可见在他生命的最后岁月里,他的身体状况很好。 3. A。主旨题。纵观全文可知。 4. A。推断题。根据 he stole 82 bases…the Senators’ leading hitter…threw out three batters… managed to catch a fly ball to make the third out in spite of the fog. 等细节,可以判断 Hoy 是他 那个时代最杰出的棒球选手。

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二、故事类 Mr. Peter Johnson, aged twenty-three, battled for half an hour to escape from his trapped car yesterday when it landed upside down in three feet of water. Mr. Johnson took the only escape route—through the boot(行李箱). Mr. Johnson’s car had finished up in a ditch(沟渠) at Romney Marsin, Kent after skidding on ice and hitting a bank. “Fortunately, the water began to come in only slowly,” Mr. Johnson said. “I couldn’t force the doors because they were jammed against the walls of the ditch and dared not open the windows because I knew water would come flooding in.” Mr. Johnson, a sweet salesman of Sitting Home, Kent, first tried to attract the attention of other motorists by sounding the horn and hammering on the roof and boot. Then he began his struggle to escape. Later he said, “It was really a half penny that saved my life. It was the only coin I had in my pocket and I used it to unscrew the back seat to get into the boot. I hammered desperately with a hammer trying to make someone hear, but no help came.” It took ten minutes to unscrew the seat, and a further five minutes to clear the sweet samples from the boot. Then Mr. Johnson found a wrench and began to work on the boot lock. Fifteen minutes passed by. “It was the only chance I had. Finally it gave, but as soon as I moved the boot lid, the water and mud poured in. I forced the lid down into the mud and scrambled clear as the car filled up.” His hands and arms cut and bruised(擦伤), Mr. Johnson got to Beckett Farm nearby, where he was looked after by the farmer’s wife, Mrs. Lucy Bates. Huddled in a blanket, he said, “That thirty minutes seemed like hours.” Only the tips of the car wheels were visible, police said last night. The vehicle had sunk into two feet of mud at the bottom of the ditch. 1. What is the best title for this newspaper article? A. The Story of Mr. Johnson, A Sweet Salesman B. Car Boot Can Serve As The Best Escape Route C. Driver Escapes Through Car Boot A. The hammer. B. The coin. D. The Driver Survived A Terrible Car Accident D. The horn. 2. Which of the following objects is the most important to Mr. Johnson? C. The screw. 3. Which statement is true according to the passage? A. Mr. Johnson’s car stood on its boot as it fell down. B. Mr. Johnson could not escape from the door because it was full of sweet jam. C. Mr. Johnson’s car accident was partly due to the slippery road. D. Mr. Johnson struggled in the pouring mud as he unscrewed the back seat. 4. “Finally it gave” (Paragraph 5) means that _______. A. Luckily the door was torn away in the end C. The lock came open after all his efforts A. the ditch was along a quiet country road B. At last the wrench went broken D. The chance was lost at the last minute B. the accident happened on a clear warm day

