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大作文讲义 By Teacher Zhu
专题一、第一段套话如何描述
第一段的思路 1 (1) 全套(2)半套+描述 1(3)半套+描述 2(4)全套 (1) 全套: Whoever in front of this image(=Those who ca

tch sight of this picture)will be much/highly/greatly/amused/interested/shocked/struck. How interesting and enlightening it is! Nowadays, there is a growing concern among people over a much-talked social issue. 如今:In present-day society,in contemporary society, in recent years… (2) 半套+描述 1 What is conspicuously/clearly illustrated/presented/depicted/described in the drawing above is that 描述图画。 It is graphically/symbolically/explicitly/vividly illustrated/demonstrated in the 图 that 描述图画. The cartoon depicts a vivid scene in which=where+描述图画 The most striking feature of the drawing is that… (4) 全套 Odd and funny(根据自己情况任意替换形容词) as it seems/appears to be/ looks, such/this happenings/practices/phenomena/stories/cases/events are so pervasive/widespread that we can’t afford to igore/disregard/overlook/pay no attention to them. Odd and funny(根据自己情况任意替换形容词) as it seems/appears to be/ looks,the drawing obviously intends for deeper meanings than what is shown superficially. Simple as the image seems to be, the intended/implied meaning goes for deeper. Uncomplicated as the picture is, the symbolic/implied meaning is as deep/profound as ocean. Given its profound social implication,the thought-provoking phenomenon is well worth our endeavor to explore. Undoubtedly/Unquestionably/Incontrovertibly/Indisputably… 第一段的思路 2 (1) 半套+描述 1(2)半套+描述 2 (1) The cartoon subtly and symbolically depicts a thought-provoking scenario in which 描述 1 (2) Further examination reveals that 描述 2 供参考的替换句型: The satirical sketch graphically depicts a scene in which… It is graphically/vividly/symbolically illustrated/demonstrated in the 图 that… What makes the drawing striking/intriguing/compelling is the fact that… The most striking feature of the drawing is that… 第一段的思路 3 (1)半套+描述 1(2)半套+描述 2(3)全套 As is vividly/graphically depicted in the picture, 描述图画.The most striking feature is(图画重点
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信息)There is no doubt that its symbolic meaning subtly conveyed should be given deep consideration. 练习:

专题二、如何具体描写图画
1、 主体(+定从)+动作+ 客体(+定从) 2、 地点+动作+主体(+定从)

3、 There is/are 主体(+定从)

4、 高手版:非谓语动词做插入语 如何处理 1 个主体 2 个动作连用的情况 首先,找出所有动作,并区分出 V 主和 V 次
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然后,保留 V 主,将 V 次加-ing 最后,变成“N,V 次-ing,V 主”的结构,其中,V 次-ing 做插入语,作为第一段的亮 点。 链接真题: 05 年: 一个可怜的老人像足球一样躺在图画中央。 他的孩子站在自己的球门口拒绝接受他。 06 年:一个年轻人把贝克汉姆的名字写到自己的脸上,另一个年轻人花了 300 人民币在剪 一个小贝头。

07 年:守门员把自己想的如此渺小以至于对方的球随时可能进入自己的大门。前锋认为守 门员非常强大,自己无法攻破球门。

08 年:两个残疾人的腿绑在一起往前走,拐杖扔到一边。提示告诉我们“只要相互协作就 能走向世界。 ”

