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情态动词 have done的用法


“情态动词+have done”的用法 “情态动词+have done”表示对过去情况的推测或估计,是历年高考的热点。现就这一语言 现象作如下归纳: 1. should (ought to) have+过去分词? 表示过去应该做而(实际)没有做的事情,含有责备或遗憾的语气,意为“本应该……”;其 否定形式为“should not/ought not to have + 过去分词”

,表示某种行为不该发生但却发 生了。 Mr. White _____ at 8:30 for the meeting , but he didn’t’ show up. (04’广西卷) A. should have arrived B. should arrive C. should have had arrived D. should be arriving [解析]本题中的一个关键词 but 暗示了“Mr. White 按道理理应到了,而他没有到”。故答案选 [A]。 2.needn’t have+过去分词 表示过去没有必要做某事, 但实际上做了某事。 As you worked late yesterday, you_________ have come this morning. (06’陕西卷) A. mayn’t B. can’t C. mustn’t D. needn’t [解析] He needn't have come,表示“他本没有必要来(实际却来了)”,根据句意,答案应 选[D]。 [注意] He didn't need to come yesterday,意为“他昨天没有必要来(实际也没来)”。 3.must have+过去分词 用于肯定句,表示“过去一定做过某事”,表示一种很有把握的推测。 [注意] 对过去发生情况的否定推测常用 can’t/couldn’t have +过去分词。 I have lost one of my gloves. I ________ it somewhere . (05’北京春季) A. must drop B. must have dropped C. must be dropping D. must have been dropped [解析]本题应选 B。本题的前一句说明一个结果,后一句则表示一个原因。 I _______have been more than six years old when the accident happened. (05’天津卷) A. shouldn't B. couldn't C. mustn't D. needn't [解析]从题意上分析,本题的前一句陈述一个理由,后一句则是由前一句得出的结论。故本 题选[b] 。? 4.may/might have+过去分词 表示对过去情况的一种不太有把握的可能性推测,表示“过去可能/大概已做了某事”;否定 句表示“过去可能还没有做某事”。 We have proved great adventurers, but we have done the greatest march ever made in the past ten years. (06’天津卷) A. needn’t B. may not C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t Key:[b] 5.can/could have+过去分词? 表示“过去本来可以做某事,但实际上没有做”;否定句表示“不可能已做了某事”;疑问句表 示“可能/也许已做了某事吗?”。

--- I stayed at a hotel while in New York . --- Oh, did you? You ____ with Barbara.? (NMET’98) A. could have stayed ?? B. could stay C. would stay ?? D. must have stayed ? Key: [A] 巩固性练习:从 A、B、C、D 中选择最佳答案。 1.---You didn’t wait for Mr. Smith last night, did you? ---No, but we ______. He didn’t return home at all. A. couldn’t have waited B. needn’t have C. didn’t need to D. should wait 2.Harry ______ have won the Physics competition easily yesterday, but he gave up. A. could B. might C. should D. must 3.---May I speak to your manager Mr. Smith at six o’clock tonight ?” ---“I’m sorry, Mr. Smith to a conference before then.” A. will have gone B. had gone C. would have gone D. has gone 4.---Tom took away our teacher’s cell phone without being permitted. --- Really? I can’t imagine that he _______ have done such a thing. A. must B. may C. can D. should 5.--- Was it you that made the suggestion? --- It have been. I can’t remember. A. need B. must C. should D. may 6.The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I_________ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me . A. should have taken B. could have taken C. needn't have taken D. mustn't have taken 7.He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free. A. could B. would C. must D. need 8.I didn’t see her in the meeting room this morning. She at the meeting . A. mustn’t have spoken B. mightn’t have spoken C. can’t have spoken D. shouldn’t have spoken 9.--- Hi, is that Peter Brown? ---Sorry. You ______ the wrong number . A. must dial B. must have dialed C. should dial D. should have dialed 10.I was on the highway when this car went past followed by a police car . They ______ at least 150 kilometers an hour . A. should have been doing B. must have been doing C. could have done D. would have done Keys for reference: 1---5 CAADD 6---10 CACBB

高考“情态动词+have done”考点解析 “情态动词+have done”结构是高考重要考点,也是较难掌握的语法项目之一,为了帮助同 学们更好地掌握使用这一考点,下面结合近年高考试题谈谈其主要用法。 考点之一:在虚拟条件句中,如果表示与过去事实相反的情况,从句中用过去完成时,而

主句中则用“情态动词+现在完成时”,即:would/ could/ should/ might have done。例如: If they had finished the work on time, they would have been praised by the manager. If you had worked hard, you could have passed the examination. 高考题分析: 1. If it ___ for the snow, we ___ the mountain yesterday. ( MET91) A. were not; could have climbed B. were not; could C. had not been; could have climbed D. had not been; could climb 2. --- I stayed at a hotel while in New York. --- Oh, did you? You ___ with Barbara. (NMET98) A. could have stay B. could stay C. would stay D. must have stay 3. Yesterday Jane walked away for discussion, otherwise, she ___ something she would regret later.( 96 上海) A. had said B. said C. might say D. might have said 答案简析: 1. 根据信息词 yesterday 可以判断该句是表示与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句,从句中应该 用“情态动词+现在完成时”,故答案选 C。 2. 本句是一个含蓄虚拟条件句,意思是:If you hadn’t stay at a hotel while in New York, you could have stayed with Barbara. 表达了与过去事实相反的情况,答案选 A。 3. 本句考查的也是含蓄虚拟语气,意思是:如果她参加了讨论,她可能会说出一些后来令 她后悔的话。表达了与过去事实相反的情况,故答案选 D。 考点之二:must have done 表示对过去已经发生过的情况的肯定推测判断,语气较强,意 思是“一定……、肯定……”。其否定形式分别用 can’t/ couldn’t 和 can/ could。例如: It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet this morning. 昨天晚上一定是下雨了,因为今晨地面是潮湿的。 She didn’t attend the lesson yesterday. She must have been ill. 她昨天没有上课,她一定是生病了。 巩固练习: He ____ have completed his work, otherwise, he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by the seaside. (05北京 26题) A. should B. must C. wouldn’t D. can’t This cake is very sweet. You ___ a lot of sugar in it. (05 辽宁 26 题)

A. Should put B. could have put C. might put D. must have put --- Tom is never late for work. Why is he absent today? --- Something ___ to him. ( 05 江西 22 题 A. must happen B. should have happened C. could have happened D. must have happened I was on the highway when this car went past followed by a police car. They ___ at least 150 kilometers an hour. ( 05 重庆 33 题) A. should have been doing B. must have been doing C. could have done D. would have done I ____ have been more than six years old when the accident happened.( 05 天津 14 题) A. shouldn’t B. couldn’t C. mustn’t D. needn’t --- Do you know where David is? I couldn’t find him anywhere. (05 湖北 32 题) A. shouldn’t B. mustn’t C. can’t D. wouldn’t 1. I didn’t hear the phone. I ____ asleep. (MET 89) A. must be B. must have been C. should be D. should have been 2. --- I rang your home yesterday. A man answered but I didn’t recognize the voice. --- On, it ___ my brother, Peter. A. must be B. must have been C. can have been D. might be 答案简析: 1. 关键词是 didn’t,说明动作发生在过去,所以是对已经发生过的情况的推测判断。故答案 选 B。 2. 本句的意思是: 我昨天朝你家里打的电话。 是对过去情况的推测判断, 应该用 must have done 结构。故答案选 B。


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