5. It may be inferred from the passage that _______. C. the police helped Mr. Johnson get out of the ditch D. Mr. Johnson had a tender wife and was well attended 【答案与解析】本文记述了 Mr. Johnson 由于车祸被困于水下车内半个小时,最后死里逃生 的故事。
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1. C。 主旨题。 根据第 1 段 Mr. Peter Johnson…escape from his trapped car…through the boot 归 纳出文章的标题为答案 C。 2. B。 细节题。 根据第 4 段 Mr. Johnson 所说的话及他后面所做的事情可推知此题答案为 B。 3. C。细节题。根据第 2 段第一句…skidding on ice and hitting a bank 可推知答案为 C。 4. C。词句理解题。根据其上文 …work on the boot lock 及下文 but as soon as I moved the boot lid, the water and mud poured in 可推知此题答案为 C。 5. A。推断题。根据第 4 段最后一句 but no help came 及最后一段的第一句 Mr. Johnson got to Beckett Farm nearby 可推知地点是在寂静的农村,此题答案为 A。 三、新闻类 June 26, 2000 — the Human Genome(基因组) Project, a great $3 billion, 15-year task aimed at drawing the genetic(遗传的) map of humans, is now more than 90 percent completed. The scientific and medical communities(团体) are very excited about the chances genetic research provides for getting rid of diseases and prolonging(延长) human life. But those communities and policy(政策) makers also are careful about the scientific door they are opening as the project uncovers the mysteries of life. For the last few years, the genetic advances in the developing field of biotechnology(生物技 术) have provides material for all kinds of work, but the developments of modern science in unlocking the secrets of the human genetic code(密码) have opened a world of possibilities for human health, as well as for the popular imagination. While European and Japanese researchers are making rapid progress in decoding(解码) human DNA, the leading organization for genetic research is in the United States, which began in 1990, is “unlocking the code” of the human body to learn how to defeat fatal(致命的)diseases. Already, the Human Genome Project has become widely known and praised for finding the genes(基因) connected with terrible diseases as yet(迄今), and making progress toward separating the genes that show a sign of breast cancer or AIDS. Once these genes are found and studied, researchers can develop new ways to attack infections(传染), and genetic diseases. Medical companies are very interested in mapping the human genome, as they expect to develop a lot of new drugs for these illnesses. 1. Why did the scientists work hard at mapping the human genome? A. Because the human genome can destroy many illnesses. B. Because the human genome's completion can help them get rid of many diseases. C. Because they wanted to be better known than others. D. Because the human genome can provide a lot of chances of work. 2. Which country studied the genes most rapidly in the world? A. Japan. B. Germany. C. The United States. D. China. 3. Which of the following is NOT true? A. If the genes can be found, scientists can study many new ways to cure illnesses. B. The scientists have made great progress in connecting the genes with the cancers. C. Many medical companies show great interest in drawing the human genome map. D. The United States began the Genes Study early in the 19th century. 4. The author suggests that the Human Genome Project can cause _______. A. the policy makers to feel very worried and careful
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B. the scientists to work harder

C. many people to find work easily A. unlocking genetic code C. the great human genome 命将成为现实。

D. a lot of companies to produce many new drugs B. the genes' discovery D. the genes and the scientists

5. The main idea of this article is about _______.

【答案与解析】绘制人类基因组图,这将意味着人类消灭癌症、艾滋病的危害,延长人类寿 1. B。 语义理解题。 从文章最后一段第 1 句话 Once these genes are found and studied, researchers can develop new ways to attack infections(传染), and genetic diseases 可以看出科学家们完成 人类基因组图的目的。 2. C。细节题。因为…the leading organization for genetic research is in the United States,所以答 案选 C。 3. D。 判断题。 美国是在 1990 年, 20 世纪末开始绘制人类基因组图的, 即 所以选项 D 不对。 4. B。判断题。从文章内容可知,人类基因组图的完成将有助于科学家们攻克一系列难关。 所以,他们在更努力地探究。 5. A。主旨题。综合文章内容,不难概括出本文主旨:解读基因密码。 四、科技类 With only about 1, 000 pandas left in the world, China is desperately trying to clone(克隆) the animal and save the endangered species(物种). That’s a move similar to what a Texas A & M University researchers have been undertaking for the past five years in a project called “Noah’s Ark”. Noah’s Ark is aimed at collecting eggs, embryos(胚胎), semen and DNA of endangered animals and storing them in liquid nitrogen. If certain species should become extinct, Dr. Duane Kraemer, a professor in Texas A & M’s College of Veterinary Medicine, says there would be enough of the basic building blocks to reintroduce the species in the future. It is estimated that as many as 2, 000 species of mammals, birds reptiles will become extinct in over 100 years. The panda, native only to China, is in danger of becoming extinct in the next 25 years. This week, Chinese scientists said they grew an embryo by introducing cells from a dead female panda into the egg cells of a Japanese white rabbit. They are now trying to implant the embryo into a host animal. The entire procedure could take from three to five years to complete. “The nuclear transfer(核子移植) of one species to another is not easy, and the lack of available(capable of being used) panda eggs could be a major problem,” Kraemer believes. “They will probably have to do several hundred transfers to result in one pregnancy (having a baby). It takes a long time and it’s difficult, but this could be groundbreaking science if it works. They are certainly not putting any live pandas at risk, so it is worth the effort,” adds Kraemer, who is one of the leaders of the Project at Texas A& M, the first-ever attempt at cloning a dog. “They are trying to do something that’s never been done, and this is very similar to our work in Noah’s Ark. We’re both trying to save animals that face extinction. I certainly appreciate their effort and there’s a lot we can learn from what they are attempting to do. It’s a research that is very much needed.” 1. The aim of “Noah’s Ark” project is to _______.
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A. make efforts to clone the endangered pandas C. collect DNA of endangered animals to study _______. A. available panda eggs B. host animals A. China’s Success in Pandas Cloning C. Exploring the Possibility to Clone Pandas 4. From the passage we know that _______.

