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how 引导名词性从句的用法探讨


how 引导名词性从句的用法探讨
what 与 how 用法之比较似乎是很简单的一个问题, 但宜昌市 2004 届第二次调研考试的 一道完形填空题却引起了极大争议。现摘录如下: You must have heard these words like how happy it is to be a child. But would you honestly change places with a child? Think of the years at school: the years spent liv ing in frequent fear of examinations and school activities. Every thought you think is controlled by some adults. Think of the times you had to go to bed early, you had to eat hateful thing that was supposed to be good for you. Remember _______ “gentle” pressure was given to you with words like “If you don't do as I say, I will...” I'm sure you will never forget! A. what B. why C. that D. how 参考答案为 D。对于此空有着如下一些观点: 观点 1:应选 A。Remember 后的宾语从句是一感叹句,而感叹词强调修饰的是名词 pressure,故应选用 what。 观点 2: 应选 D。也认为 Remember 后的宾语从句是一感叹句,而感叹词所强调修饰 的名词 pressure 前有一形容词 gentle,故应选用 how 。 观点 3: 应选 C。因为 what 与 how 引导的感叹句不可用作宾语从句,故 A 与 D 均不 对。 观点 4: 应选 D。认为 how “gentle”在句中作状语。 笔者认为此题单纯从语法结构上讲,四个选项均对。但在上述特定语境下应选 D, how 为佳。 此时的 how 引导的并非感叹句, 而是一句意思为 “??的情形” 、 “??的情景” 、 “?? 的经历”或“怎样、怎么”的连词引导宾语从句,相当于 the fact / situation / times / way that 。 A 项 what 干扰性很大, 但由于 gentle 用了引号且起否定作用, 故而不宜构成 What “gentle” pressure ... 的感叹句。 需注意的是, how 与名词连用构成感叹句一般只能是两种形式: how + many / much + 名词;how + 形容词 + a / an + 名词。 由此看来,对 how 引导名词性从句用法有待进一步探讨。在此谈谈己见。 how 引导名词性从句有如下几种情况: 1. 表方式、方法,相当于 the way in which。可译作“怎样、怎么” 。例如: I didn't know how he came here. 2. 表程度上的感叹,可译作“多么??、真??、这么??”等。例如: He said how beautiful those flowers were. He said how he regretted the hours wasted in the woods and fields. He was surprised at how much water I had drunk. 3. 表对程度、数量、情况的疑问。例如: She wondered how he loved her. I don't know how many students there are in our school. I have no idea how my mother is now. I want to know how he is getting on with his studies. 4. 仅用作连词引导间接陈述句,本身无意义。例如: He told me how (= that) he had read about it in the newspaper. 5. 用作连词,相当于 the fact / situation / times... that, 可译作“??的样子” 、 “??的情 形” 、 “??的情景” 、 “??的经历”等。例如: I still remember how they laughed.

I still remember how I left my hometown for the first time. I won't forget how we lived together. I won't forget how I lived in my childhood. (文/胡君祥; 英语辅导报)


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