09 年:一群年轻人在上网,通过网络他们和天南地北的人联系起来。 但是他们被小的房间分隔开,相互之间沟通很少。

专题三、中间段“天龙八部”
一、 由浅入深(若有话写则坚决放弃。 ) Simple as the 图 is/are, the connotation subtly conveyed should be taken into consideration with more insight/penetration should involve more insightful analysis. The connotation behind the 图, which goes far beyond, should be analyzed more insightfully. The picture seems to be humorous at first glance/sight, but on second thoughts,you can find the fact that… 二、 深层含义(全段核心,全文关键) (这句才是关键) (1) The purpose of the picture is to inform us of the fact that we should not neglect the significance of… (2) The unique metaphor in this enlightening drawing endows us with the conception/notion that… (3) Undoubtedly, the photos have subtly reflected a social phenomenon and remind us the significance/severity of
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3、描述现象的句型: 调查句: (1) According to a survey which is conducted by a famous international orgnization… (2) As is demonstrated/revealed by… (3) It is manifest in a recent survey that… (4) As is proposed by many experts… …… 现象句: (1) The increase in the number of people who do not take care of the old is accelerating… (2) People in mounting number… (3) There is an increase in the number… …… 关注句: (1)…,which has aroused deep concern (2)…,which deserves special attention (3)…,which merits attention (4)…,which has been in the spotlight and aroused the public concern 4.原因 (1)“原因如下” (过渡句)的表述: 1)Several factors, both individual and social, could accout for the negative/positive phenomenon. 2)The reasons for the phenomenon may be complicated,but we can, to a large extent, ascribe/owe/attribute it to the following interrelated factors. 2)法一:因果链拓展法 1 原因:for the reason that 法二:多个因果关系 双原因:过渡句+原因 1+原因 2 过渡句:Considering every aspect of the issue,we may ascribe it the following two reasons. 原因 1:For one thing, 原因 2: For another thing, 5. 后果/影响: In other words, 好:influence 坏:consequence 6.强行举例(举例论证) 1) it can be best/aptly exemplified by the case of___,who___./by the following case. 7.调查句引出细节 8.总结 1)坏:威胁性总结
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2)好:反面论证 迷茫句:In my eyes, if we let such a situation go as it is/if we can hardly realize the significance,we do not know where our society is in the future,at that time, the whole society will suffer a great distruction/we will pay a high price. 真题链接: 00 年(美国小女孩穿着中国的传统的服饰! ) 第二段:浅(1)What the impressive photo conveys goes far from beyond a new fashion trend. 深(2)Instead,it carries culture implications as well. 现状+原因(3)The past several years have witnesses the phenomenon that foreign people in ever expanding/increasing/mounting numbers are attracted to the mysterious traditional Chinese culture,for the reason that to some extent a culture can be accepted,respected,appreciated, and advocated internationally. 影响:In other words, one nation’s distinctive culture can become international through world—wild economic and culture exchang. 总 结 : Since the trend of globalization seems increasingly far-reaching, culture exchanges can effectively and efficiently improve mutual understanding and friendship. 练习:

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专题四、第三段写法
(1):如果为中性或积极话题 To conclude, it is essential for us to derive positive implications from the revealing photos/drawings/pictures/cartoons. 总之,我们有必要从发人深省的图画/图片/照片/漫画中吸取积极示意。 For one thing,society as a whole should forge an objective(constructive/wholesome)atmosphere; 一方面,社会作为一个整体应该打造一种客观(富有建设性的/健康的)氛围; For another,individuals should also establish a correct outlook. 另一方面,个人亦应该树立正确观点。 Only in this way can we expect to head for a brilliant future. 只有这样我们才能期盼朝向辉煌的未来迸发。 (2):如果为负面社会问题型话题 Considering the severity(seriousness)of the phenomenon presented in these(this)photo(s)/drawings/pictures/cartoons,it is imperative that drastic measures be implemented to reverse the trend. 有鉴于在这(些)图片/图画/漫画中所展示出的严峻性,采取严厉措施以逆转该趋势已势在 必行。 For one thing, the government should take the legislative initiatives to prevent the ill-practice from further speeding; 首先,政府应该采取法律手段去避免这种错误做法进一步蔓延。 For another,the publis should be educated to enhance awareness. 此外,公众应被教育区提升意识。 Only in this way can we expect to head for a brilliant future. 只有这样我们才能期盼朝向辉煌的未来迸发。 注意:常见结尾句型 总结性句型 Based on the above reasons, I firmly believe that China will experience a stage of continuous,steady and healthy expansion in the coming years.In the long run, it is evident that China will become much stronger,and the Chinese will live a better life than ever. It is only when people become the masters of the country that science can serve the people. In one word,protecting natural resources is the same as protecting our mankind. …… 建设性句型 To solve this problem,a combined effort is really very necessary. First, …Second,…Last but not least,… To improve sollege entrance examination system, I suggest the following steps. The best way to solve this problem I think is to give young people opportunituies to do things independently. …
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号召性句型 It is high time that parents,educators and the government made combined efforts to put an end to this situation. From now on,let us take actions to heal our globe, and clean up our environment!Some day,peoples in all nations will be enveloped with the blue sky and green lands. … 警示性句型 As the issue of census plays such an important role both in our society and life, due attention should be paid from the general public as well as the government. If we continue our crimes against these creatures,we will be remembered as cruel and inhuman by the generations of the future. … 展望性句型 Just imagine how great the world would be if only we would have greater concern for our fellowmen. I firmly believe that the relationship between people will be harmonious and our society will be a better place for us to live in. I believe a happy and bright future is awaiting us if we make every effort to promote cultural development both nationally and internationally. …