B. save endangered animals from dying out D. transfer the nuclear of one animal to another

2. According to Professor Kraemer, the major problem in cloning pandas would be the lack of C. qualified researchers D. enough money B. The First Cloned Panda in the World D. China —the Native Place of Pandas Forever

3. The best title for the passage may be _______.

A. Kraemer and his team have succeeded in cloning a dog B. scientists try to implant a panda’s egg into a rabbit C. Kraemer will work with Chinese scientists in clone researches D. about two thousand of species will probably die out in a century 【答案与解析】本文讲述中国正在竭力克隆濒临绝种的熊猫。 1. B。 语义理解题。 从第 2 段内容可知, “诺亚方舟”工程的目标是把濒临灭绝的动物的蛋(卵)、 胚胎、 精液和 DNA 储存在液体氮中, 如果某一种动物濒临灭绝时, 将来可以重现这一动物。 2. A。 细节题。 从第 6 段第 1 句话 The nuclear transfer(核子移植) of one species to another is not easy, and the lack of available (capable of being used ) panda eggs could be a major problem 可 以做出正确判断。 3. C。主旨题。从文章内容来看,无论是中国还是世界克隆熊猫还没有成功,所以排除 A、 B 项;D 项内容明显与文章内容不符,故排除。所以“探索克隆熊猫的可能性”应该是这篇文 章的标题。 4. D。判断题。此题 B 项的干扰性较强,但由于它没有说明是 Chinese scientists,所以应排 除。A、C 项明显与原文不符。根据文章第 3 段第 1 句可知答案非 D 莫属。 五、文化类 A characteristic of American culture that has become almost a tradition is to respect the self-made man — the man who has risen to the top through his own efforts, usually beginning by working with his hands. While the leader in business or industry or the college professor occupies a higher social position and commands greater respect in the community than the common laborer or even the skilled factory worker, he may take pains to point out that his father started life in America as a farmer or laborer of some sort. This attitude toward manual(体力的) labor is now still seen in many aspects of American life. One is invited to dinner at a home that is not only comfortably but even luxuriously (豪华地) furnished and in which there is every evidence of the fact that the family has been able to afford foreign travel, expensive hobbies, and college education for the children; yet the hostess probably will cook the dinner herself, will serve it herself and will wash dishes afterward, furthermore the dinner will not consist merely of something quickly and easily assembled from contents of various cans and a cake or a pie bought at the nearby bakery. On the contrary, the hostess usually takes pride in careful preparation of special dishes. A professional man may talk about washing the car, digging in his flowerbeds, painting the house. His wife may even help with these things, just as he often helps her with the dishwashing. The son who is away at college may wait on table and wash dishes for his living, or during the summer he may work with a construction gang on a highway in order to pay for his education.
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1. From paragraph 1, we can know that in America _________. A. people tend to have a high opinion of the self-made man B. people can always rise to the top through their won efforts C. college professors win great respect from common workers D. people feel painful to mention their fathers as labors. 2. According to the passage, the hostess cooks dinner herself mainly because _________. A. servants in American are hard to get B. she takes pride in what she can do herself C. she can hardly afford servants D. It is easy to prepare a meal with canned food 3. The expression “ wait on table” in the second paragraph means “_________”. A. work in a furniture shop B. keep accounts for a bar C. wait to lay the table D. serve customers in a restaurant 4. Which of the following may serve as the best title of the passage? A. A Respectable Self-made Family B. American Attitude toward Manual Labor C. Characteristics of American Culture D. The Development of Manual Labor 【答案解析】本文介绍了崇尚自我奋斗,尊重体力劳动的美国文化。 