literary terms: epic 史诗,叙事诗-a long narrative poem about the adventures of a hero long narrative poems that record the adventures or heroic deeds of a hero enacted in vast landscapes. The styl
e of epic is grand and elevated. alliteration 头韵-a rhetorical device, meaning some words in a sentence begin with the same consonant sound（头韵） understatement 轻描淡写-expressing something in a controlled way Understatement is a typical way for Englishmen to express their ideas heroic couplet: a verse unit consisting of two rhymed(押韵) lines in iambic pentameter(五步抑扬 格)
五步抑扬格: 1．每一行诗有十个音节 2．每十个音节中分五个音步 3．每一个音步有两个音节，重音落在第二个音节上。 英雄双韵体: 1、五音步抑扬格 2、押尾韵对偶句 3、韵尾双行押韵，英语称之为 couplet 不重复。 4、风格简洁。 音步是诗行中按一定规律出现的轻音节和重音节的不同组合成的韵律最小的单位
romance 骑士传奇 1>In the mid-18th century, a new literary movement called romanticism came to Europe and then to England. 2>It was characterized by a strong protest against the bondage of neoclassicism, which emphasized reason, order and elegant wit. Instead, romanticism gave primary concern to passion, emotion, and natural beauty. 3>In the history of literature. Romanticism is generally regarded as the thought that designates a literary and philosophical theory which tends to see the individual as the very center of all life and experience. 4>The English romantic period is an age of poetry which prevailed in England from 1798 to 1837. The major romantic poets include Wordsworth, Byron and Shelley. Ballad 民谣：a story told in song, literature for the lower class. Basic features:repetitions of words;uniform in mood;dramatic in plot Ballad is a story in poetic from to be sung or recited. in more exact literary terminology, a ballad is a narrative poem consisting of quatrains of iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trimester.(抑扬格四音步与抑扬格三音步诗行交替出现的四行叙事诗) 2>.ballads were passed down from generation to generation. 3>Coleridge’s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a 19th century English ballad. sonnet 十四行诗: A sonnet is a lyric consisting of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter restricted to a definition rhyme scheme.
Lyric(抒情诗) Lyric is a short poem wherein the poet expresses an emotion or illustrates some life principle. 2>Lyric often concerns love. 3>the elegy, ode and sonnet are all forms of the lyric. iambic pentameter:五步抑扬格 Literary terms: monologue＞soliloquy 独白有两种，一个是 Monologue，一个是 soliloquy。 soliloquy: a speech in a drama in which a character usually stand alone on the stage, and talks to himself, so that the audience could know his thoughts and emotions. Monologue: a long speech which is spoken by one person as an entertainment, or as part of an entertainment such as a play. 二者的区别与联系是： 都是演员站在舞台上独白。 soliloquy 翻译成“内心独白” ，主要反映角色的心理活动，观众可以了解到，而剧中其他人 物并不知道他的思想活动。哈姆雷特"to be or not to be"就是典型的 soliloquy，自言自语。 Monologue 翻译成“独白” ，可能是对剧中其他人物说的，观众和剧中其他角色都知道。 Literary term: “three unities” (unity of time, place and action—one day, one place, one plot) 三一律（一个情节、一个地点、一个时间） The classical unities,Aristotelian unities or three unities are rules for drama derived from a passage in Aristotle's Poetics.In their neoclassical form they are as follows: A.The unity of time:the action in a play should take place over no more than 24 hours. B.The unity of place:a play should cover a single physical space and should not attempt to compress geography,nor should the stage represent more than one place. C.The unity of action:a play should have one main action that it follows,with no or few subplots. Literary term: conceit 奇喻 Conceit is a far-fetched simile or metaphor, a literary conceit occurs when the speaker compares two highly dissimilar things. 2>conceit is extensively employed in John Donne’s poetry. Literary term: heroic couplet: lines of iambic pentameter that rhyme in pairs (aa, bb, cc)英雄双韵体 They are poetry composed in iambic pentameter. In this form of poetry, lines consisting of five iambic feet rime together in pairs. The rime scheme :aa bb cc ?..