一,基本结构:主语+have/has+过去分词(done) ①肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他 ②否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他 ③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他 ④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词+其他) 二,用法 1) 现在完成时的"完成用法 完成
用法" 完成用法 现在完成时用来表示现在之前已发生过或完成的动作或状态,但其结果却和现在有联系, 也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在 动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在. 动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在 He has turned off the light.他已把灯关了.(动作结束于过去,但说明的是现在的情况-灯现在不亮了.) I have spent all of my money.(含义是:现在我没有钱花了.) Jane has laid the table.(含义是:现在桌子已经摆好了.) 2) 现在完成时的"未完成用法 未完成用法" 未完成用法 指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去.这里的动词 要用持续性动词 持续性动词.常与 for(+时间段),since(+时间点)连用. 时间段) 时间点) 持续性动词 ( 时间段 ( 时间点 Mary has been ill for three days. Mary has been ill since three days ago. 注意:1.现在完成时不能单独与准确时间连用 不能单独与准确时间连用,(如表示过去的时间状语) 注意 不能单独与准确时间连用 如 yesterday(morning,afternoon),last(morning,afternoon)等,除非与 for, since 连用 连用. 除非与 2.现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用 不确定的过去时间状语连用 ,如 already(肯定), yet(否定,疑问), just, before, recently, still, lately 等: (肯定) (否定,疑问) He has already obtained a scholarship. I haven't seen much of him recently (lately). We have seen that film before. Have they found the missing child yet ? 3. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语 表示频度的时间状语连用, 表示频度的时间状语 如 ever, never, twice, several times 等: Have you ever been to Beijing I have never heard Bunny say anything against her. I have used this pen only three times. It is still good. George has met that gentleman several times. 4. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用 可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用, 可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用 如 up to these few days/weeks/months/years, just, up to present(now), so far 等:
Peter has written six papers so far. Up to the present everything has been successful. 5. 现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作 表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作. 表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作 We have had four texts this semester. 6. have been to 和 have gone to 的区别 have been to 强调 去过",现已不在那里 强调"去过 ,现已不在那里,如: 去过 He has been to the USA three times. 他到美国去过三次. (过去"到美国",现在已"不在美国") have gone to 主要强调的是"去了 ,现在人不在说话的现场,如: 主要强调的是 去了",现在人不在说话的现场 去了 --Where's your mother? --你妈妈在哪? --She has gone to the hospital. --她去医院了.
has been in 一直在某地
三,现在完成时考点例析 现在完成时是较难掌握,中考考查较多的时态.涉及的考点有: 一,考查其构成 考查其构成 "助动词 have (has) +动词过去分词"构成现在完成时.如: 1. Kate's never seen Chinese films,____ ? A. hasn't she B. has she C. isn't she D. is she 析:陈述句部分含否定词 never,简略问句部分要用肯定式,又因 Kate's 是 Kate has 的缩写, 故选 B. 2. His uncle has already posted the photos to him. (改为否定句) His uncle ______ posted the photos to him ______. 析:already 常用在肯定句中,yet 常用在否定句,疑问句中,故填 hasn't, yet. 3. -Ann has gone to Shanghai. -So ______her parents. A. has B. had C. did D. have 析:"so+助/系/情态动词+主语"结构中的动词形式应与前句结构中动词形式保持一致,又后 句的主语为 her parents 是复数,故选 D. 二,考查其用法与标志词 考查其用法与标志词 考查 (一)当句中有 never, ever, just, already, yet, before 等时,常用现在完成时.如: 1. -Mum, may I go out and play basketball? -______you______ your homework yet? D. Have; finished
A. Do; finish B. Are; finishing C. Did; finish
2. -______ you ______anywhere before? -Yes, but I can't remember where I______ A. Did; surf; surfed C. Did; surf; have surfed B. Have; surfed; surfed D. Have; surfed; have surfed
析:据 yet 和 before 可知,应用现在完成时,故 1 题选 D,2 题选 D.
(二)当句中有"for +段时间"或"since +点时间"等时,主句常用现在完成时,谓语动词必须是 延续性动词,若是非延续性动词,要改为延续性动词或表状态的词(短语).如: 1. His brother has been to Stone Forest twice______he came to Yunnan. A. after B. before C. since D. for 析:主句用的是现在完成时,而从句用的是一般过去时,故选 C. 2. Tom______the CD player for two weeks. A. has lent B. has borrowed C. has bought D. has had 析:A,B,C 均为非延续性动词,在肯定句中不与表"段时间"的短语连用,故选 D. 3. I______a letter from him since he left. A. didn't receive B. haven't got C. didn't have D. haven't heard 析:据 since 可知,应排除 A,C,"hear from sb.=receive/get/have a letter from sb."意为"收到 某人的来信",故选 B. 三,考查 have/has been (to, in)/have/has gone (to)的区别 考查 的区别.如: 的区别 1. -Have you ever______Lintong to see the Terra Cotta Warriors? A. went to B. gone to C. been in D. been to -Yes, I have.