1. A。 细节题。 根据 A characteristic of American culture that has become almost a tradition is to respect the self-made made 我们可以了解到,“崇尚自我奋斗”是美国文化的特点。 2. B。 推断题。 根据 This attitude toward manual(体力的) labor is now still seen in many aspects of American life.(在美国生活的方方面面,尊重体力劳动态度的现象仍然随处可见),可以推断 女主人亲自下厨,是因为她以能做这样的体力活而自豪。 3. D。词义猜测题。wait on table 意为“服务顾客”,注意其后的 washing dishes 也有一定的 暗示意义,故答案为 D。 4. B。主旨题。纵观全文,文章主要讲了美国崇尚自我奋斗,尊重体力劳动的文化习惯。故 答案为 B。 六、教育类 So long as teachers fail to distinguish (differ) between teaching and learning, they will continue to undertake to do for children that which only children can do for themselves. Teaching children to read is not passing reading on to them. It is certainly not endless hours spent in activities about reading. Douglas insists that “reading cannot be taught directly and schools should stop trying to do the impossible”. Teaching and learning are two entirely different processes. They differ in kind and function. The function of teaching is to create the conditions and the climate that will make it possible for children to plan cleverly the most efficient(有效的) system for teaching themselves to read. Teaching is also a public activity: It can be seen and observed. Learning to read involves all that each individual does to understand the world of printed language. Almost all of it is private, for learning is an occupation of the mind, and that process is not open to public scrutiny. If teacher and learner roles are not interchangeable, what then can be done through teaching that will aid the child in the long search for knowledge? Smith has one principle rule for all teaching instructions. “Make learning to read easy, which means making reading a meaningful, enjoyable and frequent experience for children.” When the roles of teacher and learner are seen for what they are, and when both teacher and learner fulfill them properly, then much of the pressure and feeling of failure for both is got rid of.
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Learning to read is made easier when teachers create an environment where children are given the chance to solve the problem of learning to read by learning. 1. The problem with the reading course as mentioned in the first paragraph is that_______. A. too much time is spent in teaching about reading B. reading tasks are given with little guidance C. it is one of the most difficult school courses D. students spend limited hours in reading 2. The teaching of reading will be successful if _______. A. teachers can make their teaching activities observable B. teachers can teach their students how to read C. teachers can improve conditions at school for the students D. teachers can enable students to develop their own way of reading 3. The word “scrutiny” (Paragraph 3) most probably means “_______”. A. unbelief B. control C. inquiry D. observation 4. The main idea of the passage is that_______. A. reading is more complicated than believable B. reading ability is something gained rather than taught C. teachers should encourage students to read as widely as possible D. teachers should do as little as possible in helping students learn to read 【答案与解析】本文从教与学的关系出发,提出了对孩子们的阅读教学方法的看法。 1.A。推断题。根据文章第 1 段倒数第 2 句:在阅读活动方面并不是时间无休止的投入,也 就是说:在阅读上花费的时间太多了。由此可推知此题答案为 A。 2.D。细节题。