A (2015·宿迁市三模)Depression can be a devastating illness，plaguing millions of people worldwide with feelings of sadness，hopelessness，and fatigue.Despite numerous antidepress
ant drugs，as many as a third of patients don’t respond to medication.This has forced doctors to be more creative in finding different treatments for the condition. In the past two decades ， researchers have tied depression to a seemingly unrelated condition：inflammation(炎症)，the body’s natural response to stress.It could rise from injury or inflection ， or even emotional issues like an unhappy marriage or problems at work.Some amount of inflammation is generally beneficial， as it increases production of cytokines (致癌因子)，proteins that help us heal and protect us from the effects of overwork. But excessive cytokine levels，and the inflammation they bring on，could come at a cost.A number of studies suggest that high levels of cytokines could contribute to depression. Cytokines can reach the brain several ways：directly through the blood?brain barrier or indirectly by binding to nerve fibers elsewhere，which send signals to the brain to produce the inflammation molecules.In the brain，cytokines can disturb the production and release of several important signaling chemicals ， including serotonin，dopamine and glutamate，which help control emotion，appetite，sleep， learning and memory.It’s thought that a lack of serotonin activity in the brain causes depression; most antidepressants increase the activity.But cytokines also have been shown to activate stress hormone signaling in the brain，which can also serve to develop depression. With all the evidence implicating inflammation in depression， doctors have been anxious to test anti?inflammatory drugs as a potential treatment.Four small students published between 2006 and 2012 by research groups in Europe and Iran found that adults diagnosed with depression who took aspirin or another anti?inflammatory drug called C elecoxib，along with an antidepressant，got more relief from feelings of sadness， hopelessness， guilt and fatigue compared with those taking an antidepressant alone.However， Andrew Miller， a professor of psychiatry at Emory University， thought something was amiss in these small，limited studies.None of them looked at whether the participants had to have high levels of cytokines before into the trap of viewing inflammatory drugs.“Unfortunately，much of the field has fallen into the trap of viewing inflammation as the be?all，end?all， ” Miller says.He and his colleagues wanted to see whether the effect of these drugs was limited to the depression patients with high cytokine levels，or if it helped all people diagnosed with depression. 【解题导语】 这是一篇医疗文章阅读。文章主要介绍了抑郁症形成的过程和原因，也 提供了一些治疗方法，但到目前为止还没有非常满意的疗效。
1．Which of the following illustrates how depression is developed? A．infection→inflammation→cytokine→depression B．stress→overwork→inflammation→depression C．cytokine→stress→infection→depression D．inflammation→ infection→stress→depression 解析：选 A。细节理解题。根据题干关键词 how depression is developed 找到文章对 应段落第二段，根据该段的第二句话和第三句话判断抑郁形成的步骤是 A。 2．We can infer from the passage that________． A．depression will be an incurable disease for a long time B．we have a long way to go before depression can be satisfying treated C．people who are hard?working are more subject to depression D．aspirin can effectively help relieve people of many emotional problems 解析：选 B。细节理解题。根据文章的第一段排除 A；根据文章第四段的倒数第二句话 排除 C；根据文章第五段的第二句话排除 D；根据文章最后一段专家的分析说明抑郁症的治 疗要有很漫长的路要走，故选 B。 3 ． The underlined word “excessive” in Para.3 is closest in meaning to “________”． A．intermediate B．mild C．appropriate D．overmuch 解析：选 D。词义猜测题。intermediate 中间的；mild 温柔的；appropriate 适当的； overmuch 过度的。根据文章第二段的最后一句话 increases production of...可判断是过 度的，故选 D。 4．Which of the following shows the right structure of the passage?
解析：选 C。篇章结构题。通读全文，并根据文章的第一段提出论点，最后一段回扣主 题，由此可判断选择 C。 B
(2016·贵州七校联盟第一次联考)The largest land animal remaining on the earth， the African elephant ， is of much importance to African ecosystem.Unlike other animals ， the African elephant is to a great extent the builder of its environment.As a giant plant?eater，it significantly shapes the forest?and?savanna surroundings in which it lives ， therefore deciding the conditions of existence for millions of other animals that live in its habitat. It is the elephant’s great desire for food that makes it both a disturber of the environment and an important builder of its habitat.In its continuous search for the 300 pounds of plants it must have every day，it kills small trees and bushes，
as well as pulls branches off big trees.This results in numerous open spaces in not only deep tropical forests but also the woodlands that cover part of the African savannas.In these open spaces，there are numerous plants in various stages of growth， which attract a variety of other plant?eaters. Take the rain forests for example.In their natural states， the spreading branches overhead shut out sunlight and prevent the growth of plants on the forest floor.By pulling down trees and eating plants，elephants create open spaces，allowing new plants to grow on the forest floor.In such situations，the forests become suitable for large?hoofed plant?eaters to move around and for small?sized plant?eaters to obtain their food as well. Scientists are worried now that the African elephant has become an endangered species.If the elephant dies out ， scientists say ， many other animals will also disappear from vast areas of forests and savannas，greatly changing and worsening the whole ecosystem. 