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选修8-unit3学案


1.distinguish vt. & vi.显示……的差别;使……有所不同;辨别 [教材 P20 原句] Here was a chance for me to distinguish myself by inventing something merciful that would catch snakes but not harm them. 这回我有机会来表现一下

自己, 我要发明某种仁慈的东西, 既可以把蛇抓到而又不会伤 害到它们。 (1)distinguish oneself distinguish ... from ... (2) 使自己与众不同;使自己成名
? ?……和……区别开

distinguish between ... and ...?区分;分清;辨别;把

tell the differences between ...?

?把……与……区分开 tell ... from ... ? ①Liu Xiang has already distinguished himself as an athlete.

刘翔作为运动员已享有盛名。 ②You should learn to distinguish between right and wrong. 你应学会明辨是非。 ③The twins are so alike that no one can distinguish one from the other. 这对孪生儿长得很像,没有人能分辨得出哪个是哪个。 ④It was hard to tell the difference between the two versions. 很难分辨出这两个版本有什么区别。 ⑤I believe he is able to tell the true from the false. 我相信他能辨别真伪。 (3) distinguished adj. 著名的,卓越的,非凡的

He is distinguished for his knowledge of economics. 他在经济学方面的知识是卓越的。 distinction n. 区别, 差异 distinctive adj. 有特色的, 与众不同的 distinct adj. 截然不同的 distinguishable adj.

区别得出的, 辨认得出的

高手过招 (1) Color-blind people often find it difficult to ___A____ between blue and green. A. distinguish B compare C contrast D distribute (2) The young officer _____________________ (使他自己扬名) many times in battle. key distinguished himself 2. product n. 产品 区分 product/ produce/ production produce 指农业生产的产品 product 指工业生产的产品 production 指剧院、电视等演播的剧本、电影等 其中 produce 还可以做动词讲,意思包括:生产、出版、演出、导致等。

Australia produces wool and meat。 5.convenient adj.方便的 (1)it is/was convenient for sb to do sth 对某人来说做某事方便 sth be convenient to/for sb 对某人来说??是方便的 (2)convenience n.方便,便利 at one's convenience 在某人方便时 提示:convenient 作表语时,不可用人作主语,而要用事物或形式主语作主语。 “当你方 便的时候”应翻译成 when it is convenient to you,而不是 when you are convenient。 convenience food 方便食品 convenience store 便利店 2.expectation n.预料;期待;期望 [教材 P21 原句] This was in the expectation that the snakes would bite again. 这是因为我预料蛇还会再咬人。 ①He took an umbrella with him in expectation of rain. 他预料天会下雨,带了一把伞。 ②The plan has succeeded beyond our expectation. 这项计划竟出乎我们意料地获得了成功。 ③I usually enjoy his movies, but the latest one didn't come up to my expectations. 我通常喜欢他的电影,但是最新的一部电影没有我料想的那么好。 自主归纳 (1) in expectation of (2) beyond expectation(s) (3) come/live up to one's expectations ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 期待;指望;预料会有 出乎预料 达到某人的期望

expect vt. expect to do 期望做 expect sb.to do 期望/要求某人做 expect so/not 料想如此/不会 than expected 比预期的 注意: ①句中带有 believe,expect,suppose,think 等动词,句子的肯定与否定回答如下: 肯定:I think/believe/suppose(...)so. 否定:I don't think/believe/suppose(...)so.或 I think/believe/suppose(...)not. ②expectation 作“期待,期望”之意,多用复数形式。

3. recognition n. 认出;认可;承认 [教材原句]_____________________________________________________________________ recognize vt. 1)认出,认识到;其后可以跟名词或者从句作宾语。 They recognized this man without difficulty. 他们毫不费力地认出了这个人。

I recognize that I am not fit for the job. 我认识到我不适合这个工作。 2)承认。 They don’t recognize the new government. 他们不承认这个新政府。 3)公认;赏识。 The film is now recognized as a classic. 这是一部公认的经典影片。 [拓展] recognize...by / from... 由??认出?? recognize …as … 承认是 [小试] 翻译下列句子。 1. 我现在认出你了,你是汤姆的哥哥。 ________________________________________________ 2. 约翰被公认为是全校最好的足球运动员。 ________________________________________________ 3. 这个演员不久就赢得了观众的承认。 ________________________________________________ Key: 1. I recognize you now; you are Tom’s brother. 2. John is recognized as the best footballer in the school. 3. The actor soon won recognition from the public. 4. freezing adj. 冰冻的;严寒的 [教材原句]_____________________________________________________________________ freezing cold 冰冷的, freezing point 冰点 freeze vt&vi---过去式________----过去分词_________ eg. Winter is a freezing cold season. 5.bear vt.&vi. (bore,borne) 忍受;忍耐;负担 [教材 P24 原句] I cannot bear the smell of burnt sausage on the barbecue. 我忍受不了烤肉架上烤香肠的焦味。 ①She was unable to bear him treating her like that. 她再也受不了他那样对待她了。 ②Why do I have to bear all the costs of repair? 为什么要我负担所有的维修费用? bear (doing/to do) sth. 忍受(做)某事