专题五、内容攻略
思考现象的原因与结果,建议措施与意义的角度与原则 角度一:向里看:有几个事件参与者,就有几个因果 如: (1)溺爱子女---父母:只有一个孩子,不明白正确的教育方法 子女:过分依赖 (2)大学生就业难---大学生:没有认真学习 企业:要求过高 。。 。 角度二:向外看:看事件参与者以外的事物(包括第三方与家庭、社会) 考研作文中命题人设置的社会特征是:竞争激烈,压力巨大,氛围和谐,道德良好,秩序 正常 如: (1)溺爱子女---父母怕子女承受过多的压力 (2)要不要回报---与社会和谐相矛盾! (很多可以套:如浪费,假货,盗版) (3)浪费的危害---浪费资源 违背道德 影响正常的生活 角度三:分情况 如考研热的原因: Some undergraduates want to have a better job after graduation.Since the jobs’ requirements are more rigid than ever before,a master’s degree holder will surely seize more valuable opportunities
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to get such a position.Other candidates who have working experience are eager to update their knowledge to satisfy the demanding job. 找工作难的原因: Some students are pursuing too high a goal when seeking for jobs.They care about various factors such as salaries,working conditions and so forth, which narrows their choices. Some majors which the students study on campus can hardly satisfy the requirement of jobs.Such students can hardly find faborable positions. (一) Money 原则,如: 浪费:be extravagant,lavish,waste 旅游业的利弊:earn a lot of foreign currency to preserve traditional culture 兼职的好处:ease the family of financial burden… (二) Health 原则,如: 吸烟:身:pose potential risks to our health 心:become addictive and can hardly resist the tempatation 压力大:heavy pressure(chronic stress)may result in anxiety,depression and mental disorder 锻炼的方法:increase physical activity and have a more active lifestyle… 专题六、中间段三剑客 三分天下详解图: 1.深 2.过渡句:The picture is thought-provoking in that it conveys the following three layers of connotations. 3.Initially,(写现象) 4.Additionally,(写原因) 5.Finally,(写影响) 6. 总结 1、环境资源问题 现象: 最近的一则报道显示中国的几个主要城市的郊区几乎都被垃圾所包围, 全方位地污染 了空气、水源和土地。 A recent report revealed that several major Chinese cities had already been surrounded by circles of trash in the suburban areas,polluting air,water and earth. 森林已经经历了并正在经历致命性的毁灭。 The past several decades have witnessed that forests have experienced, and are experiencing fatal destruction worldwide. 原因: 不断扩张的人口规模需要更多的生存空间,而(森林)往往是人类愿意牺牲的第一个选择。 The expanding human population requires more living space, and forests are always the first choice humans decide to sacrifice. 由于商人们缺少对于生态平衡的认识, 他们的渔船无休止地捕鱼, 给海洋生物的生存造成了 巨大的威胁。
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Laking knowledge regarding the significance of ecological balance,(businessmen) sent out ships that insatiably chased fishes and thus posed a severe threat to all life in the sea. 一些地方官员只关心经济和贸易的发展,而忽略了环境保护的责任。 Some (local officials) only care about how to bring about a thriving economy and trade,neglecting the accoutability/responsibility of environmental protection. 人类对于自然资源的过度开发已经带来了超乎我们想象的破坏。 Human exploitation of natural resources has caused destruction that is far beyond our imagination. 结果:我认为这是一种非常缺乏远见的做法,因为污染在长期看来会根本地损害经济。 I would say that the picture reveals an action lacking farsighted view.,because (polltion),in the long run,will inevitably undermine the fundamentals of economy. or 迷茫句:未能意识到这个可怕状况的严重性,将降低我们的成功几率. Failure to realise the severity of this grim situation will inevitably decrease our chance of success. 2、情感类文章 现象: 不难发现在现今的社会,越来越多的人们加入了各种捐款活动。 It is not difficult to perceive/notice/find that in present-day society/in comtemporary society that, an increasing/expanding/growing number of people participate in donation activities. 现在的一代孩子们大多都受到溺爱, 因此图中的场景更是值得特别的称赞。 大部分孩子不会 洗衣服、收拾房间,也不会处理个人事务。(积极现象—消极现象) Such a senario is particularly worth praising against the social background of a generation who is greatly spoiled.Many children do not know how to wash clothes, clean rooms and manage personal affairs. 原因: (捐款)--分担痛苦 unbalanced distribution of natural resources—lead a miserable life—become dropouts attracted by natural disasters—live in trouble should not forget those disabled people a good way to express human love—reflect the sense of social responsibility (套句)这是一种来自内心深处、超越了语言描述的情感,仅仅通过财富是买不到的。 It generates a feeling from deep with one’s heart that is beyond words and is difficult to obtain no matter how rich one is. Money 原则:--把自己的快乐建立在别人的痛苦上 1. profit(e.g.,商人不诚信)