析:据句中的 have,排除 A,B 项意为"去某地了",C 项意为"一直呆在某地",D 项意为" 去过某地",符合题意,故选 D. 2. My parents ______ Shangdong for ten years. A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been 析:本题句中有"for+段时间"结构,据此可排除 C,B 项意为"去过某地",不合题意,D 项 缺介词,故选 A. 四,考查现在完成时与其他时态的联系和区别 考查现在完成时与其他时态的联系和区别.如: 考查现在完成时与其他时态的联系和区别 1. Sun's aunt has gone there for ten years.(改成正确的句子) 析:非延续性动词与"段时间"连用时,除了把非延续性动词改成延续性动词外,还可把动词 改为一般过去时或借助句型"It's +段时间+since+从句"进行句子转换.故答案为:Sun's aunt has been there for ten years. /Sun's aunt went there ten years ago. /It's ten years since Sun's aunt went there. 2. Susan has been in this city for more than ten years.(改为同义句) ________more than ten years ____Susan ______to this city. 析:据上题分析,且 since 引导的从句要用一般过去时,故填 It is, since, came. 3. I won't go to the concert because I ____my ticket. A. lost B. don't lose C. have lost D. is coming 析:因我丢了票的动作发生在过去,而且对现在造成了我不能参加音乐会的结果,符合现在 完成时所表示的含意,故选 C.
英语的行为动词有持续性动词和瞬间性动词之分,使用中应注意两者的区别. 英语的行为动词有持续性动词和瞬间性动词之分,使用中应注意两者的区别. 一,持续性动词: 表示一个动作可以持续一段时间或更长时间. 常见的 study, play, do, read, learn, drive, write, clean , sleep, speak, talk, wait, fly, stay, sit, stand, lie, keep 等. 二,瞬间性动词: 表示一个动作发生在一瞬间,非常短暂.亦称终止性动词. 常见的--begin, start, finish, go, come, leave, find, get up, arrive, reach, get to, enter, hear, stop, open, close, become, buy, borrow, lend, happen, join, lose, renew, die, take away, put up, set out, put on, get on/off 等 瞬间性动词在完成时中如要与表示持续一段时间的状语连用,通常有两种方法: (1)用意思相当的持续性动词来替换 He has been in the army/a soldier for three years. She has been up for quite some time. (他参军已有 3 年了.不用 has joined ) (她起床已有好久了.不用 has got up )
Has your brother been away from home for a long time? (离家已有好久了吗?)不用 has left 常用瞬间动词相应持续性动词关系 常用瞬间动词相应持续性动词关系: 瞬间动词相应持续性动词关系 1,go—be away 2,come—be here 3,come back—be back
4,leave—be away(be not here) 5,buy—have 9, finish—be over 6,borrow—keep 10, open——be open 7,die——be dead 11, close——be closed 15,get up——be up 18,become—be 8,begin——be on 12, lose——be lost
13,get to know—know 16,sit down—sit/beseated
14,turn on—be on
17,join—be in(…)或 be a…member
(2)用 it is…since…结构来替换瞬间动词 例如:电影已经开映 5 分钟了. (两种方法) (1)The film has been on for five minutes. (2)It's five minutes since the film began. 他离开上海已有 3 天了. (两种方法) (1)He has been away from Shanghai for three days. (2)It is three days since he left Shanghai. 这本书我还给图书馆已有两周了. (一种方法) It's two weeks since I returned the book to the library. 他找到他妹妹已有多久了?(一种方法) How long is it since be found his sister? 4,瞬间动词的否定形式 瞬间动词的否定形式可以与表示一段时间的状语连用 瞬间动词的否定形式 例如:I haven't seen you for a long time.(好久没见到你了. )
一,单项选择. 1,Both his parents look sad. Maybe they _______what's happened to him . A. knew B. have known C. must know D. will know 2,He has _______ been to Shanghai, has he? A. already B. never C. ever D. still 3,Have you met Mr. Li ______? A. just B. ago C.before D.a moment ago 4,The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year . A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written 5,—Our country ______ a lot so far . —Yes. I hope it will be even ______. A. has changed ; well B. changed; good C. has changed ; better D. changed; better 6,Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years . A. was; studying B. will; study C. has; studied D. are; studying 7,We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl . A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew 8,Harry Potter is a very nice film. I_______ it twice . A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see 9,—These farmers have been to the United States . —Really? When _____ there? A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone 10,—______ you ___ your homework yet ? —Yes. I _____ it a moment ago. A. Did; do; finished B. Have; done; finished C. Have; done; have finished D. will; do; finish 11, His father ______ the Party since 1978 . A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in 12,—Do you know him well ? —Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago . A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made 13,—How long have you ____ here ? —About two months. A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived 14,Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes. A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began 15, It _____ ten years since he left the army . A. is B. has C. will D. was 16, Miss Green isn't in the office. she _______ to the library. A. has gone B. went C.will go D. has been
17,My parents ______ Shandong for ten years. A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been 18,The students have cleaned the classroom, ? A. so they B. don't they C. have they D. haven't they 19, has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he to China? A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived 20, His uncle for more than 9 years. A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university 二,句型转换. 1,He has never surfed, ?(改成反意疑问句) 2,They have been here since 2000. (对划线部分提问) have they been here? 3,The old man _________ last year. He for a year. (die) (动词填空) 4,This factory opened twenty years ago.(同义句转换) ________ for twenty years. This factory 5,Miss Gao left an hour ago. (同义句转换) Miss Gao ________ _______ ________ ________ an hour ago. 6,Her mother has been a Party member for three years .(同义句) Her mother _______ the Party three years ________. 7,The Green Family moved to France two years ago. (同义句转换) _______ two years ________ the Green family moved to France. 8,The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. (把两个句子合并成一个句子) ___________________________________________ 三,汉译英. 1. 我刚刚丢了我的化学书. (just)
6. 在 1992 年他住在这里.(since)