(bear doing 表示习惯性动作 bear to do sth. 表示一次具体动作) bear sb. ('s) doing sth. 忍受某人做某事 = bear in mind that/ what ...
? ? ?记住…… ? ?

bear the responsibility/ blame/ cost 承担责任/惩罚/费用

③He can't bear being_laughed_at. 他不能容忍被嘲笑。 ④You must bear/ keep in mind what your teacher has told you. 你要记住你的老师告诉你的。 [点津] (1)bear 作“忍受”解时,常与 can, could 连用,用于疑问句或否定句中,近义词 有 tolerate, stand, endure 等。(2)borne 与 born 是 bear 的两个过去分词,表“出生”时用 born, 且仅用于被动语态;表“生育”时用 borne。 易混辨析 bear,endure,stand,tolerate

bear,endure,stand,tolerate 都含有一定的"忍耐、忍受"之意 在表示忍受 pain,suffering,hardship 等时,在许多情况下这四个词可以互换使用;通常与 can 或 cannot 连用 bear 强调忍受者对痛苦、忧虑、烦恼以及责任的承受力(常用于否定句中) endure (=bear bravely)指经受长期的艰难、 困苦或折磨而不屈服, 强调持久力和意志坚强 (常 用于否定句中) stand 强调不屈不挠或经受得起(常用于否定句中) tolerate 指忍受某人或某种行为而不反抗,语气最弱(即可用于肯定句也可用于否定句) 选词填空(bear/ endure/ stand/ tolerate) 1)Our tent won’t _______ another storm like the last one. 2) I can’t _______ to wait any longer. 3) She’s already had to _______ three painful operations on her leg. 4) I will not _______ that sort of behavior in my class. (stand, bear, endure, tolerate) 6.associate [教材 P26 原句] Although he is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, he was indeed a continuing searcher after practical solutions to improve the quality of everybody's life. 虽然人们常把他与电话的发明联系在一起, 但是他的确是一位永不停息的探索家, 不断 寻求着改善人们生活质量的途径。 (1)vt. 联想;联系;表明支持 associate ... with ...把……和……联系在一起 associate oneself with sth.声称或表示自己赞同某事物 ①I've never associated you with this place. 我从未把你和这个地方联系在一起。 ②May I associate myself with the Prime Minister's remarks? 我可以公开表示赞成首相的话吗? ③ To some people, happiness is associated with money.

对一些人来说,幸福是与钱联系在一起的。 (2)n.同伴;伙伴;同事 ④ He is one of my associates at the store. 他是我店里的一位同事。 ⑤ They are my business associates, companies of them well developed. 他们是我的业务伙伴,其公司发展良好。 1.call up 给……打电话;使……回忆起;召集,召集……入伍 [教材 P20 原句] When I called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone she was very upset. 我给住在乡下的母亲打电话的时候,她感到很心烦。 ①I'll call you up this evening if possible. 可能的话今晚我给你打电话。 [点津] call up 当表示“打电话”时,call up=ring up=ring=call ②She can still call up scenes of childhood. 她仍能想起儿时的情景。 ③I was called up three months after the war broke out. 战争爆发 3 个月后,我被征召入伍。 call back call for call in call on sb. call at sp. call on sb. to do sth. call off 回电话 需要;要求;接(人或物) 召来,叫来 拜访某人;要求 拜访某地 号召某人做某事 取消

④I will call for you at 8 o'clock at the school gate. 我 8 点钟在学校门口来接你。 ⑤The government calls_on the youth to donate their blood voluntarily. 政府号召青年义务献血。 2.set about 开始;着手(about 是介词,其后常接名词或动名词) [教材 P20 原句] I set about researching the habits of snakes to find the easiest way to trap them. 我着手研究蛇的习性,以便能找到捕蛇的最简易的方法。 ① She set about the business of cleaning the house. 她动手打扫起房子来。 ② After the earthquake, the people set about rebuilding their homes.

地震过后,人们开始重建家园。 set down set out 放下;记下;登记 (1)出发,动身,起程;set out for sp.= set off for= leave for (2)开始做,着手做 set out to do =set about doing= get down to (doing)sth set off set up 出发;使爆炸;激起 建立

set aside 把……置于一旁;留出 be set in 以……为背景 set fire to 点燃;生火 set?on fire 使??燃烧;放火烧?? set foot in 登上;涉足;访问 ③ He set_aside a little money each week. 他每周都留出一些钱备用。 ④ The picture hanging on the wall set off his homesickness. 墙上挂的照片引起了他的思乡之情。 ⑤ The story was_set_in Hollywood. 这个故事以好莱坞为背景。 3.get through [教材 P26 原句] I can't get through. 我打不通电话。 (1)设法联系上(尤指打通电话) ① I rang you several times but wasn't able to get through (to you). 我给你打了几次电话,但没能打通。 [点津] 当“接通电话”讲时为不及物动词短语。 (2)通过 ② All the students got through the exam. 所有的学生都顺利通过了考试。 ③ They got the bill through congress. 他们使此议案在国会获得通过。 (3)(设法)做完 ④ Mary got through her money while she was in New York. 玛丽在纽约时把自己的钱花光了。 ⑤ Let's begin now — there is lots of work to get through. 我们现在就开始吧——有很多工作要完成呢。

get across get down to get on/ along (with)