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许多商人一心想着谋取更多的利润,而忘记了他们应该为顾客提供最好的产品和服务。 A host of businessmen are so obsessed with making maximum profits that they forget that they are supposed to serve their customers with best products and service. 2. interest(e.g.,邻里关系恶化) 他们更喜欢把自己的利益放在最高的位置,而不顾其他人也拥有相同权利。 They prefer to place their own interests at the utmost place,neglecting the fact that others have the same rights. 结果: 一个和谐社会是以人们之间健康和互信的关系为基础的。通过互相之间提供帮助,人们不 仅收获了便利和利益,更是得到了无法用钱买到的精神上的满足。 A harmonious society is based on sound and mutual-trusting relationship among common folks.By (offering favors )to each other, people not only obtain convenience and benefits,but also gain mental satisfactions that cannot be purchased. 3、教育类 现象: (死记硬背!! !) 教育者盲目地坚持标准,而不提供灵活和变化的空间。老师要求学生们机械地背诵书上的 知识,但是从来不鼓励学生质疑、提出挑战或者不同见解。 Educators stick blindly to fixed stardard without allowing any room of flexibility and variation.Students are required to mechanically remember what is written in the books, but receive no encouragement to question,challenge and disagree. 原因: 由于独生子女政策, 这些孩子们都是父母最大的希望, 父母给了他们一切可以得到的资源。 Due to one –child policy,the only child is the greatest hope of parents and is provided with all available resources. 结果: 孩子们的创造力受到了限制和扼杀,这对于他们的未来发展是有害的,特别是现代社会十 分强调创新性和独创性。 Children’s creativity is largely limited and killed,which exerts a detrimental impact on their future development,especially in the current society which puts so much emphasis on creativity,innovation and inventiveness. 影响三个发展:physical, mental/psychological, intellectual 4、人生价值类 现象: 原因:(e.g.,读书就是借助他人的思想来开发自己的思想) 我认为,书本就是人类通过几千年世界积累的知识宝库。通过读书,我们不仅可以学到人 民已经达到的成就,还可以在已有知识的基础上受到启发,从而进一步地发展和创新。这
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个普遍的真理尤其适用于学术界,任何一个学科的新发现都需要通过阅读已有文献来奠定 基础。 As far as I am concerned, books are a treasury of all knowledge accumulated over thousands of years.Via reading,we can not only learn what mankind has achieved,but can also be greatly inspired to develop and innovate on the basis of existing knowledge.This is particularly proven in the academic field,where reading all previous literature of a specific discipline is of elementary significance to laying the foundation for new discoveries. 结果: 5、健康类 现象:在当今社会,大多数人越来越意识到保持健康的重要性 In comtemporary society,a large portion of people are increaingly aware of the significance of maintaining health. 这个勤奋学者的不健康状况显示出中国一个长期存在的现象。 The unhealthiness of the diligent scholor discloses a prevalent phenomenon that has long existed in China. 原因:一方面,知识分子没有受到尊重,他们享受的物质条件也非常差,尤其是由于他们 的社会地位很低,他们的工资也相应地非常少。另一方面,知识分子们承受着巨大的家庭、 社会和学术压力,导致他们被迫非常勤奋地不停地工作。 Intellectuals are not highly respected and they enjoy unsatisfactory material benefits with particularly unattractive salaries due to low social positon.In addition,family,social and academic pressure are so immensely exerted on intellectuals that they are forced to work diligently and ceaselessly. 结果: 恶劣的生活环境和巨大的工作压力自然导致他们较差的健康和较短的寿命。 As a result,the poor living conditions and work pressure lead naturally to their poor health and short life-span. 6、职业道德类 现象:这幅图画指出了我们的社会中一个经常发生的现象—虚假的广告和推销。 The cartoon subtly reveals a phenomenon frequently happening in our society—the false commercial advertisement and promotion. 原因: Money 原则: 1.profits(e.g.,强买强卖) 2.interest(e.g.,虚假广告) 结果:这种现象的害处是不言自明的。从微观角度看,这类产品会极大地伤害消费者的利 益,甚至可能威胁到他们的生命。从宏观角度看,如果低质量的产品继续传播到我们社会
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的每一个角落,就会破坏健康市场经济的正常功能和运行。 The harm of such a phenomenon is self-evident.On the micro level,consumers are vastly hurt by these products,which even be life-threatening.On the macro level,if low-quality products continue to spread,they will damage the normal functions and operation of a healthy market economy. 7、家庭关系类 现象: 原因: (一个愿打一个愿挨) 很多人习惯于在财政上过于依赖家庭,他们即使开始级的生活也不愿独立。 A number of young people are so used to relying financially on their parents that they never actully stand on their feet when commencing their own life. 父母们不该纵容孩子们盲目消费, 而是应该教给他们正确客观的金钱观, 教他们如何理财。 Parents indulge children in consumption rather than instill in them with an objective outlook on money,and teach them how to manage their personal finances. 结果:不幸的是,在这种环境中成长起来的孩子们将来可能无法承受困难。 Unfortunately, children who are bought up in such an environment may suffer hardship later.