通读 Almost all of it is private, for learning is an occupation of the mind, and that process is not open to public scrutiny 可知,private 与 not open to public scrutiny 同义,据此 可推知答案为 D。 3.D。词义猜测题。根据上文 private 及单词所在的语句 not open to public scrutiny 可知:它 们同义,由此可推知此题答案为 D。 4.B。主旨题。根据文章第 1 段第 2 句及全文内容可推知此题答案为 B。 七、社会类 The Internet has led to a huge increase in credit-card (信用卡) fraud. Your card information could even be for sale in an illegal web site(非法网站). Web sites offering cheap goods and services should be regarded with care. On-line shoppers who enter their credit-card information may never receive the goods they thought they bought. The thieves then go shopping with your card number — or sell the information over the Internet. Computers hackers(黑客) have broken down security(安全) systems, raising questions about the safety of cardholder information. Several months ago, 25, 000 customers of CD Universe, an on-line music retailer(零售商), were not lucky. Their names, addresses and credit-card numbers were posted on a Web site after the retailer refused to pay US $157, 828 to get back the information. Credit-card firms are now fighting against on-line fraud. Mastercard is working on plans for Web — only credit card, with a lower credit limit. The card could be used only for shopping on-line. However, there are a few simple steps you can take to keep from being cheated(欺骗).
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Ask about your credit-card firm’s on-line rules: Under British law, cardholders have to pay the first US $78 of any fraudulent(欺骗性的) spending. And shop only at secure sites; Send your credit-card information only if the Web site offers advanced secure system. If the security is in place, a letter will appear in the bottom right-hand corner of your screen. The Website address may also start https: //—the extra “s” stands for secure. If in doubt, give your credit-card information over the telephone. Keep your password(密码) safe: Most on-line sites require a user name and password before placing an order. Treat your passwords with care. 1. What do most people worry about the Internet according to this passage? A. A lot of stolen credit-cards were sold on the Internet. C. Many Web sites are destroyed. 2. What is the meaning of “fraud”? A. Cheating. B. Sale. C. Payment. D. Safety. 3. How can the thieves get the information of the credit card? A. The customers give them the information. B. The thieves steal the information from Web sites. C. The customers sell the information to them. D. The thieves buy the information from credit-card firms. 4. How many pieces of advice does the passage give to you? A. Four. B. Three. C. Five. D. Six. 5. You are shopping on the site: http: // www. Shopping. com, and you want to buy a TV set, what does this article suggest to do? A. Order the TV set at once. C. E-mail the site your credit-card information. D. Tell the site your password and buy the TV set for you. 【答案与解析】 本文介绍了网上黑客人员盗用信用卡资料进行欺骗的行为以及我们该怎样防 卫的措施。 1. B。推断题。根据文章第 1 段第 1 句(因特网已导致使用信用卡欺骗行为大量增加)可推知 此题答案为 B。 2. A。词义猜测题。根据第 1 段第 2 句(你的卡上资料可能会在网上非法出售)和第 4 段最后 一句(可采用下列步骤防止受欺骗)可推知此题答案为 A。 3. B。推断题。根据文章第 2 段的提醒(当心那些提供便宜商品或服务的网址)可推知此题答 案为 B。也可采用排除法:根据文章内容,排除 A 和 C(并且此两项也不合情理);根据文章 第 4 段第 1 句可知选项 D 也不正确。因此选 B。 4. A。细节题。根据对文章第五、六、七、八段的归纳可推知此题的答案为 A。 5. B。 细节题。 根据文章倒数第 2 段中的说明: 安全的网址应在电脑的右下角有一个小字母, 或在网址中有一个字母 S,而问题中的网址中没有字母 S,从而可推知此题答案为 B。 B. Do not buy the TV set on this site. B. Fraud on the Internet. D. Many illegal Web sites are on the Internet.

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