【解题导语】 本文是一篇说明文， 文章主要介绍了非洲象对非洲大草原生态系统的巨 大影响。 5．It can be inferred from the passage that the African elephant ________． A．is now the largest animal on the earth B．determines the living conditions of millions of other animals in its habitat C．has far?reaching impacts on its habitat as a giant animal?eater D．makes great contributions to its environment like other animals 解析： 选 B 。推理判断题。根据文 章第一段中的 “As a giant plant?eater， it significantly shapes the forest ? and ? savanna surroundings in which it lives ， therefore deciding the conditions of existence for millions of other animals that live in its habitat.”可推知，非洲象作为巨大的食草动物，它决定着栖息地的许多其他 动物的生活条件，即 B 项正确。 6．The African elephant influences the ecosystem in the following ways except that ______. A．it creates open areas in deep tropical forests as well as woodlands B．it pulls off the branches and leaves，shutting out the sunshine C．its eating habit can be made use of by large?hoofed and small?sized animals D．it encourages the growth of some plants 解析：选 B。细节理解题。根据第三段中的“In their natural states，the spreading branches overhead shut out sunlight and prevent the growth of plants on the forest floor.”可知，应选 B 项。 7．According to the passage，which of the following statements is TRUE? A．Numerous grown plants are the favorites of plant?eaters. B．The extinction of the African elephant has nothing to do with the ecosystem. C．Quantities of plants are consumed by African elephants，including branches and bushes. D．The forest floor in tropical forests is scarcely dotted with new shoots. 解析：选 C。正误判断题。根据第二段中的“In its continuous search for the 300 pounds of plants it must have every day，it kills small trees and bushes，as well
as pulls branches off big trees.”可知，C 项正确。 8．The passage is developed mainly by ______. A．presenting the changes in time order B．making comparisons and giving examples C．classifying similarities and differences D．showing the effect and then explaining the reasons 解析：选 D。篇章结构题。全文的内容结构为：首段概括介绍非洲象对非洲大草原生态 系统的巨大影响，第二、三段具体说明在哪方面、怎样影响了生态环境，第四段科学家对非 洲象已成为濒危物种的担心呼应首段的内容，故选 D 项。 C (2015·高考命题专家原创卷)You signed up for soccer，and played every game of the season.Sure，you’re not the best player on the team，but most days you gave it your all.Do you deserve a trophy(奖杯)? If the decision is up to Carol Dweck，the answer would likely be no.She’s a psychology professor at Stanford University，California.She says a player doesn’ t have to be the best to get a trophy.But those who receive an award should have to work for it.She suggests trophies go to the most improved player，or the one who contributed most to the team spirit，as well as to those who play the best. “The trophy has to stand for something， ”Dweck told TFK.“If we give a trophy to everyone，then the award has no value.”Dweck argues that giving kids trophies for particular reasons，such as improving in a sport，teaches kids that adults value hard work and trying our best. Others say that there’s no harm in giving awards to all kids who play a sport， regardless of how they played or whether or not they improved. “I think we should encourage kids’ participation in sports， ” says Kenneth Barish， a psychology professor at Weill Cornell Medical College， in New York City.“A trophy is one way to encourage kids’ efforts.” Barish argues that when we single_out only the best or even the most improved players with a trophy，we are teaching kids the wrong lesson.We are sending the message that winning is everything.“Winning is only part of the equation(等式)， ” Barish told TFK.“Playing sports also teaches kids about teamwork and the importance of exercise.” There will be plenty of opportunity for kids to learn about competition as they get older，says Barish.They’ll soon realize that only one soccer team wins the World Cup and only one football team wins the Super Bowl.For now，he thinks there’s nothing wrong with letting all kids who play a sport feel like winners.That means trophies for everyone. 【解题导语】 如果孩子参加体育比赛， 那么是不是每个人都该得到奖杯呢？文章就这 个问题给出了两种不同的看法。 9．According to Carol Dweck，which player should receive a trophy? A．Tony，the most attractive player of the soccer team. B．David，a soccer player who is both clever and funny. C．Peter，who is ready to help his partners to score goals. D．Jim，a soccer player who tries his best to win the game.
解析：选 C。推理判断题。根据第二段可知，斯坦福大学的心理学教授 Carol Dweck 认 为，获奖的运动员未必是最好的运动员。她认为，进步最大的、对团队精神贡献最多的和表 现最佳的运动员都应获奖。故 C 项正确。 10．Which of the following statements would Kenneth Barish agree with? A．There is no sense in giving a trophy to everyone. B．Kids fond of playing sports should be rewarded. C．Kids should be given trophies for trying their best. D．It is necessary to encourage kids’ participation in sports. 解析： 选 D。 细节理解题。 根据第五段可知， 纽约市威尔康乃尔医学院心理学教授 Kenneth Barish 认为，我们应该鼓励孩子参加体育活动。颁发奖杯是一种激励方式。 11． The underlined phrase “single out” in Paragraph 6 probably means “________”． A．honour B．choose C．value D．stress 解析：选 B。词义猜测题。根据第六段可知，Barish 认为，当我们挑选出最佳球员或进 步最大球员并授予他们奖杯的时候，我们给孩子传递了一个错误的信号：获胜就是一切。因 此画线的短语“single out”意为“挑出”。 12．Which shows the correct structure of the text?
解析：选 B。篇章结构题。本文的第一段为导语，导入讨论的话题。第二、三段陈述了 斯坦福大学的心理学教授 Carol Dweck 的主要观点：反对人人获奖。下文(第四段至第七段) 陈述的是纽约市威尔康乃尔医学院的心理学教授 Kenneth Barish 的观点， 即赞成人人获奖。 因此 B 项清晰地展示了本文的结构。