被理解;使人了解 认真地静下心(工作)(to 为介词) 进展;进步;相处

get in 收获 ⑥ I can't get_across my meaning to him. 我不能把我的意思向他表达清楚。 ⑦ Farmers are involved with getting the harvest in. 1. [句型展示] The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but_there_only_seemed_to_be powders designed to kill snakes. 我所做的第一件事就是看看有没有什么产品能帮助我。 但是, 看来只有一种毒死蛇的药 粉。 (1)句中 but 连接两个并列分句,现分别对两个分句进行如下分析:

第二分句:

(2)there seemed to be 是 there be 句型的变体,表示“似乎有……”。 there be 句型的常见结构 there+情态动词+be+其他 there used to be+其他 there+stand/live/exist/remain/lie/come/...+其他 there being ...+句子独立主格结构 there seem/happen/appear to be+其他 ① There stands a big tree in front of our building. 在我们的大楼前面矗立着一棵大树。 ② There used to be a bridge across the river. 过去有一座桥横跨这条河。 ③ There being no milk, he went to the supermarket to buy some. 由于没有牛奶了,所以他去超市买了一些。 ④ There happened_to be a policeman there when we were in trouble. 当我们身处困境时,碰巧那儿有个警察。

[典例背诵] There seemed to be a better way to solve the border dispute. 似乎有更好的办法来解决边界争端。 2.[句型展示] Only_after_you_have_had_that_recognition_can_you say that you are truly an inventor. 只有在得到这种认可之后,你才可以说自己是一个真正的发明家! only +状语(副词、介词短语或状语从句)位于句首时,句子需部分倒装。 ①Only after you have reached eighteen can you join the army. 只有当你年满十八周岁后,你才能参军。 ②Only then did I know the importance of learning. 直到那时我才知道了学习的重要性。 [点津] (1)only 修饰的从句不倒装,主句倒装;(2)若 only 修饰的状语不位于句首,或 位于句首的 only 用来修饰的不是状语,而是主语时,均不用倒装。 ③Only when you told me did_I_know her name. 直到你告诉我,我才知道了她的名字。 ④He found his watch missing only yesterday. 他昨天才发现他的表丢了。 ⑤Only Uncle Li knows how it happened. 只有李叔叔知道这件事是怎么发生的。

[典例背诵] Only by working hard can we succeed. 只有努力工作我们才能成功。 3.[句型展示] Nor_will_you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everyone else's. 经仔细研究,证明你的产品确实与众不同之后,你才能获得专利。 [典例背诵] Tom isn't nervous, nor is Mary. 汤姆不紧张,玛丽也不紧张。 1.Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind. 跟踪下去, 不断探索, 不知不觉中, 你就会发现某种值得你思考的东西占据着你的头脑。 此句属于“祈使句+and+陈述句”句型,该句型的变化形式及用法归纳如下: (1)祈使句+破折号+陈述句(破折号起 and 的作用,从正面预测结果)

(2)名词词组+and+陈述句(名词词组中通常含有 more, another, further, earlier 等词) (3)祈使句+or+陈述句(or 表示“否则、要不然”,or 可用 or else 或 otherwise 替换) ① Try some of this juice — perhaps you'll like it. 尝尝这种果汁,也许你会喜欢的。 ② Another £ 500, and I could buy a car. 假如再有 500 英镑,我就能买辆小汽车了。 ③ Turn the heat down or it'll burn. 把炉火开小一点,不然就烧焦了。 [点津] 陈述句通常用一般将来时。 2. The patent was given in 1876, but it_was_not_until_five_days_later_that Bell sent his first telephone message to his assistant Watson. 授予专利是 1876 年,但五天之后贝尔才向他的助手华生发了第一个电话信息。 It is / was not until ... that ...为 not ... until ...句型的强调结构。强调了 until 引导的时间状 语从句, 注意 not 和 until 在强调句中总是在一起, that 后面从句用肯定形式, 此句可还原为: Bell didn't send his first telephone message to his assistant Watson until five days later. ①It was not until rain stopped that I went home. 直到雨停了我才回家。 强调句型的基本形式为:It is/ was+被强调部分+that/ who+其他。 一般疑问句形式为:Is/ Was it+被强调部分+that/ who+其他。 特殊疑问句形式为:特殊疑问词+is/ was+it that+其他。 ②Was_it_in_the_street that you saw her yesterday? 昨天你是在街上见到她的吗? ③When_was_it that he could come back to his work? 她究竟什么时候能回来工作呢? ④What is it that you are going to do tonight? 今天晚上你究竟准备干什么? 完成句子 1.如果你放松点,你会感觉更舒服。 Take it easy and you'll_feel_better. 2.每次我拜访他,他都很忙。 Every/_Each_time_I_called_on_him,_he was busy. 3.直到做完最后一个手术白求恩才离开战地医院。 It_was_not_until the last operation was finished that Bethune left the battle hospital.


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