补充:写作必背 35 句高分句型
一、~~~ the + ~ est + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc) ~~~ the most + 形容词 + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc) 例句:Helen is the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen. 海伦是我所看过最美丽的女孩。 Mrs. Zhu is the kindest teacher that I have ever had. 朱老师是我曾经遇到最仁慈的教师。 二、Nothing is + ~~~ er than to + V Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V 例句:Nothing is more important than to receive education. 没有比接受教育更重要的事。 三、 ~~~ cannot emphasize the importance of ~~~ too much. 再怎么强调...的重要性也不为过。 ( ) 例句:We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much. 我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。 四、There is no denying that + S + V ...(不可否认的...) 例句:There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad to worse. 不可否认的,我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。 五、It is universally acknowledged that + 句子~~ (全世界都知道...) 例句:It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us. 全世界都知道树木对我们是不可或缺的。 六、There is no doubt that + 句子~~ (毫无疑问的...)
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例句:There is no doubt that our educational system leaves something to be desired. 毫无疑问的我们的教育制度令人不满意。 七、An advantage of ~~~ is that + 句子 (...的优点是...) 例句:An advantage of using the solar energy is that it won't create (produce) any pollution. 使用太阳能的优点是它不会制造任何污染。 八、The reason why + 句子 ~~~ is that + 句子 (...的原因是...) 例句: The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can provide us with fresh air./ The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can supply fresh air for us. 我们必须种树的原因是它们能供应我们新鲜的空气。 九、So + 形容词 + be + 主词 + that + 句子 (如此...以致于...) 例句: precious is time that we can't afford to waste it. 时间是如此珍贵, So 我们经不起浪费它。 十、Adj + as + Subject(主词)+ be, S + V~~~ (虽然...) 例句: Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory. {by no means = in no way = on no account 一点也不} 虽然我们的国家富有,我们的生活品质绝对令人不满意。 十一、The + ~er + S + V, ~~~ the + ~er + S + V ~~~ The + more + Adj + S + V, ~~~ the + more + Adj + S (愈...愈...) 例句:The harder you work,the more progress you make. 你愈努力,你愈进步。 The more books we read, the more learned we become. 我们书读愈多,我们愈有学问。 十二、By +Ving, ~~ can ~~ (借着...,..能够..) 例句:By taking exercise, we can always stay healthy. 借着做运动,我们能够始终保持健康。 十三、~~~ enable + Object(受词)+ to + V (..使..能够..) 例句:Listening to music enable us to feel relaxed. 听音乐使我们能够感觉轻松。 十四、On no account can we + V ~~~ (我们绝对不能...) 例句:On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge. 我们绝对不能忽略知识的价值。 十五、It is time + S + 过去式 (该是...的时候了) 例句: It is time the authorities concerned took proper traffic problems.
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中国考研辅导第一责任品牌

该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了。 十六、Those who ~~~ (...的人...) 例句:Those who violate traffic regulations should be punished. 违反交通规定的人应该受处罚。 十七、There is no one but ~~~ (没有人不...) 例句:There is no one but longs to go to college. 没有人不渴望上大学。 十八、be + forced/compelled/obliged + to + V (不得不...) 例句: Since the examination is around the corner, I am compelled to doing sports. 既然考试迫在眉睫,我不得不放弃做运动。

give

up

十九、It is conceivable that + 句子 (可想而知的) It is obvious that + 句子 (明显的) It is apparent that + 句子 (显然的) 例句:It is conceivable that knowledge plays an important role in our life. 可想而知,知识在我们的一生中扮演一个重要的角色。 二十、That is the reason why ~~~ (那就是...的原因) 例句:Summer is sultry. That is the reason why I don't like it. 夏天很燠热。那就是我不喜欢它的原因。 二十一、For the past + 时间,S + 现在完成式...(过去...年来,...一直...) 例 句 : For the past two years, I have been busy preparing for examination. 过去两年来,我一直忙着准备考试。 二十二、Since + S + 过去式,S + 现在完成式。 例句:Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard. 自从他上高中,他一直很用功。 二十三、It pays to + V ~~~ (...是值得的。 ) 例句:It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。 二十四、be based on (以...为基础) 例句:The progress of thee society is based on harmony. 社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。 二十五、Spare no effort to + V (不遗余力的) 例句:We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.
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我们应该不遗余力的美化我们的环境。 二十六、bring home to + 人 + 事 (让...明白...事) 例句:We should bring home to people the value of working hard. 我们应该让人们明白努力的价值。 二十七、be closely related to ~~ (与...息息相关) 例句:Taking exercise is closely related to health. 做运动与健康息息相关。 二十八、Get into the habit of + Ving = make it a rule to + V (养成...的习惯) We should get into the habit of keeping good hours. 我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。 二十九、Due to/Owing to/Thanks to + N/Ving, ~~~ (因为...) 例句:Thanks to his encouragement, I finally realized my dream. 因为他的鼓励,我终于实现我的梦想。 三十、What a + Adj + N + S + V! = How + Adj + a + N + V!(多么...! ) 例句:What an important thing it is to keep our promise! How important a thing it is to keep our promise! 遵守诺言是多么重要的事! 三十一、Leave much to be desired (令人不满意) 例句:The condition of our traffic leaves much to be 我们的交通状况令人不满意。

desired.

三十二、Have a great influence on ~~~ (对...有很大的影响) 例句:Smoking has a great influence on our health. 抽烟对我们的健康有很大的影响。 三十三、do good to (对...有益) ,do harm to (对...有害) 例句:Reading does good to our mind.读书对心灵有益。 Overwork does harm to health.工作过度对健康有害。 三十四、Pose a great threat to ~~ (对...造成一大威胁) 例句:Pollution poses a great threat to our existence. 污染对我们的生存造成一大威胁。 三十五、do one's utmost to + V = do one's best (尽全力去...) 例句:We should do our utmost to achieve our goal in life. 我们应尽全力去达成我们的人生目标。
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